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till it is wasted to a third. Take this water and make it into a gruel, with wheaten flour.
Another way is to take caraway water and goat's milk in equal parts, mixing plantain juice therewith, and boiling river granite therein. Let this be given the patient nine days, unmixed with any other drink.
§ 167. For pain in the chest (dyspepsia.) Take a large quantity of black thorn berries, bruise briskly in a mortar, mixing very new ale therewith. Put this mixture in a new earthen pot, over its edges in the earth, for nine days and nights, giving it the patient to drink the first thing in the morning, and the last thing at night.
TO MAKE VINEGAR.
§ 168. To make vinegar. wine over night till the eve of next day.
Take clean barley, and put in
TO PROMOTE THE UNION OF BONE.
169. To promote the union of bone. and bruise with wine, pepper and honey, drinking it daily for nine days, and they will unite compactly.
§ 170. To make an eye salve. Take the juice $
and the juice of fennel root, celandine, lesser celandine, sow's lard, honey, a little vinegar; an eel's blood, and a cock's gall, letting them stand in a brass vessel till an efflorescence takes place. This has restored sight to those who had quite lost it.
DIGNITY OF MEDICINE.
§ 171. Let all men know that it will be vain to seek anything except by effort. There can be no effort without
health; there can be no health without temperance in a man's nature, and temperance cannot exist in a man's nature without moderate heat in his extremities. God has decreed a supervision of the manner in which we should conserve the health, and has revealed it to his own servants, the philosophers and chosen prophets, who are full of the Holy Spirit, and whom God ordained to this profession.
§ 172. The Latins, the men of Persia and the Greeks (say,) what we choose we love, what we seek we think of. Therefore let all men know that God has given the men of Greece a special gift, to discern every art, and the nature of all things, to a greater extent than other nations, with a view to the preservation of human health.
§ 173. The philosophers and wise men foreknew that man was formed of four elements, each being antagonistic to the others, and each consequently requiring continual aliment, which if it do not obtain, it will succumb. If a man partakes of too much or too little food or drink, the body will become weak, fall into disease, and be open to injurious consequences. If he partakes temperately of food and drink, the body will acquire strength, and the health will also be preserved.
§ 174. The philosophers have said whosoever shall eat or drink more or less than he should, or shall sleep more or less, or shall labour more or less from idleness or from hardship, (being obliged to over exert himself:) or who, used to being bled, refrains from doing so, without doubt he will not escape sickness. Of these things we shall treat presently, and of what is most suitable for our use.
SAYINGS OF THE WISE AS TO FOOD.
§ 175. Wise men have declared, whosoever refrains from eating or drinking immoderately, and will only partake tem
perately of food and drink, as his constitution requires, shall enjoy health and long days, that is, a long life. Philosophers never said anything to the contrary. Desire, love, and the reception of worldly honour, these things fortify and assist life, so that they be gratified temperately. On which account, whosoever desireth life and permanence, let him seek that which is permanent and tends to prolong life.
MODERATION A MEANS TO PROLONG LIFE.-HIPPOCRATES AND HIS DISCIPLES.
§ 176. Whosoever would prolong life, should restrain his appetite, and not eat over abundantly. I have heard that Ipocras1 having attained to old age, whereby he had to suffer much from infirmity and the weight of years, was addressed by his disciples, thus:-"Thou great teacher of wisdom, didst thou eat and drink abundantly, wouldst thou have to endure all the weakness which thou dost?" Then Ipocras:-"My sons, (said he) I eat a proper portion seeing I live, I should not live if (with a view of prolonging mere human life,) I partook of food too frequently. Eating is not the one thing needful, when the prolonging of life is the object aimed at, for I have seen many die from too much eating."
EAT SLOWLY AND SPARINGLY.-MEN OF ARABIA. TWO RULES TO PRESERVE HEALTH.
§ 177. Whosoever, restraining their appetite, refrain from gluttony, and eat slowly, these shall live long; which may be thus proved. The men of Arabia, who dwell in mountains and pathless woods, are the most long lived (of mortals,)
1 Hippocrates was a native of the island of Cos, and was regarded as the father of medical science. He delivered Athens from a dreadful pestilence in the beginning of the Pelopenesian war, and was publicly rewarded with a golden crown, the privileges of a citizen of Athens, and the initiation at the grand festivals. He died in the 99th year of his age, B. C. 361, free from all disorders of the mind and body; and after death he received with the name of Great, the same honours which were paid to Hercules.
as these circumstances prevent excessive eating and drinking. The health may be preserved in two ways. First,― that is, by partaking of such food as is most suitable to the time of life and the constitution, restricting himself to that sort of diet which he was reared upon. Secondly,—by evacuating duly, what is poured into the stomach from above.1
A THEORY OF DIGESTION.
§ 178. Let all men know, that the human organism is antagonistic to food and drink, (decomposing both in the process of digestion,) and that every (animal or human) being is (naturally) verging upon disease. Also, animal organisms are corrupt from superabundant heat, which dries the spirit (anima) by which the body is nourished. Animal bodies also are corrupt from excessive heat of the sun, which dries the (animal) spirits; and this is particularly the case
1 The following "Prescriptions about health and life" are attributed to Cattwg the Wise.
1. He that would attain a long life, let him play until he is twenty, labour until he is forty, and rest to the end of his days.
2. Let him arise with the lark, sing with the lark, and retire to rest with the lark.
3. Let him eat when he has an appetite, drink when he is thirsty, and rest when he is fatigued.
4. Let him avoid food that is too dainty, drink that is too strong, and work that is too heavy and troublesome.
5. Let him avoid too much food, too much drink, and too much labour.
6. Let him avoid contention, love peace, and divest himself of too many cares. 7. Let him be merry, generous, and just.
8. Let him have but one wife, be strong in the faith, and have a clean conscience.
9. Let him be meditative in the morning, industrious at noon, and social in the evening.
10. Let his meditation be pleasant, his games innocent, and his air salubrious. 11. Let his clothes be not old, his furniture be clean and sweet, and let him be content with his lot in life.
12. Let his dress be light, his food be light, and his heart be light.
13. Let his disposition be affectionate, his genius lively, and his friends numer
14. Let him keep the law of his country, the rule of his vocation, and the commandments of his God.
15. Thereby, his body will be healthy, his mind easy, and his conscience pure. 16. His life will be long, his end will be bliss, and his God will love himMyv. Arch. iii. p. 56.
with the bodies of the animals upon which we feed. When the body is hot, strong aliments are required, as then they can be digested.
FAT AND DRY CONSTITUTIONS.
$179. When a (man's) body is fat and dry, luxurious juicy food is proper for him, for they will easily assimilate. In this way a man may preserve his health. Let him confine himself to such food as is suitable to his constitution. This has been proved.
A HOT HABIT.
§ 180. If a man's body be constitutionally hot, hot aliment is proper for him.
A COLD HABIT.
§ 181. If a man's body be constitutionally cold, cold aliments are proper for him.
A HUMID OR DRY HABIT.
§ 182. If the body be constitutionally humid or dry, cold aliments are forbidden him.
WHAT FOOD MOST SUITABLE FOR WEAK OR STRONG STOMACH.
§ 183. Strong food is most suitable for a hot stomach, as such a stomach is comparable to fire consuming loose flax. Weak food is most proper for a cold stomach, as such a stomach is comparable to fire consuming straw.
$ 184. The signs of a healthy digestion are, that the body be active, the understanding clear, and the desire for food frequent.
SYMPTOMS OF INDIGESTION.
§ 185. The signs of indigestion are, heaviness of body, with irritability of feeling superadded, a languid performance