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ears. For your lordship’s love, rooted upon good portionable to an infinite desire; his study, in opinion, I esteem it highly, because I have tasted my knowledge, to engage your love by the best of the fruits of it; and we both have tasted of the means he could devise, are forcible persuasions best waters, in my account, to knit minds toge- and instances to make me judge that gentleman ther. There is shaped a tale in London's forge, so well born, a wise gentleman so well levelled that beateth apace at this time, that I should de- a gentleman so highly valued by a person of his liver opinion to the queen, in my lord of Essex's virtue, worth, and quality, will rather hunt after cause. First, that it was premunire, and now all occasions of expressing thankfulness, so far as last, that it was high treason; and this opinion, duty doth permit, than either omit opportunity or to be in opposition and encounter of the lord increase indignation. No man alive out of the chief justice's opinion, and the attorney gene- thoughts of judgment, the ground of knowledge, ral's. My lord, I thank God, my wit serveth me and lesson of experience, is better able to distinnot to deliver any opinion to the queen, which my guish betwixt public and private offices, and distomach serveth me not to maintain; one and the rect measure in keeping a measure in discharge same conscience of duty guiding me and fortify- of both, to which I will refer you for the finding ing me. But the untruth of this fable, God and out of the golden number. In my own particular my sovereign can witness, and there I leave it; opinion I esteem of you as I have ever done, and knowing no more remedy against lies than others your rare parts deserve; and so far as my voice do against libels. The root, no question of it, is, hath credit, justify your credit according to the partly some light-headed envy at my accesses warrant of your profession, and the store of my to her majesty; which being begun, and con- best wishes in all degrees towards you, &c. My tinued since my childhood, as long as her majesty credit is so weak in working any strange effect shall think me worthy of them, I scorn those that of friendship where I would do most, as to speak shall think the contrary. And another reason of blossoms without giving tastes of fruits were is, the aspersion of this tale and the envy thereof, idleness; but if you will give credit to my words, upon some greater man, in regard of my nearness. it is not long since I gave testimony of my good And therefore, my lord, I pray you answer for me affection in the ear of one that neither wants deto any person that you think worthy your own sire nor means to do for you. Thus wishing to reply and my defence. For my lord of Essex, I your credit that allowance of respect and reveram not servile to him, having regard to my supe-ence which your wise and honest letter doth derior's duty. I have been much bound unto him ; serve, and resting ever ready to relieve all minds and, on the other side, I have spent more time and (so far as my ability and means will stretch) that more thoughts about his well-doing than ever I did groan under the burden of undeserved wrong, I about mine own. I pray God you his friends commend you to God's protection, and myself to amongst you be in the right. Nulla remedia, tam the best use you will make of me. In haste from facient dolorem, quam quæ sunt salutaria. For my my lodging,” &c. part, I have deserved better than to have my name The partisans of Essex again interfered, to objected to envy, or my life to a ruffian's violence. raise the flames which Bacon had so judiciously But I have the privy coat of a good conscience. suppressed, and again were the queen's ministers I am sure these courses and bruits hurt my lord compelled to check their imprudence. more than all. So having written to your lord- On the 12th of June, 1600, the lord keeper, in his ship, I desire exceedingly to be preferred in your usual speech in the Star Chamber to the country good opinion and love. And so leave you to gentlemen, mentioned the late proceeding against God's goodness."

the Earl of Essex, who, he observed, had acknowThe answer of Lord Howard to this letter, the ledged his errors, and expressed his sorrow for best answer that could be made to the slanderers them; but that some wicked persons had interof whom Bacon complains, is as follows: “I meddled by libelling what her majesty had done might be thought unworthy of that good conceit in that point, which occasioned a proclamation to you hold of me, good Mr. Bacon, if I did not sym- be published against such seditions practices.? pathize with so sensitive a mind in this smart of Notwithstanding this ill-advised conduct, the wrongful imputation of unthankfulness. You were queen was desirous to remove from Essex the rethe first that gave me notice, I protest, at Rich- straint of a keeper, when her indignation was mond of the rumour, though within two days after again excited by a rumour, that Essex had been I heard more than I would of it: but as you suffer duly authorized by her to create knights, though more than you deserve, so I cannot believe what his having conferred that honour had been made the greedy malice of the world hath laid upon a charge against him before the commissioners. you. The travels of that worthy gentleman in In the first moment of her displeasure she deteryour behalf, when you stood for a place of credit; mined to rescind the honours he had bestowed the delight which he hath ever taken in your com- Bacon advised her against this step, and recompany; his grief that he could not seal up assu- mended that a letter written by her own hand to rance of his love by fruits, effects, and offices pro

| Sydney Papers, vol. ii. 201.


