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To what extent can I prolong the praises of you, Your friendly letter, fraught with kindness, I had my beneficent friends ? 'May the Supreme Being, the pleasure to receive in a propitious hour, and for this benign, compassionate, humane action, your inexpressible kindness in sending for Mur have you in his keeping, and encrease your pros- Nassar Ally with a force to Saunda, for the purperity, and speedily grant me the pleasure of an pose of conducting Mr. Gordon, with all his baginterview. Until which time continue to favour gage, who is now arrived at Fyzabad. me with friendly letters, and oblige me by any This event has afforded me the most excessive commands in my power to execute.
pleasure and satisfaction. May the Omnipotence May your wishes be ever crowned with success! preserve you, my stedfast firm friends. The pen My compliments, &c. &c. &c. of friendship itself cannot sufficiently express your
generosity and benevolence, and that of the begum Copy of a Letter from Colonel Hannay to Jewar of high dignity, who so graciously has interested Ally Cawn and Bahar Ally Cawn.
lierself in this matter. Enclosed is an address for
her, which please to forward. I hope from your Cawn Saib, my indulgent friends,
friendship, until we meet, you will continue to Remain under the protection of the Supreme Being. honour me with an account of your health and
After compliments, and signifying my earnest welfare. What further can I write ? desire of an interview, I address you.
V. REVOLUTIONS IN FARRUCKABAD.
withheld, but, having made a further invasion by 1.
depriving him of fifteen of his districts, levying That a prince called Ahmed Khân was of a fa- the tribute of the whole on the little that remainmily amongst the most distinguished in Hindostan, ed, and putting the small remains of his territory and of a nation famous through that empire for under a sequestrator or collector appointed by its valour in acquiring, and its policy and pru- | Almas Ali Khân, who did grievously afflict and dence in well governing, the territories it had ac- oppress the prince and territory aforesaid. quired, called the Patans, or Afghans, of which That the hardships of his case being frequently the Rohillas were a branch. The said Ahmed represented to Warren Hastings, Esquire, he did Khân had fixed his residence in the city of Far- suggest a doubt, whether “ that little ought to be ruckabad, and in the first wars of this nation in “ still subject to tribute,” indicating, that the said India the said Ahmed Khân attached himself to tribute might be hard and inequitable; but whatthe company against Sujah Dowla, then an ever its justice might have been, that “ from the enemy, now a dependent on that company. Ah- earliest period of our connexion with the med Khân, towards the close of his life, was dis- “ nabob of Oude, it had invariably continued a possessed of a large part of his dominions by the part of the funds assigned by his Excellency as prevalence of the Mahratta power ; but his son, a a provision for the liquidation of the several minor, succeeded to his pretensions, and to the publick demands of this government (Calcutta) remainder of his dominions. The Mahrattas were upon him; and in consequence of the powers expelled by Sujah ul Dowla, the late vizier, who “ the board deemed it expedient to vest in the finding a want of the services of the son and suc- “ resident at his court, for the collection of the cessor of Ahmed Khân, called Mouzafer Jung, company's assignments, a sezauwil [a sequesdid not only guaranty him in the possession of “trator] has always been stationed to enforce by what he then actually held, but engaged to restore every means in his power the payment of the all the other territories, which had been occupied “ tribute.” And the said tribute was, in conseby the Mahrattas: and this was confirmed, by quence of this arrangement, not paid to the narepeated treaties and solemn oaths, by the late bob, but to the British resident at Oude ; and the vizier and by the present; but neither the late same being therefore under the direction, and for nor the present vizier fulfilled their engagements, the sole use, of the company, and indeed the or observed their oaths: the former having with prince himself wholly dependent, the representaheld what he had stipulated to restore, and the tives of the said company were responsible for the latter not only subjecting him to a tribute, instead protection of the prince, and for the good governof restoring him to what his father had unjustly ment of the country.
nabob of Oude was ill affected towards the said II.
