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king's permission, to Sir John Vaughan's house | smile, "Well, do what we can, this man scorns at Parson's Green, from whence, although anx- to go out like a snuff.” ious to continue in or near London, he went, in compliance with his majesty's suggestion, for a temporary retirement to Gorhambury, where he was obliged to remain till the end of the year, but with such reluctance, that, with the hope of quieting the king's fears, he at one time intended to present a petition to the House of Lords to remit this part of his sentence.
Unmindful that the want of prudence can never be supplied, he was exposed, in the decline of life, not only to frequent vexation, and his thoughts to continual interruption, but was frequently compelled to stoop to degrading solicitations, and was obliged to encumber Gorhambury and sell York House, dear to him from so many associations, the seat of his ancestors, the scene of his former splendour. These worldly troubles seem, however, not to have affected his cheerful
In the month of July he wrote, both to Buckingham and to the king, letters in which may be seen his reliance upon them for pecuniary assist-ness, and never to have diverted him from the ance, his consciousness of innocence, a gleam of hope that he should be restored to his honours, and occasionally allusions to the favours he had conferred. To these applications he received the following answer from Buckingham:
To the Lord St. Alban.
My noble lord :-The hearty affection I have borne to your person and service hath made me ambitious to be a messenger of good news to you, and an eschewer of ill; this hath been the true reason why I have been thus long in answering you, not any negligence in your discreet, modest servant you sent with your letter, nor his who now returns you this answer, ofttimes given me by your master and mine; who, though by this may seem not to satisfy your desert and expectation, yet, take the word of a friend who will never fail you, hath a tender care of you, full of a fresh memory of your by-past service. His majesty is but for the present, he says, able to yield unto the three years' advance, which if you please to accept, you are not hereafter the farther off from obtaining some better testimony of his favour, worthier both of him and you, though it can never be answerable to what my heart wishes you, as your lordship's humble servant,
great object of his life, the acquisition and advancement of knowledge. When an application was made to him to sell one of the beautiful woods of Gorhambury, he answered, "No, I will not be stripped of my feathers."
In September the king signed a warrant for the release of the parliamentary fine, and, to prevent the immediate importunities of his creditors, assigned it to Mr. Justice Hutton, Mr. Justice Chamberlain, Sir Francis Barnham, and Sir Thomas Crew, whom Bacon, in his will, directed to apply the funds for the payment and satisfaction of his debts and legacies, having a charitable care that the poorest creditors or legatees should be first satisfied.
Keeper Williams misunderstood, and endeavourThis intended kindness of the king the Lord ed to impede by staying the pardon at the seal, until he was commanded by Buckingham to obey the king's order. In October the pardon was
He had scarcely retired to Gorhambury, in the summer of 1621, when he commenced his History of Henry the Seventh.
During the progress of the work considerable expectation of his history was excited: in the composition of which he seems to have laboured with much anxiety, and to have submitted his manuscript to the correction of various classes of That he was promised some compensation for society; to the king, to scholars, and to the the loss of his professional emoluments seems uninformed. Upon his desiring Sir John Danprobable, not only from his letters to the king, and vers to give his opinion of the work, Sir John from the aid received, but from his having lived said, "Your lordship knows that I am no schoin splendour after his fall, although his certain lar.' 'Tis no matter,' said my lord, 'I know annual income seems not to have exceeded £2500. what a scholar can say: I would know what you With this income he, with prudence, might, can say.' Sir John read it, and gave his opinion although greatly in debt, have enjoyed worldly what he misliked, which my lord acknowledged comfort: but in prudence he was culpably negli- to be true, and mended it. Why,' said he, a gent. Thinking that money was only the bag-scholar would never have told me this;' but, gage of virtue, that this interposition of earth notwithstanding this labour and anxiety, the pubeclipsed the clear sight of the mind, he lived not lic expectation was not realized. as a philosopher ought to have lived, but as a nobleman had been accustomed to live. It is related that the prince, coming to London, saw at a distance a coach followed by a considerable numher of people, on horseback; and, upon inquiry, was told it was the Lord St. Albans, attended by his friends; on which his highness said, with a
If, however, in the History of Henry the Seventh, it is vain to look for the vigour or beauty with which the Advancement of Learning abounds: if the intricacies of a court are neither discovered nor illustrated with the same happiness as the intricacies of philosophy: if, in a work written when the author was more than
sixty years of age, and if, after the vexations and labours of a professional and political life, the varieties and sprightliness of youthful imagination are not to be found, yet the peculiar properties of his mind may easily be traced, and the stateliness of the edifice be seen in the magnificence of the ruins.
