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“ sarily farmed out at a high rate; and deficien- certain political dangers, declare the relief desired “ cies followed yearly. The country and cultiva- to be," without hesitation, totally inadmissible;" “ tion is abandoned, and this year, in particular, and did falsely and maliciously insinuate, “ that “ from the excessive drought, deductions of many “ the tone in which the demands of the nabob “ lacks” (stated by the resident, in his letter to were asserted, and the season in which they the board of the 13th of the month following, to were made, did give cause for the most alarmamount to 25 lacks, or £.250,000 sterling] “ have ing suspicions." And the said Warren Hast“ been allowed the farmers, who were still left ings did, in a letter to the nabob aforesaid written “ unsatisfied. I have received but just sufficient in haughty and insolent language, and without “ to support my absolute necessities, the revenues taking any notice of the distresses of the said na
being deficient to the amount of 15 lacks, bob, alleged and verified as before recited, re
[£.150,000 sterling,) and for this reason many “quire and insist upon your (the nabob's) granting “ of the old chieftains, with their troops, and “ tuncaws (assignments] for the full amount of “ the useful attendants of the court, were forced “their [the company's] demands upon you for “ to leave it, and there is now only a few foot “ the current year, and on your reserving funds “ and horse for the collection of my revenues ; “ sufficient to answer them, even should the defi“ and should the zemindars be refractory, there “ ciencies of your revenues compel you to leave “ is not left a sufficient number to reduce them your own troops unprovided for, or to disband “ to obedience.” And the said nabob did there a part of them, to enable you to effect it.” fore pray, that the assignments for the new brigade, the corps of horse, and the other detach
VIII. ed bodies of the company's troops, might not be required from him; alleging, “ that the for That in a letter written at the same time to the
mer was not only quite useless to his govern- resident Purling, and intended for his directions “ ment, but moreover the cause of much loss both in enforcing on the nabob the unjust demands “ in the revenues and customs; and that the de- aforesaid, the said Warren Hastings hath asserted, “ tached bodies of troops under their European in direct contradiction to the treaties subsisting “ officers brought nothing but confusion into the between the said nabob and the company, “affairs of his government, and were entirely their “ he (the nabob) stands engaged to our governown masters.”
“ ment to maintain the English armies, which, at VI.
“ his own request, have been formed for the pro
“ tection of his dominions; and that it is our That it appears, that the said nabob was not part, and not his, to judge and determine in what bound by any treaty to the maintenance, without manner and at what time these shall be reduced his consent,
even of the old brigade ; the court of “ and withdrawn.” And in a minute of consultadirectors having in their letter of the 15th Decem- tion, when the aforesaid measure was proposed by ber 1775, approved of keeping the same in his the said Hastings to the supreme council, he did service, provided it was done with the free con affirm and maintain, that the troops aforesaid “ sent of the soubah, and by no means without it." “had now no separate or distinct existence from And the new brigade, and temporary corps, were ours, and may be properly said to consist of our raised on the express condition, that the expence
“ whole military establishment, with the excepthereof should be charged on the nabob only “tion only of our European infantry; and that “ for so long a time as he should require the corps they could not be withdrawn without imposing
for his service.” And the court of directors the company the additional burthen of them, express to the governour-general and council “ or disbanding nine battalions of disciplined their sense of the said agreement in the following sepoys, and three regiments of horse." terms: “ but if you intend to exert your influence, “ first to uce the vizier to acquiesce in your
IX. “ proposal, and afterwards to compel him to keep “ the troops in his pay during your pleasure, your That in the minute of consultation aforesaid he “ intents are unjust ; and a correspondent con- (the said Warren Hastings) hath further, in justi“ duct would reflect great dishonour on the fication of the violent and arbitrary proceedings company." ”
aforesaid, asserted, “ that the arrangement of meaVII.