nabob of Farruckabad, and that he was already
supposed to have oppressed him, did justify his That the said Warren Hastings did, on the 22d conduct on the principles and in the words folof May 1780, represent to the board of Calcutta lowing; “ that if the nabob Mozaffer Jung must the condition of the said countrv in the following “ endure oppression, (and I dare not at this time manner :
propose his total relief,) it concerns the reputa“ To the total want of all order, regularity, or “ tion of our government to remove our particiauthority in his government, (the Farruckabad“ pation in it.” And the said Warren Hastings
government,) among other obvious causes, it may, making, recording, and acting upon the first of “ no doubt, be owing, that the country of Farruck the said false and inhuman suppositions, most " abad is become an almost entire waste, without scandalous to this nation, namely, that princes “ cultivation, or inhabitants ; that the capital, paying money wholly for the use of the company, “ which but a very short time ago was distinguished and directly to its agent, for the maintenance of
as one of the most populous and opulent com- British troops, by whose force and power the said “mercial cities in Hindostan, at present exhibits revenue was in effect collected, must of necessity
nothing but scenes of the most wretched poverty, endure oppression, and that our government at “ desolation, and misery: and the nabob himself, any time dare not propose their total relief, was
though in possession of a tract of country, an high offence and misdemeanour in the said “ which, with only common care, is notoriously Warren Hastings, and the rather, because in the
capable of yielding an annual revenue of be said treaty, as well as before and after, the said “tween thirty and forty lacks, (three or four hun- Hastings, who pretended not to dare to relieve “dred thousand pounds,) with no military estab- those oppressed by the nabob of Oude, did assume “ lishment to maintain, scarcely commanding the a complete authority over the said nabob himself,
means of bare subsistence.” And the said War- and did dare to oppress him. ren Hastings, taking into consideration the said state of the country, and its prince, and that the
IV. latter had“ preferred frequent complaints"(wlrich complaints the said Hastings to that time did That the second principle assumed by the said not lay before the board, as his duty required) Warren Hastings, as a ground for voluntarily
of the hardships and indignities, to which he is abandoning the protection of those, whom he had subjected by the conduct of the sezauwil [se- before undertaken to relieve, on the sole strength questrator] stationed in the country for the pur- of his own authority, and in full confidence of
pose of levying the annual tribute, which he is the lawful foundation thereof, and for delivering “ bound by treaty to pay to the soubah of Oude ;” over the persons so taken into protection, under he, the said Hastings, did declare himself “ ex- false names and pretended descriptions, to known “tremely desirous, as well from motives of com- oppression, asserting, that the reputation of the mon justice, as due regard to the rank, which company was saved by removing this apparent
at chief holds among the princes of Hindos- participation, when the new, as well as the old, tan, of affording him relief.” And he, the said arrangements were truly and substantially acts of Warren Hastings, as the means of the said relief, the British government, was disingenuous, deceitdid, with the consent of the board, order the said ful, and used to cover unjustifiable designs, since native sequestrator to be removed, and an English the said Warren Hastings well knew, that all resident, a servant of the company, to be ap- oppressions exercised by the nabob of Oude were pointed in his room, declaring, “ he understood solely, and in this instance particularly, upheld “ a local interference to be indispensably neces- by British force, and were imputed to this nation; sary for realizing the vizier's just demands." and because he himself, in not more than three
the execution of this treaty, and in III.
virtue thereof, did direct the British resident at
Oude in orders, to which he required his most That the said native sequestrator being with implicit obedience,
" that the ministers (the drawn, and a resident appointed, no complaint "nabob of Oude's ministers) are to choose all whatever concerning the collection of the revenue, “ aumils and collectors of revenue with your conor of any indignities offered to the prince of the currence.” And the dishonour to the company country, or oppression of his subjects by the said in thus deceitfully concurring in oppression, which resident, was made to the superiour council at they were able and were bound to prevent, is Calcutta; yet the said Warren Hastings did, ne- much aggravated by the said Warren Hastings's vertheless, in a certain paper, purporting to be a receiving from the person, to whose oppression he treaty made at Chunar with the nabob of Oude had delivered the said prince, as a private gift or on the 19th of September 1781, at the request of donation to himself, and for his own use, a sum the said nabob, consent to an article therein, of money, amounting to one hundred thousand " that no English resident be appointed to Far- pounds and upwards, which might give just ground “ruckabad, and that the present be recalled ;" of suspicion, that the said gift from the oppressor and the said Warren Hastings knowing, that the to the person surrendering the person injured to
his mercy might have had some share in the said supposed abuses, during the said residency, but criminal transaction.
did give a pension of fifteen hundred pounds a
year to the said late resident, as a compensation V.