His vigilance in recording every fact tending to alleviate misery, or to promote happiness, is noticed by Bishop Sprat, in his History of the Royal Society, where he says, "I shall instance in the sweating sickness. The medicine for it was almost infallible: but, before that could be generally published, it had almost dispeopled whole towns. If the same disease should have returned, it might have been again as destructive, had not the Lord Bacon taken care to set down the particular course of physic for it in his History of Henry the Seventh, and so put it beyond the possibility of any private man's invading it."
One of his maxims of government for the enlargement of the bounds of the empire is to be found in his comment upon the ordinance, stated in the treatise "De Augmentis." "Let states and kingdoms that aim at greatness by all means take heed how the nobility, and grandees, and those which we call gentlemen, multiply too fast; for that makes the common subject grow to be a peasant and base swain, driven out of heart, and in effect nothing else but the nobleman's bondslaves and labourers. Even as you may see in coppice-wood, if you leave your studdles too thick, you shall never have clean underwood, but shrubs and bushes: so in a country, if the nobility be too many, the commons will be base and heartless, and you will bring it to that, that not the hundredth poll will be fit for a helmet, especially as to the infantry, which is the nerve of an army; and so there will be great population, and Jittle strength."
His love of familiar illustration is to be found in various parts of the history: as when speaking of the commotion by the Cornish men, on behalf of the impostor Perkin Warbeck: "The king judged it his best and surest way to keep his strength together in the seat and centre of his kingdom; according to the ancient Indian emblem, in such a swelling season, to hold the hand upon the middle of the bladder, that no side might rise."
that tower, that he did acknowledge to have recovered that kingdom by the help of the Almighty; nor would he stir from his camp till he had seen a little army of martyrs, to the number of seven hundred and more Christians, that had lived in bonds and servitude, as slaves to the Moors, pass before his eyes, singing a psalm for their redemption."
The work was published in folio, in 1622: and is dedicated to Prince Charles. Copies were presented to the king, to Buckingham, to the Queen of Bohemia, and to the lord keeper.
It had scarcely been published when he felt and expressed anxiety that it should be translated into Latin, " as these modern languages will, at one time or other, play the bankrupts with books; and, since I have lost much time with this age, I would be glad, as God shall give me leave, to recover it with posterity:" a wish which was more than gratified, as it was published, not only in various editions, in England, but was soon translated into French and into Latin.
Such was the nature of his literary occupations in the first year after his retirement, during which he corresponded with different learned foreigners upon his works; and great zeal having been shown for his majesty's service, he composed a treatise entitled, "An Advertisement touching a Holy War," which he inscribed to the Bishop of Winchester.
In the beginning of this year, (1623,) a vacancy occurred in the Provostship of Eton college, where, in earlier years, he had passed some days with Sir Henry Savile, pleasant to himself and profitable to society. His love of knowledge again manifested itself.
Having, in the spirit of his father, unfortunately engaged, in his youth, in active life, he now, in the spirit of his grandfather, the learned and contemplative Sir Anthony Cooke, who took more pleasure to breed up statesmen than to be one, offered himself to succeed the provost: as a fit occupation for him in the spent hour-glass of his life, and a retreat near London to a place of study.
The objection which would, of course, be made from what we, in our importance, look down upon as beneath his dignity, he had many years before anticipated in the Advancement of Learning, when investigating the objections to learning And his kind nature and holy feeling appear in from the errors of learned men, from their forhis account of the conquest of Granada. "Some- tunes; their manners; and the meanness of their what about this time came letters from Ferdinan-employments: upon which he says, "As for do and Isabella, king and queen of Spain, signi-meanness of employment, that which is most trafying the final conquest of Granada from the Moors; but the king would not by any means in person enter the city until he had first aloof seen the cross set up upon the great tower of Granada, whereby it became Christian ground; and, before he would enter, he did homage to God above, pronouncing by a herald from the height of
duced to contempt is, that the government of youth is commonly allotted to them; which age, because it is the age of least authority, it is transferred to the disesteeming of those employments wherein youth is conversant, and which are conversant about youth. But how unjust this traducement is, if you will reduce things from