Essen, when in Ireland, should be made public, | it was ebbing-water, now exerted all his power to in which she had commanded to the contrary. reconcile her to her favourite, whom, in his many Upon sending to Essex for her letter, he re-accesses to the queen, he availed himself of every turned a submissive reply, but said that it was opportunity to serve; and, although he could not, either lost or mislaid ; and, though her anger was without exciting her displeasure, directly comgreat at the non-production of this document, she, municate with him, he, by the intervention of a early in the next month, ordered him to be libe- friend, regularly acquainted him with the prorated from his keeper, but not to quit London.1 gress he made in abating the queen's anger;

Upon this release, which his declining health and, the moment he was restored to liberty, the rendered necessary, he solicited permission to re- assurances of his exertions were repeated by tire to the house of a relation near Reading ; a letter, and through the whole summer were regupermission which the queen, although she com- larly imparted to Essex. manded him to dismiss two of his friends from In the same spirit, and with the same parental his service, and although disturbed and dis- anxiety by which all Bacon's conduct had been pleased, seemed inclined to grant, as she listened influenced, he wrote two letters, one as from to friendly communications made on his behalf, Anthony Bacon to Essex, the other from Essex, and received letters from him, in which, having, in answer, both to be shown by Bacon to the discovered the wisdom of his friend's advice, queen; and prepared a letter to be sent by Esthat the queen could not be controlled by resist- sex directly to her majesty, the scope of which ance," he was endeavouring to regain by obse

what the earl himself would have written. But there are quiousness the ascendancy which he had lost by

two others, which appear to have come from his lordship’s his rude and headstrong violence; assuring the own hand, and have not yet been seen in print. The first is queen, “that he kissed her royal hand and the rod in these terms : which had corrected him; that he could never re

“Let me beg leave, most dear and most admired sovereign, cover his wonted joy till he beheld her comfort- I was even at the mouth of the grave. No worldly means had

to remember the story of your own gracious goodness, when able eyes, which had been his guiding stars, and power to stay me in this world but the comfort which I reby the conduct whereof he had sailed most hap-ceived from your majesty. When I was weak and full of

infirmities, the increase of liberty which your majesty gave, pily whilst he held his course in a just latitude ; and the gracious message which your majesty sent me, made that now he was determined to repent him of his me recover in a few weeks that strength, which my physi

. offence, and to say with Nebuchodonosor, my cians in a long time durst not hope for. And now, lastly,

when I should be forever disabled for your majesty's service, dwelling is with the beast of the field, to eat grass and by consequence made unwilling to live, your majesty at as an ox, and to be wet with the dew of heaven, my humble supplication granted, that that cup should pass till it shall please the queen to restore my under- from me. These are deeply engraven in my memory, and

they shall ever be acknowledged by my tongue and pen standing to me.”3

But yet after all these, without one farther degree of your This abasement gratified Elizabeth, who said, mercy your servant perisheth. Indignatio principis mors est. " though she did not expect that his deeds would He cannot be said to live, that feels the weight of it. What accord with his words, yet, if this could be lived under it, and yet sees not your majesty reach out your

then can your majesty think of his state that hath thus long brought to pass with the furnace, she should be fair hand to take off part of this weighi ? If your majesty more favourable to the profession of alchymy."

could know what I feel, your sweet and excellent nature

could not but be compassionate. I dare not lift up my voice Bacon, who was too wise to cross Elizabeth in to speak ; but my humble (now exiled, though once too hapthe spring-tide of her anger, without waiting till py) eyes are lifted up, and speak in their dumb language,

which your majesty will answer your own chosen time. 1 Sydney Papers, p. 201. Her majesty is greatly troubled Till then no soul is so afilicted as that of with the last number of knights made by the Earl of Essex

