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of the most minute parts of his domestick economy
to be made out, and to be delivered to the said That the aforesaid direction did convey in it Sir John Doyley, in the following words, contained such evident and cogent reason, and was so far in a paper by him intitled, ÎNSTRÓCTIONS enforced by justice to individuals, and by regard from the governour-general to the nabob Mobarek to the peace and happiness of the natives, as well ul Dowla, respecting his conduct in the manageas by the common decorum to be observed in all ment of his affairs : you will be pleased to direct the transactions of government, that the said Hast- your mutta seddies to form an account of the ings ought to have yielded a cheerful obedience “ fixed sums of your montlıly expences, such as thereto, even if he had not been by a positive statute, “ servants' wages in the different departments, and his relation of servant to the company, bound pensions, and other allowances, as well as of the to that just submission. Yet the said Hastings did, “ estimated amount of variable expences, to be without denying or evading any one of the reasons “ delivered to Sir John Doyley for my inspection. assigned by the court of directors, or controvert- “ I have given such orders to Sir John Doyley as ing the scandalous motives assigned by them for “ will enable him to propose to you such reduchis conduct, contumaciously refuse obedience to “ tions of the pensions and other allowances, and the above positive order, on pretence, that the na- “ such a distribution of the variable expences, as bob, who, he had declared it on record “ to be as “ shall be proportionable to the total sum of your “ visible as the light of the sun, is a mere pageant, “ monthly income; and I must request you will “and without even the shadow of authority,” did“ conform to it.” And he did, in the subsequent dissent from the saine ; and he did encourage the articles of his said instructions, order the whole said nabob, or rather the eunuchs, the corrupt management to be directed by Sir John Doyley, ministers of Munny Begum, to oppose himself and subject to his own directions as aforesaid ; and themselves to the authority of the said court of direc- did even direct what company he should keep; tors; by which means the arrangement, three times and did throw reflections on some persons, in either ratified, or expressly ordered by them, was places the nearest to him, as of bad character and wholly defeated; the aforesaid corrupt system was base origin—persons, whom he should decline to continued ; Maliomed Reza Khân was not restored name as such,“ unless he heard, that they still to his office; and a lesson was taught to the na- “ availed themselves of his goodness to retain the tives of all ranks, that the declared approbation, places, which they improperly hold near his the avowed sanction, and the decided authority of person."
person.” And he did particularly order the the court of directors, were wholly nugatory to said nabob not to admit any English, but such as their protection against the corrupt influence of the said Sir John Doyley should approve, to his their servants.
presence; and did repeat the said order in the XXVIII. following peremptory manner :
you must forbid
any person of that nation to be intruded into That the said Warren Hastings, on a recon
your presence, without his introduction.” And ciliation with Mr. Francis, one of the council ge- he did require his obedience in the following auneral, who made it a condition thereof, that certain thoritative style : “ I shall think myself obliged to of the company's orders should be obeyed, and “ interfere in another manner, if you neglect it.” that Mahomed Reza Khân should be restored to his offices, did, a considerable time after, notwith
XXX. standing the pretended reluctance of the nabob, and his pretended freedom, make, for his conveni- That he the said Warren Hastings did insult the ence in the said accommodation, the arrangement, captive condition of the said nabob by informing which he had unwarrantably and illegally refused him, in his imperious instructions aforesaid, that to the orders of the court of directors; and did, this total, blind, and implicit obedience, in every of his own authority and that of the board, restore respect whatsoever, to Sir John Doyley and himMahomed Reza Khân to his offices.
self personally, and without any reference to the board,
very conditions of the compliance XXIX.
“ of the governour-general and council with his
“ late requisition ;" which requisition was, that he That soon after the departure of the said Mr. should enjoy the free and uncontrouled manageFrancis he did again deprive the said Mahomed ment of his own affairs. And though the said cap. Reza Khân of his said offices, and did make several tive did offer, as he the said Hastings himself adgreat changes in the constitution of the criminal mits, four lacks of his stipend, at that time reduced justice in the said country; and after having, to sixteen lacks, for the free use of the remainder, under pretence of the nabob's sufficiency for the yet he did place him the said nabob in the state management of his own affairs, displaced, without of servitude in the said instructions laid down, but any specifick charge, trial, or enquiry whatsoever, a very short time after he had assumed and used the said Mahomed Reza Khân, he did submit the the said nabob's independent rights as a ground said nabob to the entire direction, in all parts of for refusing to obey the company's orders; and his concerns, of a resident of his own nomination, although he has declared, or pretended, on another Sir John Doyley, Bart, and did order an account occasion, which he would have thought similar,
that any attempt to limit the household expences of the nabob of Oude was an indignity, “ which
no man living, however mean his rank in life, or
dependent his condition in it, would permit to be “ exercised by any other, without the want or " forfeiture of every manly principle."