popularity of opinion to measure of reason, may | had hitherto only hope of it, and hope deferred ; appear in that, we see men are more curious what and he was desirous to know the event of the they put into a new vessel than into a vessel season-matter, and to be freed, one way or other, from ed; and what mould they lay about a young plant, the suspense of his thoughts. His friend returnthan about a plant corroborate; so as the weakest ing, told him plainly that he must thenceforth terms and times of all things used to have the best despair of that grant, how much soever his forapplications and helps; and, therefore, the ancient tunes needed it. "Be it so," said his lordship; wisdom of the best times did always make a just and then he dismissed his friend very cheerfully, complaint, that states were too busy with their with thankful acknowledgments of his service. laws, and too negligent in point of education: His friend being gone, he came straightway to which excellent part of ancient discipline hath | Dr. Rawley, and said thus to him, “Well, sir, been in some sort revived of late times, by the yon business won't go on, let us go on with this, colleges of the Jesuits; of whom, although in for this is in our power :" and then he dictated to regard of their superstition I may say, quo meli-him afresh, for some hours, without the least heores, eo deteriores; yet in regard of this, and some sitancy of speech, or discernible interruption of other points concerning human learning and moral thought. matters, I may say, as Agesilaus said to his enemy, Pharnabasus, Talis quum sis, utinam noster
His application was not successful; the king answered that it had been designed for Sir William Beecher, but that there was some hope that, by satisfying him elsewhere, his majesty might be able to comply with the request. Sir William was satisfied by the promise of £2500, but the provostship was given to Sir Henry Wotton, "who had for many years, like Sisyphus, rolled the restless stone of a state employment; knowing experimentally that the great blessing of sweet content was not to be found in multitudes of men or business," and that a college was the fittest place to nourish holy thoughts, and to afford rest both to his body and mind, which he much required from his age, being now almost threescore years, and from his urgent pecuniary wants; for he had always been as careless of money as though our Saviour's words, Care not for tomorrow,' were to be literally understood." He, therefore, upon condition of releasing a grant, which he possessed, of the mastership of the rolls, was appointed provost.
He proceeded with his literary labours, and, during this year, published in Latin his celebrated treatise, De Augmentis Scientiarum," and his important "Historia Vitæ et Mortis."
Between the year 1605, when the Advancement was published, and the year 1623, he made great progress in the completion of the work, which, having divided into nine books, and subdivided each book into chapters, he caused to be translated into Latin by Mr. Herbert, and some other friends, and published in Latin in 1623, in a volume entitled De Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum.
This treatise De Augmentis is an improvement, by expunging, enlarging, and arranging, of the Advancement of Learning.
In the first part there are scarcely any alterations, except the omission of his beautiful praise of Elizabeth, not, perhaps, very acceptable to her successor. The material alterations are in the analysis of Natural History and Natural Philosophy; in his expansion of a small portion of the science of "Justitia Universalis ;" in that part of human philosophy under the head of Government, which relates to man as a member of society; and in his arrangement of the important subject of revealed religion.
At this disappointment Bacon could not be much affected. One day, as he was dictating to Dr. Rawley some of the experiments in his Sylva, he had sent a friend to court, to receive for him In the annexed outline of the work the parts a final answer, touching the effect of a grant marked in italics exhibit the material alterawhich had been made him by King James. He ❘tions:
Of this extraordinary work various editions and translations have been since published.1
1 Different editions of the treatise De Augmentis. 1. The first edition is thus described by Tenison: "The fairest and most correct edition of this book in Latin is that in folio, printed at London, 1623; and whoever would understand the Lord Bacon's cypher, let him consult that accurate edition: for, in some other editions which I have perused, the form of the letters of the alphabet, in which much of the mystery consisteth, is not observed, but the roman and italic shapes of them are confounded." The following is a copy of the title page: “Francisci Baconi Baronis de Vervlanfio, Vice-Comitis Sancti Albani, de Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum. Libri IX. Ad Regem svvm. Londini, in Officina Joannis Haviland, MDCXXIII." There is a copy at Cambridge and in the British Museum, and I have a copy.
2. The work had scarcely appeared in England, when an edition was published in France: it appeared in 1624. The following is a copy of the title page: Francisci Baronis de Vervlamio Vicecomitis Sancti Albani, de Dignitate et Augmentis Scienciarum. Libri IX. Ad Regem svvm. Iuxta exemplar Londini impressum. Parisiis, typis Petri Metayer, typographi Regij. M.DC XXIV." I have a copy.
3. In 1638 an edition was published by Dr. Rawley, in a folio entitled, "Francisci Baconi Baronis de Vervlamio ViceComitis Sancti Albani tractatus de Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum qui est Instaurationis magne pars prima. Ad regem svvm. Londini, typis Ioh. Haviland. Prostant ad insignia Regia in Cemeterio D. Pauli, apud Iocosam Norton et Richardum Whitakerum. 1638."