sures between the British government and their
“ allies, the native powers of India, must, in That in answer to the decent and humble repre case of disagreement about the necessity thereof, sentation aforesaid of the nabob of Oude, the “ be decided by the strongest ;" and hath thereby allegations of which, so far as they relate to the advanced a dangerous and most indecently-exdistressed state of the nabob's finances, and his pressed position, subversive of the rights of allies, total inability to discharge the demands made on and tending to breed war and confusion, inhim, were confirmed by the testimony of the Eng- stead of cordiality and co-operation amongst them, lish resident at Oude, and which the said Hastings and to destroy all confidence of the princes of Indid not deny in the whole or in any part thereof, dia in the faith and justice of the English nation ; he, the said 'Warren Hastings, did, on pretence of and the said Hastings having further, in the minute
aforesaid, presumed to threaten to “ bring to pun-" together with the jaghires of my grandmother,
ishment, if my influence [his the said Hastings's mother, and aunts, and of my brothers and
influence] can produce that effect, those incen- “ dependants, which were for their support." " diaries, who have endeavoured to make them“selves the instruments of division between us,”
XII. hath, as far as in him lay, obstructed the performance of one of the most essential duties of a prince, That in answer to the letter aforesaid the resiengaged in an unequal alliance with a presiding dent received from the said Warren Hastings and state—that of representing the grievances of his council an order to persevere in the demand to its subjects to that more powerful state, by whose acts fullest extent, that is to say, to the amount of they suffer ; leaving thereby the governing power £.1,400,000 sterling. in total ignorance of the effects of its own mea
XIII. sures, and to the oppressed people no other choice than the alternative of an unqualified submission, That on the 15th of May the nabob replied, or a resistance productive of consequences more complaining in an humble and suppliant manner fatal.
of his distressed situation, that he had at first
posed the assigning to the use of the company the
estates of his mother, of his grandmother, of one That all relief being denied to the nabob, in the of his uncles, and of the sons of another ; but that, manner and on the grounds aforesaid, the demands in obedience to the injunctions of the gentlemen of of the company on the said nabob in the year the council, it had been done to the amount, on following, that is to say, in the year 1780, did the whole, of £.80,000 sterling a year, or thereamount to the enormous sum of £.1,400,000 abouts ; that whatever effects were in the country, sterling, and the distress of the province did rapidly with even his table, his animals, and the salaries encrease.
of his servants, were granted in assignments; that XI.
besides these, if they were resolved again to com
pel him to give up the estates of his parents and That the nabob, on the 24th of February of the relations, which were granted them for their mainsame year, did again write to the governour-gene- tenance, they were at the company's disposal ; ral, the said Warren Hastings, a letter, in which saying, “ if the council have directed you to athe expressed his constant friendship to the com- “tach them, do it; in the country no further pany, and his submission and obedience to their sources remain. I have no means; for I have orders; and asserting, that he had not troubled “ not a subsistence. How long shall I dwell upon them with any of his difficulties, trusting they my misfortunes ?” would learn them from other quarters, and that he should be relieved by their friendship: “but (he
XIV. says) when the knife had penetrated to the bone, and I was surrounded with such heavy
That the truth of the said remonstrances was not "distresses, that I could no longer live in expecta- disputed, nor the tone, in which they were written, “tions, I then wrote an account of my difficulties. complained of, the same being submissive, and “ The answer I have received to it is such, that it even abject, though the cause (his distresses) was “has given me inexpressible grief and affliction. by the said Hastings, in a great degree, and in “ I never had the least idea or expectation from terms the most offensive, attributed to the nabob
you and the council, that you would have given himself; but no relief was given, and the same your orders in so afflicting a manner, in which unwarrantable establishments, maintained at the you never before wrote, and I could never have same ruinous expence, were kept up. imagined. I have delivered up all my private papers to him, [the resident,] that after examin
XV. ing my receipts and expences, he may take “ whatever remains. That as I know it to be my
That the said Warren Hastings having con“duty to satisfy you, [the company and council,) sidered as incendiaries those, who advised the
] "I have not failed to obey in any instance; but remonstrances aforesaid, and, to prevent the same
requested of him, that it might be done so as in future, having denounced vengeance on those “not to distress me in my necessary expences.
concerned therein, did, for the purpose of keeping " There being no other funds but those for the in his own power all representations of the state of
expences of my mutseddies, [clerks and ac- the court and country aforesaid, and to subject
countants,] household expences, and servants, both the one and the other to his own arbitrary will, “ &c. he demanded these in such a manner, that and to draw to himself and to his creatures the
being remediless I was obliged to comply with management of the nabob's revenues, in defiance "what he required. He has accordingly stopped of the orders of the court of directors, a second “the pensions of my old servants for 30 years, time recall Mr. Bristow, the company's resident, “ whether sepoys, (soldiers,) mutseddies, [secre- from the court of Oude; having once before re" taries and accountants,] or household servants, called him, as the said directors express themselves, " and the ea pences of my family and kitchen, “ without the shadow of a charge being exhibited
against him ;" and having, on the occasion and said powers were, by the said Warren Hastings, time now stated, produced no specifick charge given by himself and the said Wheler, under the against the said resident ;—and he the said Hast- seal of the company, on the 3d July 1781. ings did appoint Nathaniel Middleton, Esquire, to succeed him, it being his declared principle, that
XVIII. he must have a person of his own confidence in that situation.
That the said commission, delegating to him, XVI.