“ his transactions. His correspondence with the “ natives must be publickly conducted ; copies of “ all his letters, sent and received, be transmitted “ monthly to the presidency, with duplicates and
triplicates to be transmitted home in our general “ packet by every ship."
That the said Warren Hastings did order the That the president and select committee (Lord said stipend (which was to be distributed, in the Clive being then president) did approve of the minutest particular, according to the said Hast- whole substantial part of the said regulation (the ings's personal directions) to be paid monthly, not diary excepted); and the principle, in all matters to any officer of the nabob, but to the said resident of account, ought to have been strictly adlıered to, Sir John Doyley. And whereas the governour- | whatever limitations may have been given to the general and council did, on the appointment of office of resident. Yet he the said Warren HastMahomed Reza Khân, according to their duty in- ings, in defiance of the aforesaid good rules, orders, struct him, that “ he do conform to the orders of and late precedent in conformity to the same, did " the company, which direct, that an annual ac- not only withhold any order for the purpose, but, in
count of the nabob's expences be transmitted, order to carry on the business of the said durbar
through the resident at the durbar, for the in- in a clandestine manner for his own purposes, did, “spection of this board, "----the said Hastings, in as aforesaid, exclude all English from an intermaking his new establishment in favour of his course with the nabob, who might carry complaints resident, did wholly omit the said instruction, and or representations to the board, or the court of did confine the said communication to himself directors, of his condition or the conduct of the privately. And in fact it does not appear, that resident; and did further, to defeat all possible any account whatsoever of the disposition of the publicity, insinuate to him to give the preference said large sum, exceeding £.160,000 sterling a to verbal communication above letters, in the words year, has been laid before the board, or at least following of the 9th article of his instructions to that any
such account has been transmitted to the the nabob : “ although I desire to receive your court of directors; and it is not fitting, that any “ letters frequently, yet, as many matters will British servant of the company should have the occur, which cannot be so easily explained by management of any publick money, much less of letters as by conversation, I desire, that you will so great a sum, without a publick well vouched on such occasions give your orders to bim account of the specifick expenditure thereof. respecting such points as you may desire to
“ have imparted to me; and I, postponing every XXXII.
“ other concern, will give an immediate and the
“ most satisfactory reply concerning them.” AcThat the court of directors did, on the 17th of cordingly, no relation whatsoever has been received May 1766, propose certain rules for regulating the by the court of directors of the said nabob's correspondence of the resident with the nabob of affairs; nor any account of the money monthly Bengal, in which they did direct, as a principle for paid, except from publick fame, which reports, the said regulations, as follows (paragraph 16th) : that his affairs are in great disorder, his servants “ we would have his correspondence to be carried unpaid, and many of them dismissed, and all the “ on with the select committee through the channel Mussulmen dependent on his family in a state of “ of the president; he should keep a diary of all | indigence.
XVIII. THE MOGUL DELIVERED UP TO THE MAHRATTAS.
sufficient to maintain a moderate state, he is still 1.
much respected and considered ; and the custody
of his person is eagerly sought by many of the That Shâh Allum, the prince, commonly called | princes in India, on account of the use to be made the Great Mogul, or, by eminence, The King, is, of his title and authority; and it was for the interest or lately was, in the possession of the ancient of the East India company, that, while on one capital of Hindostan ; and though without any hand no wars shall be entered into in support of considerable territory, and without a revenue | his pretensions, on the other no steps should be
taken, which may tend to deliver him into the Warren Hastings had formerly declared, “ that hands of any of the powerful states of that coun “ with him the Mogul] our connexion had been try; but that he should be treated with friendship, a long time suspended, and he wished never to good faith, and respectful attention.