to him for an injury received, and did afterwards
promote the resident, as a faithful servant of the That the said Warren Hastings did in the paper company, (and nothing appears to shew him otherjustifying the said surrender of the prince, put by wise,) to a judicial office of high trust; thereby himself under the protection of the East India taking away all credit from any grounds asserted company) assert, “ that it was a fact, that the or insinuated by the said Hastings for delivering “ Naboh Muzzattor Jung (the nabob of Farruck- the said nabob of Farruckabad to the hand of a " abad) is equally urgent with the nabob vizier known enemy and oppressor, who had already, " for the removal of a resident,” without pro- contrary to repeated treaties, deprived him of a ducing, as he ought to have done, any document large part of his territories. to prove his improbable assertion, namely, his assertion, that the oppressed prince did apply to his
VII. known enemy and oppressor, the nabob of Oude, (who, if he would, was not able to relieve him That on the said Warren Hastings's representagainst the will of the English government,) rather ation of the transaction aforesaid to the court of than to that English government, which he must directors, they did heavily and justly censure the have conceived to be more impartial, to which he said Warren Hastings for the same, and did conhad made his former complaint, and which was vey their censure to him, recommending relief to alone able to relieve him.
the suffering prince, but without any order for
sending a new resident; being, as it may be supVI.
posed, prevented from taking that step by the faith
of the treaty made at Chunar. That the said Warren Hastings, in the said writing, did further convey an insinuation of an
VIII. ambiguous, but, on any construction, of a suspicious and dangerous import ; viz. “ it is a fact, that Mr. That all the oppressions foreseen by him the “ Shee's (the resident's) authority over the terri- said Warren Hastings, when he made the article
tory of Farruckabad is in itself as much sub- aforesaid in the treaty of Chunar, did actually “ versive of that (of the lawful rulers) as that of happen; for immediately on the removal of the “ the vizier's aumil (collector) ever was, and is British resident, the country of Farruckabad was “the more oppressive, as the power from whence subjected to the discretion of a certain native “it is derived is greater.” The said assertion manager of revenue, called Almas Ali Khân, who proceeds upon a supposition of the illegality both did impoverish and oppress the country, and insult of the nabob's and the company's government; the prince, and did deprive him of all subsistence all consideration of the title to authority being from his own estates ; taking from him even his therefore on that supposition put out of the ques- gardens, and the tombs of his ancestors, and the tion, and the whole turning only upon the exercise funds for maintaining the same. of authority, the said Hastings's suggestion, that the oppression of government must be in proportion
IX. to its power, is the result of a false and dangerous principle, and such as it is criminal for any person That on complaint of those proceedings the said intrusted with the lives and fortunes of men to Hastings did, of his own authority, and without entertain, much more publickly to profess as a communicating with his council, direct the native rule of action, as the same hath a direct tendency collector aforesaid to be removed, and the territory to make the new and powerful government of this of Farruckabad to be left to the sole management kingdom in India dreadful to the natives, and of its natural prince. But in a short time the said odious to the world. But if the said Warren Hast-Hastings, pretending to receive many complaints ings did mean thereby indirectly to insinuate, that purporting, that the tribute to the nabob remained oppressions had been actually exercised under the wholly unpaid, and the agent to the prince of British authority, he was bound to enquire into these Farruckabad at the presidency, and afterwards oppressions, and to animadvert on the person chief manager to the prince aforesaid, having, as guilty of the same, if proof thereof could be had ; the said Warren Hastings saith, “had the insoand the more, as the authority was given by him- “ lence to propagate a report, that the interferself, and the person exercising it was by himself ence, to which his master owed the power he also named. And the said Warren Hastings did “ then enjoyed, was purchased through him," he on another occasion assert, that “ whether they the said Hastings did again (but, as before, with“ were well or ill founded he never had an oppor- out the council) “ withdraw his protection and “ tunity to ascertain.” But it is not true, that the “ interference altogether on or about the month said Hastings did or could want such opportunity: of August 1782, and did signify his resolution the fact being, that the said Warren Hastings did through the resident Middleton, to the nabob never cause any enquiry to be made into any vizier. But the said Hastings asserts, that “the
consequence of this his own second dereliction with the nabob in the treaty of Chunar ; and “ of the prince of Farruckabad was an aggravated against his strong remonstrances, urging his humi“ renewal of the severities exercised against his liation from this measure, and the faith of the agree“ government, and the re-appointment of a seza- ment, and against his own former declaration, that
wall, with powers delegated, or assumed, to the it concerned the reputation of our government to “utter extinction of the right of Muzuffer Jung, remove our participation in the oppressions, which “ and actually depriving him of the means of he, the said Hastings, supposed the prince of Far“ subsistence." And the said Hastings did re ruckabad must undergo, did once more recomceive, on the 16th of February 1783, from the mend to the council a British resident at Farruckaprince aforesaid a bitter complaint of the same to bad, and the withdrawing the native sezawall; no the following tenour :
course being left to the said Hastings to take, “ The miseries which have fallen upon my which was not a violation of some engagement,
country, and the poverty and distress which and a contradiction to some principle of justice “ have been heaped upon me by the re-appoint- and policy by him deliberately advanced, and en
ment of the sezawall, are such, that a relation tered on record. “ of them would, I am convinced, excite the That Mr. Willes being appointed resident, and
strongest feelings of compassion in your breast. having arrived at Farruckabad on the 25th of Fe“ But it is impossible to relate them; on one side, bruary 1784, with instructions to enquire minutely “my country ruined, and uncultivated to a degree into the state of the country and the ruling family, “ of desolation, which exceeds all description, on he, the said resident Willes, in obedience thereto, " the other, my domestick concerns and con did fully explain to him, the governour-general, “ nexions involved in such a state of distress and the said 'Warren Hastings, (he being then out of “ horrour, that even the relations, the children, the company's provinces, at Lucknow, on a dele“ and the wives of my father, are starving in gation, which respected this very country as part “ want of daily bread, and are on the point of of the dependencies of Oude,) the situation of the
flying voluntary exiles from their country, and province of Farruckabad; but the said Warren “ from each other.”