the said Warren Hastings, the whole functions of
the council, is destructive to the constitution That the said Warren Hastings, after he had thereof; and is contrary to the company's standrefused all relief to the distresses of the nabob in ing orders; and is illegal. the manner aforesaid, and had described those, who advised the representation of the grievances of
XIX. Oude, as incendiaries, did himself, in a minute of the 21st of May 1781, describe that province That in virtue of those powers, and the illegal “ fallen into a state of great disorder and confu- delegation aforesaid, the said Warren Hastings, “sion, and its resources in an extraordinary de- after he had finished his business at Benares,
did gree diminished ;” and did state, that his pre-procure a meeting with the nabob of Oude at a sence in the said province was requested by the place called Chunar, upon the confines of the nabob; and that unless some effectual measures country of Benares, and did there enter into a were taken for his relief, he [the nabob) must be treaty, or pretended treaty, with the said nabob; under the necessity of leaving his country, and one part of which the said Warren Hastings did coming down to Calcutta, to represent the situation pretend was drawn up from a series of requisitions of his government. And Mr. Wheler did declare, presented to him by the nabob, but which requithat the governour-general's representation of the sitions, or any copy thereof, or of any other matestate of that province was bui too well founded; rial document relative thereto, he did not at the “and was convinced, that it would require his ut- time transmit to the presidency; the said Warren “ most abilities and powers, applied and exercised Hastings informing Mr. Wheler, that the resident, “ on the spot, to restore it to its former good order Middleton, had taken the authentick papers rela“ and affluence.”
tive to this transaction with him to Lucknow; and XVII.
it does not appear, that the said Warren Hastings
did ever reclaim the said papers, in order to record That the said Warren Hastings, in consequence them at the presidency, to be transmitted to the of the minute aforesaid, did grant to himself, and court of directors, as it was his duty to do. did procure the consent of his only colleague, Edward Wheler, Esquire, to a commission or de
XX. legation, with powers “ to assist the nabob vizier “ in forming such regulations as may be necessary That the purport of certain articles of the said “ for the peace and good order of his government, treaty, on the part of the company, was, that in “ the improvement of his revenue, and the adjust consideration of the nabob's inability (which ina“ment of the mutual concerns subsisting between bility the preamble of the treaty asserts to have “ him and the company.”—And in the said com been“ repeatedly and urgently represented”) to mission or delegation he, the said Warren Hastings, support the expences of the temporary brigade, and did cause to be inserted certain powers and pro- of three regiments of cavalry, and also of the Brivisions of a new and dangerous nature; (that is to tish officers, with their battalions, and of other say) reciting the business before mentioned, he did gentlemen, who were then paid by him, the several convey to himself “ such authority to enforce the corps aforesaid, and the other gentlemen, (with the
same, as the governour-general and council exception of the resident's office, then on the na
might or could exercise on occasions, in which bob's list, and a regiment of sepoys for the resi“ they could be warranted to exercise the same ; dent's guard,) should, after a term of two and a “ and to form and conclude such several engage- half months, be no longer at his [the nabob's]
ments or treaties with the nabob vizier, the charge.--" The true meaning of this being, that government of Barar, and with any chiefs or no more troops than one brigade, and the pay
powers of Hindostan, as he should judge expe- and allowances of a regiment of sepoys,". (as 6 dient and necessary." Towards the conclusion aforesaid to the resident,) amounting in the whole of the act or instrument aforesaid are the words to £.342,000 a year, should be paid by the nafollowing; viz. “ it is hereby declared, that all bob. And that no officers, troops, or others, should “ such acts, and all such engagements or treaties be put upon the nabob's establishment, exclusive “ aforesaid, shall be binding on the governour- of those in the said treaty stipulated.