see it renewed, as it had proved a fatal drain to “ the wealth of Bengal, and the treasury of the
company, without yielding one advantage or
possible resource, even of remote benefits, in That Warren Hastings, in contradiction to this return,” the said Warren Hastings did neverthesafe, just, and honourable policy, strongly pre-less, on or about the month of March 1783, with scribed and enforced by the orders of the court of the privity and consent of the members of the directors, did (at a time when he was engaged in board, but by no authoritative act, dispatch, as a negociation, the declared purpose of which was agents of him the governour-general only, and not to give peace to India) concur with the captain as agents of the governour-general and council, as general of the Mahratta state, called Madajee they ought to have been, certain persons, among Scindia, in hostile designs against the few remain whom were Major Browne and Major Davy, to ing territories of that same Mogul emperour, by the court of the king at Delhi, and did there enter virtue of whose
the company actually pos into certain engagements with the said king by sess the government, and enjoy the revenues, of the means of those agents, and did carry on cergreat provinces, and also against the possessions tain private and dangerous intrigues for various of a Mahomedan chief called Nudjif Cawn, a person purposes, particularly for making war in favour of of much merit with the East India company; in the said king, against some powers or princes not acknowledgment of which they had granted him a precisely described, but which, as may be inferred pension, included in the tribute due to the king, from a subsequent correspondence, were certain and, together with that tribute, taken from him by Mahomedan princes in the neighbourhood of Delhi the said Warren Hastings, though expressly in amity with the company, and some of them at guarantied to him by the company. With both that time in the actual service, and in the apparent these powers the company had been in friendship, confidence and favour of the said Mogul; and he and were actually at peace at the time of the said did order Major Browne to offer to the Mogul clandestine concurrence in a design against them; king to provide for the entire expence of any troops and the said Hastings hath since declared, that the Shâh (the said king] might require; and the the right of one of them, namely, “ the right of proposal was accordingly accepted with the con“ the Mogul emperour, to our assistance has been ditions annexed; by which proposal, and accept“ constantly acknowledged."
ance thereof, the East India company was placed
in a situation of great and perplexing difficulty, III.
since either they were to engage, at an unlimited
expence, in new wars, contrary to their orders, That the said Warren Hastings, at the time of contrary to their general declared policy, and conhis treacherous concurrence in a design against a trary to the published resolutions of the house of power, which he was himself of opinion we were commons, and wholly incompatible with the state bound to assist, and against whom there was no of their finances; or, to preserve peace, they must doubt he was bound neither to form nor to concur risk the imputation of a new violation of faith, by in any hostile attempt, did give a caution to Colonel departing from an agreement made on the volunMuir, to whom the negociation aforesaid was in- tary proposal of their own government; the agent trusted on the part of the company, against “in- of the said Hastings having declared, in his letter “serting any thing in the treaty, which might to the said Hastings, by him communicated to the
expressly mark our knowledge of his [the Mah- board, “ that the business of assisting the Shâh ratta general's views] or concurrence in them.” “ [the Mogul emperour) can and must go on, if Which said transaction was full of duplicity and we wish to be secure in India, or regarded as a fraud; and the crime of the said Hastings therein “ nation of faith and honour." is aggravated by his having some years before withheld the tribute, which by treaty was solemnly
V. agreed to be paid to the said king, on pretence that he had thrown himself, for the recovery of his city That the said Warren Hastings did, on the 20th of Delhi, on the protection of the Mahrattas, whom day of January 1784, send in circulation to the the said Warren Hastings then called the natural other members of the council a letter to him from enemies of the company, and the growth of whose his agent, Major Browne, dated at Delhi on the power he then alleged to be highly dangerous to 30th of December 1783, viz. that letter, to which the interest of this kingdom in India.
the foregoing references are made, in which the
said Browne did directly press, and indirectly IV.
