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that ours is happily one of the "Learned Professions," and if we would be worthy of the name, some little classical, as well as scientific, learning should shed a halo around it. Not only are they needful for your very first prescription, and for the intelligent appreciation of most modern scientific terms, but they lead to the highest and noblest literature. If you have once tasted of the honey of Hymettus you will hardly be satisfied with the miserable stuff found in many of the current and much-be-thumbed books of the day. A literature that has dominated the world for over twenty centuries has a right to claim some of your time.
Do not shelter yourselves behind the incessant work and endless drives of a "country doctor." I fear that many of our country doctors waste enough time in gossip and profitless discussions of the crops and politics, and what not besides, to make them excellent Latin scholars at least. Even the long drives alone, if rightly used, would suffice to add one or two languages to their literary furnishing. One of the most remarkable medical pictures of the time is that given by Dr. John Brown, of Dr. Adams, of Banchory, a "country doctor" in a secluded Scotch village, with constant hard work on horseback, amid bleak hills and valleys for twenty miles around. Without ever neglecting his work he became one of the most accomplished linguists of his day, and at breakfast was fond of amusing himself by translating an ode of Horace into Greek verse.
A happy distinction has been made between the "Literature of Knowledge" and the "Literature of Power." Our science brings us so constantly into contact with the first that we are apt to neglect the second. Much of the literature of power you will find in Homer and Demosthenes, in Horace and Cicero, in Molière and Goethe; but for a wide acquaintance with it you must naturally look to our mother-tongueand, happily, you do not look in vain. Chaucer and Shakespeare, Milton and Macaulay, Tennyson and Thackeray, Whit
tier and Longfellow, Webster and Irving, and the genial Oliver Wendell Holmes one whom our own guild ever delights to honor these will conduct you into the higher realms of thought, where you may soar undisturbed by care. "Some books," says Bacon, "are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, some few to be chewed and digested." Read the books that are to be eaten and assimilated.
I urge this literary culture partly because it will afford. endless delight and broaden and inform the mind. In later life, when you have lost some of the fine enthusiasm of youth; when the years come that bring the philosophic mind, familiarity with such a literature will be a never-failing resource, for it never loses its charm. But I especially urge it because the new era in science demands that you be ready to report your cases, relate your discoveries, and discuss them before an intelligent public. To do this so that you will command a hearing, a good English style is indispensable. Few scientific men speak or write effectively. They are apt to be illogical in their methods, wanting in force in their arguments, discursive and inelegant in their style. If you will make the literature of power your companion, and then will write and then prune mercilessly, you will soon acquire such a command of English as will serve you many a good turn. The secret of Huxley's and of Tyndall's influence lies as much in their forceful and elegant English as in their scientific acquisitions.
Besides all these scientific and literary demands, I cannot pass by those personal qualities that the age requires of every gentleman. Cultivate, therefore, neatness of apparel, a courtesy that is so apparent that it is extended to the humblest patient in as large measure as to the rich and influential. Appreciate that yours is not a trade in which to make the most money in the least time, but a generous profession, by which, it is true, you make a living, but also do far more. You give what money cannot pay for, and for which you will often never even ask for any sordid quid pro quo. Devo
tion to duty to the neglect of self, sympathy and succor in the hours of sorrow, cheerfulness that vanquishes despair, and skill that baffles even death itself, these are not to be paid for by money, but by speaking eyes, grateful hearts, and well-cemented, lifelong friendship and devotion.
Above all, cultivate that good old virtue, "common sense.' It lies back of all your science. It is the bed rock on which all success is based.
Of your moral and religious duties I may add only a word. Medicine has to do with much more than the mere healing of human infirmities and disease. Its investigations carry you far beyond the animal kingdom, away down to the lowest vegetable organisms, which bacteriology has shown to be such important factors in disease; its practice has to do with the health and highest happiness of vast communities, as well as the welfare of each individual, with all his various ties and relations, in our complex social life; and its speculations carry you far above and beyond the hour of death. We assist at the beginning of the earthly life in its frail cradle; we see its very close when we watch the last respiration and feel the last pulse-beat. That this is not the "be-all and the end-all" of a human soul, both Holy Writ and our own inner conviction imperiously assert. If we could but discern it, we have really assisted at the beginning of a second and the greater life-the Eternal Life. Mindful, then, of our high calling, we should be thoughtful and religious men, ever asking for the Divine help in our daily round of duties.
When I began writing I had intended to speak at length also of the demand of the new era in medicine upon our medical colleges. Time, however, will only allow of a brief, but most important allusion to it. To this demand the colleges are slowly responding. But the change should be more general, more rapid, and more radical.
It is one of the most healthful signs of the times that it
is in the larger and more advanced schools, the very ones that are best equipped as to men, money, buildings, and laboratories, that there exists the greatest unrest and dissatisfaction with present achievements, and the chief reaching forward to better and larger things. Among these stands the Jefferson Medical College. While conservative, she is progressive; "Nulla vestigia retrorsum" is her motto. That she is alive to the need of progress and has met it in the past, the contrast I have described between my own student life and yours gives ample proof. That the new era in medicine demands still more she recognizes, and, as you will have seen by the announcement, she again meets the demand. To your joy no less than to mine, for the student-mind is ever alert to notice signs of progress, this year we inaugurate a full and required three years' graded course. Time was when the comparatively narrow field could be reaped in two combined hearty attacks. Even then it was hard work; but now it has become simply impossible. The profession and this college alike recognize it, and accordingly we provide for it. If, with increasing branches of science, and increased demand for a deeper as well as a wider knowledge, a reasonable experience shall, as I believe it will, conclusively show that more is needed, I am persuaded that the Jefferson College will recognize that need, and provide for it in due time.*
In connection with this progressive step, I am glad to be able to announce to you that, during my late visit abroad, I had an interview with Mr. Hallett, the courteous and intelligent Secretary of the Conjoint Board of Examination of the Royal College of Physicians of London and the Royal College of Surgeons of England, and that these two colleges have accorded to the diploma of the Jefferson Medical College
*The three years' graded course was quickly followed by the establishment of the four years' graded course.--(W. W. K., 1905.)
precisely the same rights and privileges that are accorded to the diploma of the universities of Paris, Berlin, Bologna, and all the best foreign schools.
As an earnest of the progressive disposition of this college, I have also the honor of making to you another announcement. Within a short time, the wise forethought of the Board of Trustees has been well shown in the purchase of a lot eighty-two feet in front on Walnut street, south of the hospital, upon which a new and commodious college building will be erected, an ornament to the city, and a more active center of scientific life. Nor will the old and battered college building be given up to baser uses. Hallowed by the memories of McClellan, Dickson, Mütter, Bache, Pancoast, Dunglison, Gross, and scores and hundreds, yea, even thousands, of earnest teachers and pupils, and remodelled, it will take a new lease of useful life by gathering under its hospitable roof the many well equipped laboratories of the college, all of them the product of the last twenty-five years. This is happy news, especially to the workers in the ill-equipped, insufficient quarters of the past, which yet have been the scenes of persistent, patient, and most useful scientific work.
But to erect a new college building and alter another, and equip the laboratories, will take money, and a deal of money. For this we must appeal largely to the generous sympathies of a community long noted for its intelligent benevolence. Yet it is an odd fact, to which I call especial attention, that, while to academies, colleges, seminaries, and other institutions of learning, millions have been given, and to hospitals scores of millions, yet, to fit the men who are to serve these very hospitals, to educate the doctors who are to have the health and lives of the whole community in their care, nothing has ever been given until of late. At last we are awakening to the fact that good doctors are as important as good teachers and preachers, and that physical health is no less important