general and council in the same manner, and as effectually, as if they had been done and pass
XXI. “ed by the specifick and immediate concurrence “ and actual junction of the governour-general That the said Warren Hastings did defend and “ and council, in council assembled.” And the justify the said articles, in which the troops afore
said were to be removed from the nabob's estab- | tinuance of the said troops; and that the nabob, lishment, by declaring as follows : “ that the “ whose concern it was, and not ours," did affirm “ actual disbursements to those troops had fallen the same, notwithstanding he the said Hastings
upon our own funds, and that we support a body had before, in answer to the humble supplications “ of troops, established solely for the defence of of the nabob, asserted, that “ it was our part, and “ the nabob's possessions, at our own expence. It “ not his, to judge and determine in what manner “ is true, we charge the nabob with this expence; “ and at what time, they should be reduced or “ but the large balance already due from him
“ withdrawn.” “shews too justly the little prospect there was of
XXIV. “ disengaging ourselves from a burthen, which
was daily adding to our distresses, and must That the said Warren Hastings, in support of his “soon become insupportable, although it were measure of withdrawing the said brigade, and other
granted, that the nabob's debt, then suffered to troops, did also represent, that “the remote stations “ accumulate, might at some future period be “ of those troops, placing the commanding officers
liquidated; and that this measure would sub- beyond the notice and controul of the board, “stantially effect an instant relief to the pecuniary “ afforded too much opportunity and temptation “ distresses of the company."
“ for unwarrantable emoluments, and excited the
“contagion of peculation and rapacity throughXXII.
“ out the whole army; and as an instance there-
“ of, that a court martial, composed of officers of That Nathaniel Middleton, the resident, did “ rank and respectable characters, unanimously also declare, that he would at all times testify," and honourably, most honourably,' acquitted ,
“ “ " that upon the plan of the foregoing years the an officer upon an acknowledged fact, which in
receipts from the nabob were only a deception, “ times of stricter discipline would have been “ and not an advantage, but an injury, to the “ deemed a crime deserving the severest punishcompany ;” and “ that a remission to the nabob
“ ment." is insufferable burthen was a profit to the
XXV. company. And the said Hastings did assert, that the force of the company was not lessened by
That the said Warren Hastings having in the withdrawing the temporary troops; although (when letter aforesaid contradicted all the grounds and it suited the purpose of the said Hastings, in reasons by him assigned for keeping up the aforedenying just relief to the distresses of the said said establishment, and having declared his own nabob of Oude) he had not scrupled to assert the conviction, that the whole was a fallacy and impodirect contrary of the positions by him maintained sition, and a detriment to the company
instead of in justification of the treaty of Chunar, having in a benefit, circumstances (if they are true) which he his minute aforesaid, of the 15th of December 1779, might and ought to have well known, was guilty asserted, “ that these troops ”. [the troops main- of an high crime and misdemeanour in carrying on tained by the nabob of Oude] * had no separate the imposture and delusion aforesaid, and in conti
or distinct existence, and may be properly said nuing an insupportable burthen and grievance upon " to consist of our whole military establishment, the nabob for several years, without attending to “ with the exception only of our European in his repeated supplications to be relieved therefrom,
fantry; and that they could not be withdrawn, to the utter ruin of his country, and to the destruc“ without imposing on the company the additional tion of the discipline of the British troops, by dif“ burthen of their expence, or disbanding nine fusing among them a general spirit of peculation; “ battalions of disciplined sepoys, and three regi- and the said Hastings hath committed a grievous “ments of horse."
offence in upholding the same pernicious system, XXIII.
until by his own confession and declaration in his
minute of the 21st of May 1781, “ the evils had That he, the said Warren Hastings, in justifica- grown to so great an height, that exertions will tion of his agreement to withdraw the troops afore- “ be required more powerful than can be made said from the territories and pay of the nabob of “ through the delegated authority of the servants Oude, did further declare, “ that he had been too “ of the company now in the province; and that “ much accustomed to the tales of hostile prepara- “ he was far from sanguine in his expectations, “tion, and impending invasions, against all the " that even his own endeavours would be attended “ evidence of political probability, to regard them “ with much success."