Your majesty's humblest vassal, Essex. in Ireland, and purposes, by public proclamation, to com

The other letter was written on the 17th of November, the mand them from the place due to their dignity; and that no ancient gentleman of the kingdom gave them any place. The anniversary of her accession to the throne : warrant was signed, as I heard; but by Mr. Secretary's very “ Vouchsafe, dread sovereign, to know there lives a man, special care and credit, it is stayed till Sunday the lords though dead to the world, and in himself exercised with conmeet in court. Mr. Bacon is thought to be the man that tinual torments of body and mind, that doth more true ho. moves her majesty unto it, affirming, that by the law the earl nour to your thrice blessed day, than all those that appear in had no authority to make them, being by her majesty's own your sight. For no soul had ever such an impression of your letter, of her own hand written, commanded the contrary. perfections, no alteration showed such an effect of your

Her majesty had ordered the lord keeper to remove my power, nor no heart ever felt such a joy of your triuniph. lord of Essex's keeper from him; but a while after, being For they that feel the comfortable influence of your majesty's somewhat troubled with the remembrance of his making so favour, or stand in the bright beams of your presence, rejoice many knights, made a stay of her former order, and sent partly for your majesty's, but chiefly for their own happiness. unto the earl for her own letter, which she writ unto him to Only miserable Essex, full of pain, full of sickness, full of command him to make none. But with a very submissive sorrow, languishing in repentance for his offences past, hate. letter, he returned answer that he had lost it or mislaid it, ful to himself, that he is yet alive, and importunate on death, for he could not find it; which somewhat displeases her ma. if your favour be irrevocable; he joys only for your ma. jesty. As yet his liberty stands upon these terms. &c. &c jesty's great happiness and happy greatness: and were the -28 June, 1600

rest of his days never so many, and sure to be as happy as 2 Sydney Papers, 205-7-8-12.

they are like to be miserable, he would lose them all to have 3 Camden, 169. Birch's Elizabeth, 461. One of the letters this happy 17th day many and many times renewed with written by Mr. Francis Bacon for the earl, and printed glory to your majesty, and comfort of all your faithful subamong the works of the former, beginning with these words, jects, of whom none is accursed but your majesty's humblest • It were great simplicity in me,' &c., is much inferior to vassal, Essex.

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were, says Bacon, but to represent and picture | his fortunes : which my intention, I did also sigforth unto her majesty my lord's mind to be such, nify to my lord as soon as ever he was at his as I knew her majesty would fainest have had liberty, whereby I might without peril of the it: which letters whosoever shall see, for they queen's indignation write to him; and, having cannot now be retracted or altered, being by received from his lordship a courteous and loving reason of my brother's or his lordship's servants' acceptation of my good-will and endeavours, I delivery, long since come into divers hands, let did apply it in all my accesses to the queen, him judge, especially if he knew the queen, and which were very many at that time; and purdo remember those times, whether they were not posely sought and wrought upon other variable the labours of one that sought to bring the queen pretences, but only and chiefly for that purpose. about for my lord of Essex his good."'!