(though sufficiently and strongly) suggest several
highly dangerous measures for realizing the geneThat after having concurred, in the manner be- ral offers and engagements of the said Warren fore mentioned, in a design of the Mahrattas against Hastings ;--proposing, that besides a proportion the Mogul; and notwithstanding he the said of field-artillery, and a train of battering cannon
for the purpose of sieges, six regiments of sepoys the said Hastings himself. But the said instrucin the company's service should be transferred to tions contained nothing further on that subject that of the said king, and that certain other corps but a conditional direction, that, in case a military should also be raised for the said service in the force should be required for the Mogul's aid or English provinces and dependencies, to be imme-protection, the major is to know the service, on diately under the king's (the Mogul's] orders, and which it is to be employed, and the resources, to be maintained by assignments of territorial from whence it is to be paid ; and the instructions revenue within the province of Oude, a dependent produced as his real instructions by the said Hastmember of the British government, but with a ings are so guarded as to caution the said Browne caution against having any British officer with the against taking any part in the intrigues of those, same; the said Major Browne expressing his cau- who are about the king's person. By which letters, tion as followeth ;- -“ if any European officer be instructions, and transactions, compared with each “ with this corps, a very nice judgment indeed other, it appears, that the said Warren Hastings, “must direct the choice ; for scarce any are in after six months' delay in entering of (contrary to " the smallest degree fit for such employ, but the company's order) any instructions to the said “ much more likely to do harm than good.” And Browne, did at last enter a false paper as the true, the letter aforesaid being without any observation or that he did give other secret instructions totally thercon, or any disavowal of the matters of fact, different from, and even opposite to, his publick or of the counsels so strongly and authoritatively ostensible instructions, thereby to deceive the delivered therein by the said Warren Hastings's council, and to carry on, with less obstructions, agent, and without any mark of disapprobation of dark and dangerous intrigues, contrary to the any part of his plan, whether that of the assign- orders of the court of directors, to the true policy ment of territory belonging to the company's allies of this kingdom, and to the safety of the British for the maintenance of troops, which were to be by possessions in the East. that plan put under the orders of a foreign independent power, or that of employing the said
VII. troops without
British officer with them; or for his alarming observation by him entered on the That the said letter from Major Browne was by company's records, which, if not an implied cen- the said Warren Hastings transmitted to the court sure on the nature of the service, in which British of directors, without being accompanied by any officers are supposed improper to be trusted, is a part of the previous correspondence; by which strong reflection on the character of the British wilful concealment the said Warren Hastings is officers, which was to render them unfit to be guilty of an high and criminal disrespect to the employed in an honourable service--the said court of directors, and of a most flagrant breach Warren Hastings did thereby give a countenance and violation of their orders, which he was bound to the said unwarrantable and dangerous proposals by an act of parliament to obey. and reflections. VI.
That, a considerable time before the production That the said Hastings having early in the year and circulation of Major Browne's letter, the said 1784 procured to himself a deputation to act in Hastings did enter a minute of consultation, con- the upper provinces, the council, being well aware taming a proposition similar in the general intent of his disposition to engage in unwarrantable deto that in the said letter contained for assisting the signs against the neighbouring states, did expressly Mogul with a military force; but the other mem- confine his powers to the circumstance of his bers of the board did disagree thereto, and being actual residence within the company's provinces ; alarmed at the disposition so strongly shewn by but it appears, that ways were found out, by which the said Hastings to engage in new wars, and he hoped to defeat the precautions of the board : dangerous foreign connexions, and possibly having for the said Warren Hastings did write from Luckintelligence of the proceedings of his agent, did now, the capital of the country of Oude, to the call upon him to produce his instructions to Major court of directors a certain postscript of a letter, Browne; and he did on the 5th of October 1783, dated the 4th of May 1784, in which he informs and not before, enter on the consultations a certain the court, that the son and heir-apparent of the paper, purporting to be the instructions, which he Great Mogul had taken refuge with him, and the had given to Major Browne the preceding March, nabob of Oude ; that he had a conference with the time of his the said Browne's appointment, that prince on the 10th of the same month of in which pretended instructions no direction what- May, no person being either present or within soever was given to the effect of his the said Hast-“ hearing” during the same ; and that in the said ings's minute of consultation, or propounded; conference the prince had informed him of the disthat is to say, no power was given in the said in- tresses of his father, and his wish for the relief of structions to make a direct offer of military aid to the king, and the restoration of the dominions of the Mogul, or to form the arrangements stated by his house, as well as to rescue him from the power the said Browne, in his letter to the