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§ 3. Diseases originate in three places in the head; one is the pericranium, the second is the cranium, and the third is the dura mater.


§ 4. By an incision in the scalp, extending to the cranium, and giving exit to the venom, is the cranium preserved. By phlebotomy and cauterization is the scalp preserved.


§ 5. By exposing the dura mater, taking two parts of wood betony, and three parts of the violet, with salt butter, pounded together, and applying them thereto, the venom is removed from the dura mater. It will extract any inflammation and pain existing therein.


§ 6. From the time the scalp is laid open to the end of nine days, shall this issue remain on the bone: that is to say, this plan should be followed in an old standing complaint of the head.


§ 7. As to a recent blow or fresh wound on the head, the sooner it is dressed the better, lest there should be extravasated blood upon the dura mater, and that it should become concocted there. When the bone and the dura mater are exposed, take the violet and fresh butter, and pound together. If the violet cannot be gotten, take the white of eggs and linseed, pounding them together; or fresh butter and linseed, and apply thereto till (the pain is) assuaged. Then an ointment should be prepared of herbs, butter and tallow,

and applied thereto until it is cured. A pound is the physician's fee for this treatment as regards the deed of mercy simply, without victuals: or nine score (pence) with victuals.1


§ 8. For pain in the eye. The actual cautery applied to the hollow of the eyebrow, and another in the nape of the neck, is beneficial for rheum of the bead.


§ 9. For a red watery eye (ophthalmia tarsi cum epiphora) insert a seaton under the jaw, and apply the actual cautery in the nape of the neck, and this is beneficial for rheum of the head.


§ 10. For a dry scurfy condition of the eye (lids.) Take the Juice of the strawberry, a hen's fat, and May butter. Pound them well together, and keep in a horn (box.) When going to bed, anoint (about) thine eye and eyelids well, and they will be cured.


§ 11. There are three kinds of lung disease;-simple pneumonia, white pneumonia, (bronchitis) and black pneumonia, (phthysis) which is marked by pain below the mammæ, under the armpit, and in the top of the shoulders, with (hectic) redness of the cheeks. And thus are they

1 The same fee is ordered in the Venedotian Code of Hywel Dda ;—“ The compensation for the medicaments is this. For each, [a stroke on the head unto the brain; a stroke in the body unto the bowels; and the breaking of one of the four limbs,] the person wounded is to receive three pounds from the one who shall have so wounded him; the amount likewise due from the person who shall wound him, for his medical treatment, is a pound, without food; or nine score pence, with his food, and the bloody clothes."-Ancient Laws and Institutes of Wales, v. i. p. 313. See also p. 391.

treated. Let (the patient) take, for three successive days, of the following herbs; hemlock, agrimony, herb Robert, and asarabacca, then let him undergo a three day's course of aperients. When the disease is thus removed from the bronchial tubes, an emetic should be given him (daily) to the end of nine days. Afterwards let a medicine be prepared, by digesting the following herbs in wheat ale or red wine : madder, sharp dock, anise, agrimony, daisy, round birthwort, meadow sweet, yellow goat's beard, heath, water avens, woodruff, crake berry, the corn cockle, caraway, and such other herbs as will seem good to the physician.

Thus is the blessed confection prepared. Take of May butter, a she-goat's suet or a doe's fat, the shepherd's needle, and as many as may be desired of such herbs as may be suitable for the purpose. A wounded lung is the physician's third difficulty, for he cannot controul it, but must wait for the will of God. By means of the herbs just mentioned, a medicine may be prepared for any one who has a pulmonary abcess (empyema.) He should let out (the matter) and support (the patient) as in the case of a wounded. lung, till he is recovered. But most usually, he will have died within eleven years (al. one year.)


§ 12. There are four kinds of fevers, deriving their origin from the summer, viz. latent fever, intermittent fever, ephemeral fever, and inflammatory fever. The fifth fever is typhus, and this kind proceeds from the brain. A latent fever is relieved by an emetic, a cordial, and cauteries. Thus it originates; from the over generating of tough humor in the stomach, from which results a distaste for food, and lassitude during summer. The mugwort, madder, meadow sweet, milfoil, hemp, red cabbage, and the tutsan, all these seven herbs enter into the composition of the medicine re

quired. Whosoever obtains them all, will not languish long from a wounded lung, or need fear for his life. Any of the following herbs may be added thereto, butcher's broom, agrimony, tutsan, dwarf elder, amphibious persicaria, centaury, round birth wort, field scabious, pepper mint, daisy, knap weed, roots of the red nettle, crake berry, St. John's wort, privet, wood betony, the roots of the yellow goat's beard, heath, water avens, woodruff, leaves of the earth nut, agrimony, wormwood, the bastard balm, small burdock, and the orpine.



13. For intermittent fevers. Take dandelion and fumatory, infused in water, the first thing in the morning. Then about noon take wormwood infused in water likewise, drinking it as often as ten times, the draught being rendered tepid. Let bread made with pounded wheat be also taken, or oaten cakes, goat's whey, the flesh of a young fowl, husky porridge in water, milk being abstained from, and indeed every kind of milk diet. If the ague does not then terminate, the patient must be put in a bath, when the paroxysm comes on, and an emetic given him whilst in the bath, as it will then act more powerfully.


§ 14. The three best cooling drinks are apple water, goat's whey, and spring water.


§ 15. Another treatment for an intermittent fever. Take the mugwort, dwarf elder, tutsan, amphibious persicaria, pimpernel, butcher's broom, elder bark, and the mallow, and boiling them together as well as possible in a pot, or cauldron. Then take the water and herbs, and add them to


the bath. The following is a good medicine for this class of diseases take moss, ground ivy, or elder, if obtainable, (if not obtainable, caraway,) and boil these two vegetable substances well together. Then take the mallow, fennel, pimpernel, butcher's broom, borage, and the young leaves of the earth nut, and bruise them as well as possible, putting them on the fire with the two herbs before mentioned, and boiling them well. This being done, let elder bark be taken from that portion of the tree which is in the ground, let it be scraped and washed thoroughly, and bruised well in a mortar. Then take the liquor prepared from the forementioned herbs, and mix the said bark therein assiduously between both hands, and set it to drain into a vessel to acidify, fermenting it with goat's whey, or cow's whey. Let a good cupful thereof be drank every morning as long as it lasts, a portion of raw honey, apple or wood sorrel, being taken subsequently in order to remove the taste from the mouth, after the draught. This liquor is beneficial to every man who requires to purge his body.




§ 16. There are two kinds of hemorrhoids, humoral hemorrhoids and inflamed hemorrhoids, the latter produced by summer heat, the former by summer moisture, when either condition prevails. It is in this manner it comes. Four veins proceed from the liver to the anus; therefore, thus it may be cured. Secure three of these by means of a ligature, and let the fourth be left free. The cautery also should be applied to the ancles, and about the knees and hams. Thus the blood will be habitually diverted to the lower extremities, when the cauteries shall have discharged all the humor from the vein.

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