And on the other side, I did not forbear to give To such expedients did his friendship for Essex my lord from time to time faithful advertisement induce hiin to submit: expedients, which, how- what I found, and what I wished. And I drew ever they may be sanctioned by the conduct of for him, by his appointment, some letters to her courtiers, stooping, as they suppose, to occasions, majesty ; which, though I knew well his lordnot to persons, but ill accord with the admoni- ship’s gift and style was better than mine own, tion of Bacon's philosophy, that “the honest and yet, because he required it, alleging, that by his just bounds of observation by one person upon long restraint he was grown almost a stranger to another, extend no further but to understand him the queen's present conceits, I was ready to persufficiently, whereby not to give him offence; form it; and sure I am, that for the space of six or whereby to be able to give him faithful coun- weeks or two months, it prospered so well, as I sel; or whereby to stand upon reasonable guard expected continually his restoring to his attendand caution with respect to a man's self: but to ance. And I was never better welcome to the be speculative into another man, to the end to know queen, nor more made of, than when I spake how to work him, or wind him, or govern him, fullest and boldest for him : in which kind the proceedeth from a heart that is double and cloven, particulars were exceeding many; whereof, for an and not entire and ingenuous.” Such is Bacon's example, I will remember to your lordship one or doctrine, but having, as it app in his youth, two. As at one time, I call to mind, her majesty taken an unfortunate bias from the censures of was speaking of a fellow that undertook to cure, Burleigh and Cecil, and from the frequent asser- or at least to ease my brother of his gout, and tions of Elizabeth, that he was without know- asked me how it went forward; and I told her ledge of affairs; he affected, through the whole of majesty, that at the first he received good by it, his life, an overstrained refinement in trifles, and but after in the course of his cure he found hima political subtlety, which never failed to awaken self at a stay, or rather worse: the queen said the suspicions of his enemies, and was altogether again • I will tell you, Bacon, the error of it: the unworthy of his great mind.

manner of these physicians, and especially these From these various efforts Bacon indulged the empirics, is to continue one kind of medicine, most flattering hopes of the restoration of his which at the first is proper, being to draw out the friend to the queen's favour, in which, if Essex ill humour; but after, they have not the dishad acted with common prudence, he would have cretion to change the medicine, but apply still succeeded; though the queen kept alive her dis- drawing medicines, when they should rather inpleasure by many passionate expressions, “ that tend to cure and corroborate the part.' "Good he had long tried her anger, and she must have Lord! madam,' said I, • how wisely and aptly can further proof of his humility, and that her father you speak and discern of physic ministered to would not have endured his perverseness;" but the body, and consider not that there is the like Bacon, who knew the depths and soundings of occasion of physic ministered to the mind : as the queen's character, was not dismayed by now in the case of my lord of Essex, your these ebullitions; he saw, under the agitated princely word ever was, that you intended ever to surface, a constant under-current of kindness. reform his mind, and not ruin his fortune: I know

Bacon's account is as follows: “From this well you cannot but think that you have drawn time forth, during the whole latter end of that the humour sufficiently; and therefore it were suinmer, while the court was at Nonsuch and more than time, and it were but for doubt of morOatlands, I made it my task and scope to take tifying or exulcerating, that you did apply and and give occasions for my lord's redintegration in minister strength and comfort unto him: for

'In another part of his Apology he says: “ And I drew for these same gradations of yours are fitter to him, hy his appointment, some letters to her majesty; which corrupt than correct any mind of greatness.' Though I knew well his lordship's gift and style was far better

In the latter end of August, 1600, Essex was than mine own, yet, because he required it, alleging, that by his long restraint he was grown almost a stranger to the summoned to attend at York House, where the queen's present conceits, I was ready to perform it; and lord keeper, the lord treasurer, and secretary sure I am, that for the space of six weeks or two months it prospered so well, as I expected continually his restoring to

signified the queen's pleasure that he should be

restored to liberty. He answered that his resolit VOL. I.-(6)

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Lion was to lead a retired life in the country, but you service, is as to his perfection, that which he solicited them to intercede with her majesty that, thinks himself to be born for; whereas his desire before his departure, he might once come into the to obtain this thing of you is but for a sustentapresence of the queen, and kiss her hand, that tion.” with some contentment, he might betake himself The result, however, was, that hurt by this to his solitary life: hopes which, however, seemed letter, she indignantly and somewhat coarsely not likely to be realized, as the queen's permis- refused his suit, saying, “ that an unruly beast sion for him to retire into the country was accom- ought to be stinted of his provender.” After a panied with the declaration, that, although her month's suspense, it was notified to him that the majesty was contented that he should be under patent was confided to trustees for the queen's no guard but of duty and discretion. yet he must use. in no sort suppose that he was freed of her indig- In the storm that now (October, 1600) gathered nation, or presume to approach the court, or her round Essex, the real state of his mind revealed person.