Hastings did not take or recommend any measure But although the said Hastings did, on the 16th whatsoever for the relief thereof in consequence of of February, receive and admit the justice of the the said representation; nor even communicate to said complaint, and did not deny the urgent neces- the council general the said representation ; and sity of redress, the said letter containing the fol- it was not until the 28th of June 1783, that is, lowing sentence, “ if there should be any delay in sixteen months from the arrival of the resident at
your acceptance of this proposal, my existence his station, that any thing was laid before the board “and the existence of my family will become relative to the regulation or relief of the distressed “ difficult and doubtful:"-and although he did country aforesaid, and that, not from the said admit the interference to be the more urgently Warren Hastings, but from other members of the demanded, “ as the services of the English troops council; which purposed neglect of duty, joined “ have been added to enforce the authority of the to the preceding wilful delay of seven months in “ sezawall," and although he admits also, that even proposing the said relief originally, caused near two before that time similar complaints and applica- years' delay. And the said Warren Hastings is tions had been made, yet he did withhold the said further culpable in not communicating to the counletter of complaint, a minute of which he asserts cil board the order, which he had of his own auhe had, at or about that time, prepared for the thority, and without any powers from them, given relief of the sufferer, from the board of council, to the said resident Willes, and did thereby preand did not so much as propose any thing relative vent them from taking such steps as might counto the same for seven months after, viz. until the teract the ill effects of the said order; which order 6th of October 1783; the said letter and minute purported, that the said Willes was not to interbeing, as he asserts," withheld, from causes not fere with the nabob of Farruckabad's government, “ necessary to mention, from presentation." By for the regulation of which he was in effect apwhich means the said country and prince did pointed to the residency; declaring as follows: suffer a long continuance of unnecessary hard “ I rely much on your moderation and good judgship, from which the said Hastings confessed it ment, which I hope will enable you to regulate was his duty to relieve them, and that a British vour
conduct towards the nabob and his servants resident was necessary at Farruckabad “ from a “ in such a manner, that without interfering in
sense of submission to the implied orders of the “ the executive part of his government you may “ court of directors, in their letter of 1783, lately “ render him essential service by your council and “ received, added to the conviction I have LONG “ advice.” And this restriction the said Hastings “ SINCE entertained of the necessity of such did impose, which totally frustrated the purpose of “ an appointment for the preservation of our the resident's mission, though he well knew, and “ national credit, and the means of rescuing an had frequently stated, the extreme imbecility and "ancient and respectable family from ruin." weakness of the said nabob of Farruckabad, and
And the said Warren Hastings did at length his subjection to unworthy servants.. And in the perform what he thought had long since been ne minute of consultation, upon which he founded the cessary, and in contradiction to his engagements appointment, he did state the nabob of Farrucka
bad“ as a weak and unexperienced young man, we would have proceeded to Calcutta for re" who had abandoned himself entirely to the dis “ dress. The scarcity of grain this season is an “cretion of his servants; and the restoration of “ additional misfortune. With difficulty we sup“ his independence was followed by a total breach port life. From your presence without the pro" of the engagements he had promised to fulfil, “ vinces we expect relief. It is not the custom of " attended by pointed instances of contumacy and “ the company to deprive the zemindars and jag"disrespect.