as any other than phantoms, raised for the purpose of perpetuating or multiplying commands;"
XXVI. and he did trust “ all ideas of danger from the “ neighbouring powers were altogether visionary; That at the time of making the said treaty, and “ and that, even if they had been better founded, at the time when, under colour of the distresses of “ this mode of anticipating possible evils would the nabob of Oude, and the failure of all other means “ be more mischievous than any thing they had for his relief, he the said Hastings broke the com
reason to apprehend,” and that the internal state pany's faith with the parents of the nabob, and of the nabob's dominions did not require the con- first encouraged, and afterwards compelled, him to
despoil them of their landed-estates, money, jewels, said, he did violate every one of the stipulations in and household goods, and while the said nabob the said treaty contained; and particularly he did continued heavily in debt to the company, he the continue in the country, and in the service of the said Warren Hastings did, “ without hesitation," nabob of Oude, those troops, which he had so reaccept of and receive from the nabob of Oude, cently stipulated to withdraw from his country, and and his ministers, (who are notoriously known to be to take from his establishment; for, upon the 24th not only under his influence, but under his abso- of December following, he did order the tempolute command,) a bribe, or unlawful gift or present, rary brigade, making 10 battalions of 500 men of one hundred thousand pounds sterling, and up- each, to be again put on the vizier's list ; although wards: that even if the said pretended gift could he had recently informed the court of directors, be supposed to be voluntary, it was contrary to through Edward Wheler, Esquire, that any benethe express provision of the regulating act of the fit to be derived from the nabob's paying that 13th year of His Majesty's reign, prohibiting the brigade was a fallacy and a deception, and that receipt of all presents upon any pretence whatso- the same was a charge upon the company, and ever, and contrary to his own sense of the true not an alleviation of its distresses, as well as an intent and meaning of the said act, declared upon insupportable burthen to the nabob; thus having, a similar but not so strong a case ; that is, where within a short space of time, twice contradicted the service done, and the present offered in return himself, both in declaration and in conduct. for it, had taken place before the promulgation of the above laws in India; on that occasion he de
XXX. clared, “ that the exclusion by an act of parlia“ ment admitted of no abatement or evasion, That this measure, in direct violation of a treaty “ wherever its authority extended.”
of not three months duration, was so injudicious
, that, in the opinion of the assistant resident, JohnXXVII.
son,“ nothing less than blows could effect it;" he
the said resident further adding, “ that the nabob That the said Warren Hastings, confiding
was not even able to pay off the arrears still due interest, which he supposed himself to have formed “ to it (the new brigade); and that the troops in the East India house, did endeavour to prevail being all in arrears, and no possibility of present on the court of directors to violate the said act, payment, so large a body assembled here (viz. and to suffer him to appropriate the money so ille- “ at Lucknow] without any means to check and gally accepted by him to his own profit, as a re- “ controul them, nothing but disorder could follow. ward for his services.
“As one proof, that the nabob is as badly off for
cavalry rose this day upon him, and went all
“armed to the palace, to demand from 13 to 18 See his letter
That the said Warren Hastings has “ months arrears, and were with great difficulty
since declared to the court of di- “ persuaded to retire, which was probably more July 1785, at the end of the rectors, that when fortune threw a “ effected by a body of troops getting under arms Charges.
sum in his way (meaning the sum of to go against them, than any other consideramoney above mentioned) of a magnitude, which
But the letter of Warren Hastings, could not be concealed, he chose to apprize his Esquire, of the 24th of December, giving the above employers of it ; thereby confessing, that, but orders for the infraction of the treaty, and to which for the magnitude of the same rendering it diffi- the letter, from whence the foregoing extracts are cult to be concealed, he never would have dis- taken, is an answer, doth not appear, any otherwise covered it to them. And the said unlawful than as the same is recited in the said answer. present being received at the time when, for reasons directly contradictory to all his former re
XXXI. corded declarations, he did agree to remove the aforesaid troops from the nabob's dominions, and That, notwithstanding the disorders and defito recall the pensioners aforesaid, it must be pre- ciencies in the revenue aforesaid had continued and sumed, that he did not agree to give the relief encreased, and that three very large balances had (which he had before so obstinately refused) upon accumulated, the said Warren Hastings did cause the grounds and motives of justice, policy, or hu- the treasury accounts at Calcutta to be examined manity, but in consideration of the sum of money and scrutinized, and on account of another arrear, aforesaid, which in a time of such extreme distress composed of various articles, pretended to have in the nabob's affairs could not be rationally given, accumulated during seven years previous to the except for those and other concessions stipulated year 1799, (the articles composing which, if they for in the said treaty, but which had on former had been just, ought to have been charged at the occasions been refused.
times they severally became due,) was sent to the
resident, and payment thereof demanded, to the XXIX.
amount of £.260,000 sterling; which unexpected That notwithstanding his, the said Warren Hast- demand, in so distressed a situation, did not a ings's, receipt of the present of £.100,000 as afore- little embarrass the nabob. But whilst he and his
you, that his
of the lith