itself. “When I expected,” he said, “a harvest, Thus liberated, but not restored to the queen's a tempest has arisen to me; if I be wanting to favour, he walked forth alone, without any greet- myself, my friends, and my country, it is long of ings from his summer friends.'

others, not of myself; let my adversaries triIn the beginning of September, 1600, Essex umph, I will not follow the triumphal chariot." He retired to the country, with the pleasing hope that who had declared his willingness to wander and the queen’s affection was returning, and that he eat grass with the beasts of the field, like Nebuwould not only be received into favour, and re- chadnezzar, until the queen should restore his stored to power, but that by the influence of this senses,” now, that this abject prostration proved affection he might secure an object of the greatest fruitless, loudly proclaimed that he could not importance, a renewal of his valuable patent for serve with base obsequiousness; that he was the monopoly of sweet wines, which, after having thrust down into private life, and wrongfully comenriched him for years, was now expiring. mitted to custody, and this by an old woman no less

Essex considered this renewal as one of the crooked in mind than in body.” These ebullitions most critical events of his life, an event that of peevish anger were duly repeated to the queen would determine whether he might hope ever to by those who hoped for his utter ruin. Elizabeth, be reinstated in his former credit and authority ; shocked at the ingratitude of a man upon whom she but Elizabeth, though capable of strong attach- had lavished so many favours; whose repeated ments, inherited the haughty and severe temper faults she had forgiven till forgiveness became a of her father; and, being continually surrounded by folly, now turned away with extreme indignation the enemies of Essex, was persuaded that his lofty from all whom she suspected of urging one word spirit was not sufficiently subdued ; and when, in his favour; and, remembering the constant exerat length, she was more favourably disposed to- tions which had ever been made by Bacon on his wards him, he destroyed all that her own lurking behalf, began to think of him with distrust and partiality and the kindness of his friends had pre-jealousy. She would not so much as look at him; pared for hin by a letter, which, professing affec- and whenever he desired to speak with her about tion and seeking profit, was so deficient in good law business, sent him out slighting refusals. taste and in knowledge of the queen's temper, Bacon, acting in obedience to his own doctrine, that she saw through all the expressions of his “that the best mean to clear the way in the wood devotion and humility, a view only to his own of suspicion is frankly to communicate with the interest. The queen told me, says Bacon, “ that party who is suspect, if he is of a noble nature,” my lord had written her some very dutiful letters, demanded the cause of this alienation, in an interand that she had been moved by them, but when she view with the queen, which he has thus related : took it to be the abundance of his heart, she found (January, 1601, Æt. 41:)— Then, she rememit to be but a preparative to a suit for the renew- bering, belike, the continual, and incessant, and ing of his farm of sweet wines.” To this com- confident speeches and courses that I had held on plaint Bacon made the following characteristic my lord's side, became utterly alienated from me; and ingenious reply: “O madam, how doth your and for the space of at least three months, which majesty construe these things, as if these two was between Michaelmas and New-year's-tide could not stand well together, which indeed na- following, would not so much as look on me, but ture hath planted in all creatures. For there are turned away from me with express and purpose. but two sympathies, the one towards perfection, like discountenance wheresoever she saw me; and the other towards preservation : that to perfection, at such time as I desired to speak with her about as the iron tendeth to the loadstone ; that to pre- law business, ever sent me forth very slight refuservation, as the vine will creep towards a stake sals, insomuch as it is most true, that immediateor prop that stands by it, not for any love to the ly after New year's-tide I desired to speak with stake, but to uphold itself. And therefore, ma- her; and being admitted to her, I dealt with her dam, you must distinguish my lord's desire to do plainly, and said, “Madam, I see you with draw