." And in the said minute the said “ hiredars of the means of subsistence. To your Hastings adds, (as before mentioned,) his principal justice we look up." servant and manager had propagated a report, This being the situation of the person and fathat the “ interference, (namely his the said Hast- mily of the nabob of Farruckabad and his nearest "ings's interference,) to which his master owed relations, the state of the country and its capital, " the power he then enjoyed, was purchased by prevented from all relief by the said Warren Hast“ him," the principal servant aforesaid ; yet he, ings, is described, in the following words, by the the said Hastings, who had assigned on record the resident Willes : character of the said nabob, and the conduct of “ Almas Ali has taken the pergunnah of Mahis servants, and the aforesaid report of his prin rara at a very inadequate rent, and his aumils cipal servant, so highly dishonourable to him the “ have seized many adjacent villages; the persaid Hastings, as reasons for taking away the in gunnahs of Cocuimow and Souje are constantly dependency of the nabob of Farruckabad, and the “ plundered by his people. The collection of the subjecting him to the oppression of the nabob of gauts near Futty Ghur has been seized by the Oude's officer, Almar Ali, did again establish the “ vizier's cutwal, and the zemindars in four perpretended independence of the said prince of Far-“ gunnahs are so refractory as to have forfeited ruckabad, and the real independence of his cor “ themselves in their gurries, and to refuse all payrupt and perfidious servants, not against the nabob “ments of revenue. This is the state of the perof Oude, but against a British resident appointed gunnahs; and Farruckabad, which was once by himself, (“ as a character eminently qualified “ the seat of great opulence and trade, is now " for such a charge,”) for the correction of those “ daily deserted by its inhabitants ; its walls evils, and for rendering the prince aforesaid an “ mouldering away, without police, without prouseful ally to the company, and restoring his do- “ tection ; exposed to the depredations of a banminions to order and plenty.
“ ditti of two or three hundred robbers, who, That the said Hastings did not only disable the “ night after night, enter it for plunder, murderresident at Farruckabad by his said prohibitory ing all who oppose them. The ruin that has letter, but did render his very remaining at all in “ overtaken this country, is not to be wondered that station perfectly precarious by a subsequent “ at, when it is considered, that there has been letter, rendering him liable to dismission by the no stable government for many years. There vizier--thereby changing the tenure of the resi-“ has been the nabob vizier's authority, his minisdent's office, and changing him from a minister of ters, the residents at Lucknow, the sezawalls, the company, dependent on the governour-gene-“ the camp authority, the nabob Muzuffer Jung's, ral in council, to a dependent upon an unrespon “and that of twenty dewans or advisers. No ausible power; in this also acting without the coun “thority sufficiently predominant to establish any cil, and by his own usurped authority; and ac regulations for the benefit of the country, whilst cordingly the resident did declare, in his letter of “ each authority has been exerted, as opportunity the 24th of April 1785, “ that the situation of the “ offered, for temporary purposes.
country was more distressful than when he (the “ Such being the present deplorable state of "prince of Farruckabad) addressed himself for “ Farruckabad and its districts, in the ensuing " relief in 1783; and that he was sorry to say, year it will be in vain to look for revenue, if " that his appointment at Farruckabad was of no “some regulations equal to the exigency be not "use.” That though the old tribute could not be " adopted. The whole country will be divided paid, owing to famine, and other causes, it was “ between the neighbouring powerful aumils, the encreased by a new imposition, making the whole “ refractory zemindars, and banditti of robbers; equal the entire gross produce of the revenue ; " and the Patans, who might be made useful subthat therefore there will not be “ any thing for “jects, will fly from the scene of anarchy. The " the subsistence of the nabob and family.” And “ crisis appears now come, that either some plan the uncles of the said nabob of Farruckabad, “ of government should be resolved on, so as to brethren of the late Ahmed Khân, (who had ren “ form faithful subjects on the frontier, or the dered important services to the company,) and country be given up to its fate; and if it be their children, in a petition to the resident, repre " abandoned, there can be little doubt but that sented, that soon after the succession of Mouzaffer “ the Mahrattas will gladly seize on a station so Jung “ their misery commenced. The jaghires, “ favourable to incursions into the vizier's domi
(lands and estates,) on which they subsisted, “ nions; will attach to their interests the Hindoo
were disallowed. Our distress is great ; we have “ zemindars, and possess themselves of forts, which, “neither clothes nor food. Though we felt hurt “ with little expence made formidable, would give " at the idea of explaining our situation, yet, “ employment perhaps to the whole of our force, “could we have found a mode of conveyance, “ should it be ever necessary to recover them."