said Hastings, of certain persons not named, who degraded him as liaving been made by the express authority of into a mere instrument of their interested and sordid designs; and that, on the failure of his appli- own agent, and this the publick opinion of it, alcation to him, he would either return to his father, though to impose on the ignorance of the prince or proceed to Calcutta, and thence to England, with regard to the proceedings at his father's court and that the said Warren Hastings did give him would have been unworthy in itself, yet he, the an answer to the following effect; " that our [the said Warren Hastings, could not hope to succeed “ British] government had just obtained relief in such imposition, as in the postscript aforesaid “ from a state of universal warfare, and required a he represents the said prince (who was the king's “ term of repose ; that our whole nation was weary eldest son, and thirty-six years of age] as a person “ of war, and dreaded the renewal of it, and would of considerable qualifications, and perfectly ac“ be equally alarmed at any movement, of which quainted with the transactions at his father's court, “ it could not see the issue or progress, but which and as one, who had long held the principal and
might eventually tend to create new hostilities ; most active part in the little, that remained of the “ that he came hither [to Lucknow) with a limited administration of Shah Allum. And the said
authority, and could not, if he chose it, engage Hastings conferring with a prince so well instruct“ in any business of that nature without the con- ed, without making the slightest allusions to his
currence of his colleagues in office, whom he said positive and recent engagements, or without “ believed would be averse to it; that he would giving any explanation with regard to them, the
represent the same to the joint members of his said Warren Hastings must appear to the said
own government, and wait their determination. prince either as a person not only contracting en“ In the mean time he advised the prince to make gagements, but actually being the first mover and “ advances to Madajee Scindia, both because our proposer of them, without any authority from his
government was in intimate and sworn con- colleagues, and against theirs and the general in“ nexion with him, and because he was the effec- clination of the British nation, and on that ground “ tual head of the Mahratta State ; besides that not to be trusted : or that he had used this plea of “ he, the said Warren Hastings, feared his [Scin- disagreement between him and his council as a “ dia's] taking the other side of the question, un- pretence, set up without colour or decency, for a “ less he was early prevented."
gross violation of his own engagements ; leaving
the princes and states of the country no solid IX.
ground, on which they can or ought to contract
with the company, to the utter destruction of all That, in the statement of this discourse, there publick confidence, and to the equal disgrace of is much criminal reserve towards the court of di- the national candour, integrity, and wisdom. rectors, it not appearing distinctly what the objects were, nor who the persons concerned, nor
X. what the side was, which he apprehended the Mahrattas might take, if not prevented by his advances; That, in a letter dated from the same place, and in the discourse itself there were many par- Lucknow, the 16th of the following June 1784, the ticulars highly criminal; namely, for that in the said Warren Hastings informs the court of direcsaid conversation, in which he describes himself tors, that Major Browne, their agent to the Mogul, as declining a compliance with the request of the had arrived there in the character also of agent prince on account of the aversion (therein strongly from the Mogul, with two sets of instructions from expressed) of his colleagues, of the company, and two opposite parties in his ministry, which instrucof the whole British nation, to engage in any tions were directly contrary to each other ; the measures, which might even“ eventually lead to first, which were the ostensible instructions, being “ hostilities;"—he spoke to the prince as if he to engage the said Hastings, in the Mogul's name, had been entirely ignorant of the offers, which but to enter into a treaty of mutual alliance with the five months before had been made to the king his chief of the country, then minister to the said father on the part of that very government (whose Mogul, called Affrasaib Khân; the second were repugnance to such measures he then for the first from another principal person, called Mudjed ul time chose to profess, but which he always had Dowla, also a minister of the said Mogul, (but known) through Major Browne, the company's styled in the said letter confidential, for disrepresentative at the court of Delhi, “ to provide tinction,) which were directly destructive of the “ for the entire expence of any troops, which former; and the said latter instructions, to which “ the Shâh (the king] might require ;” and that it seems credence was to be given, were sent
66 what the resident had always pro- “under the most solemn adjurations of secrecy." “ posed to the king, and his confidential minis- The purpose of these latter and secret instructions " ters ;"—the said Browne further declaring, was to require the company's aid in freeing the " that if, in consequence of the said proposals, Mogul from the oppressions of his servants, name“ certain arrangements for the Shâh's service, ly, from the oppressions of the said Affrasaib, be
by troops, were not immediately ordered, in tween whom and the company Major Browne “ his opinion all our [English government's] (at once agent to that company, and to two oppo“offers and promises will be considered as false site factions in the Mogul's court) accepted a " and insidious.” This being the known state of power to make
treaty of mutual alliance under the business, as represented by the said Hastings's ihe sanction of his sovereign; and it does not ap