your favour from me, and now I have lost many London and the queen herself, and marshalled friends for your sake, I shall lose you too: you his banditti to effect his purposes. have put me like one of those that the Frenchmen The queen, who had been apprized of the uncall enfans perdus, that serve on foot before horse- usual concourse of persons to Essex House, was men, so have you put me into matters of envy now fully acquainted with the extent of his treawithout place, or without strength; and I know at sons. In this emergency she acted with a firmchess a pawn before the king is ever much played ness worthy of herself. She directed the Lord upon: a great many love me not, because they Mayor of London to take care that the citizens think I have been against my lord of Essex; and were ready, every man in his own house, to exeyou love me not, because you know I have been cute such commands as should be enjoined them. for him : yet will I never repent me that I have To Essex she sent the lord keeper, the lord dealt in simplicity of heart towards you both, chief justice, and the Earl of Worcester, to learn without respect of cautions to myself, and therefore the cause of this treasonable assembly. He said vivus vidensque pereo. If I do break my neck, I “ that there was a plot against his life; that some shall do it in a manner as Master Dorrington did were suborned to stab him in his bed; that he it, which walked on the battlements of the church and his friends were treacherously dealt with, and many days, and took a view and survey where he that they were determined on resistance." Deaf should fall: and so, madam,' said I, •I am not so to all remonstrances, and urged by his faction, he simple, but that I take a prospect of mine over- seized and confined the officers of state, and, throw, only I thought I would tell you so much, without plan, without arms, and with a small that you may know that it was faith, and not folly body of conspirators, he proceeded into the city, that brought me into it, and so I will pray for you.' calling upon the citizens to join him, but calling Upon which speeches of mine, uttered with some in vain. Disappointed in his hopes, and propassion, it is true her majesty was exceedingly claimed a traitor, after a fruitless attempt to demoved; and accumulated a number of kind and fend himself, he was seized, and committed to the gracious words upon me, and willed me to rest Tower. upon this, Gratia mea sufficit, and a number of No man knew better, or felt more deeply the other sensible and tender words and demonstra- duties of friendship, than Bacon : he did not tions, such as more could not be; but as touching think friendships mere abstractions, metaphysical my lord of Essex, ne verbum quidem. Where- nothings, created for contemplation only; he felt, upon I departed, resting then determined to as he has taught, that friendship is the allay of meddle no more in the matter, as I saw, that it our sorrows, the ease of our passions, the sancwould overthrow me, and not be able to do him any tuary of our calamities; that its fruits are peace good."

in the affections, counsel in judgment, and active Bacon's anguish, when he felt that the queen's kindness; the heart, the head, and the hand. displeasure was gradually taking the form most His friendship, therefore, both in words and acts, to be dreaded, the cold and severe aspect of of- Essex constantly experienced. In the wildest fended justice, can be conceived only by those storm of his passions, while others suffered him who had seen his patient watchfulness over his to drive onward, the voice of the pilot might be wayward friend. Through the whole of his ca- heard, pointing out the sunken rocks which he reer, Bacon had anxiously pursued him, warning feared would wreck him; and when, at last, him, when it was possible, to prevent the com- bound hand and foot, he was cast at the feet of mission of error; excusing him to his royal mis- the queen, to undergo her utmost indignation, tress when the warning had proved fruitless; he still walked with him in the midst of the fire, hoping all things, enduring all things; but the and would have borne him off unhurt, but for the time seemed fast approaching, when, urged by evil spirits which beset him. his own wild passions, and the ruffian crew that It is impossible to form a correct judgment of beset him, he would commit some act which the conduct of Bacon at this unfortunate juncwould place him out of the pale of the queen's ture, without considering the difficulties of his simercy.

tuation, and his conflicting duties. Men of the Irritated by the refusal of his patent, he readily highest blood and of the fairest character were listened to the pernicious counsels of a few implicated in the treasons of Essex: men who needy and interested followers. Essex House were, like himself, highly favoured by the queen, had long been the resort of the factious and dis- and in offices of great trust and importance. contented; secretly courting the Catholics, and Bacon's obligations to Essex, and his constant openly encouraging the Puritans, Essex wel- efforts to serve him were well known; and the comed all who were obnoxious to the court. He queen had of late looked coldly upon him, and applied to the King of Scotland for assistance, might herself suspect his fidelity; for sad ex. opened a secret correspondence with Ireland, and, perience had proved to her that a monarch has no calculating upon the support of a large body of true friend. In the interval between the combe nobility, conspired to seize the Tower of mitment of Essex to the Tower, and his arraigu



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