4. In the year 1645 an edition in 12mo. was published in Holland. The following is the title page: Francisci Baconis de Verulamio, Vice-Comitis Sancti Albani de Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum. Libri IX. Ad Regem suum. Editio nova, cum Indice rerum et verborum locupletissimo. Lugd. Batav. apud Franciscum Moyardum et Adrianum Wijngaerde. Anno 1645."-The title page of this Dutch edition is adorned with an engraving, not undeserving the attention of our students in England: it is of a youth aspiring to the attainment of knowledge.
5. In 1652 another edition in 12mo. was published in Holland: the engraving prefixed to the edition of 1645 is also prefixed to this edition; but the descriptive title is omitted, and the address to the reader is at the back of the engraving. The following is the title page: "Fr. Baconis de Vervlam Angliæ Cancellarii de Avgmentis Scientiarvm. Lib. IX. Lvgd. Batavorvm, ex officina Adriani Wijngaerden. Anno 1652."
6. In 1662 another edition was published in 12mo. in Holland. The following is a copy of the title page: "Fr. Baconis de Vervlam Angliæ Cancellarii de Avgmentis Scientiarum. Lib. IX. Amstelodami, sumptibus Joannis Ravesteimij. 1662." At the back of which, as in the edition of 1652, there is the address to the reader: "Amice Lector. Hoc opus de Augmentis Scientiarum, novo ejusdem autoris organo si præmittatur, non modo necessarium ei lucem præbet; sed et partitiones continet scientiarum quæ primam Instaurationis magnæ partem constituunt quas id circo auctor in ipso organi limine retractare noluit. Hæc te scire volebam."
7. In 1765 an edition in 8vo. was published at Venice. The following is the title page : "Francisci Baronis de Verulamio, Angliæ Cancellarii de Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum. Pars prima. Lugani, MDCCLXIII. Expensis Gasparis Girardi, Bibliopolæ Veneti." I have a copy.
8. In 1779 an edition was published on the continent. The following is the title page: "Francisci Baconi Baronis de Verulamio de Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum. Tomus 1. Wirceburgi, apud Jo. Jac. Stahel. 1779.”
9. In 1829 another edition was published on the continent, in two vols., of which the following is the title page: "Francisci Baconis de Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum. Libri IX. Ad fidem optimarum editionum edidit vitamque auctoris. adjecit Philippus Mayer, Philosophie Doctor et Gymnasii Norimbergensis Collega. Norimbergae, sumptibus Riegelii et Wiessneri. MDCCCXXIX."
Such are the different editions of which I have any know ledge. I understand that editions have been published in Germany, for which I have sent, and hope to be able to pro
Copies were presented to the king, to whom it was dedicated, the Prince, the Duke of Bucking
Is it not rather extraordinary that not an edition has been published in either of the universities of England
In the year 1640 a translation into English was published at Oxford, with a portrait of the philosopher writing his Instauratio, and the following inscriptions prefixed and subjoined: "Tertius a Platone philosophiæ princeps. Quod feliciter vortat reip. literaria V. C. Fran. de Verulamio philosoph. libertates assertor avdax, scientiaru' reparator felix mundi mentisq. magnus arbiter inclytis max. terrarum orbis Acad. Oxon. Contab. Q. hanc suam Instavr. voto suscepto vivus decernebat obiit v. non. April. II. D. N. Caroli I. Pp. Aug. c13 1ɔC xxvI"-Appended is another engraving of two spheres, the one of the visible, the other of the intellectual world, and supported by two fixed pillars, the one Oxford and the other Cambridge, with a vessel sailing between them, with the following inscription: "Of the Advancement and Proficience of Learning, or the Partitions of Sciences, IX Bookes. Written in Latin by the most illustrious and famous Lord Francis Bacon, Baron of Verulam, Vicont St. Alban, Counsilour of Estate and Lord Chancellor of England. Interpreted by Gilbert Wats. Multi pertransibunt et augebitur scientia. Oxford, printed by Leon. Lichfield, printer to the University for Rob. Young, and Ed. Forrest. CICIOC XL."
In the year 1674 another edition of the translation by Wats was published in London, but instead of the engravings which were prefixed to the edition of 1640, there is prefixed to the annexed title page only a portrait of Lord Bacon. The following is the title page: "Of the Advancement and Proficience of Learning: or the Partitions of Sciences. Nine Books. Written in Latin by the most eminent, illustrious and famous Lord Francis Bacon, Baron of Verulam, Viscount St. Alban, Counsellor of Estate, and Lord Chancellor of England. Interpreted by Gilbert Wats. London, printed for Thomas Williams, at the Golden Ball in Osier lane, 1674."
Of these translations Archbishop Tenison thus speaks in the Baconiana: "The whole of this book was rendered into English by Dr. Gilbert Wats, of Oxford, and the translation has been well received by many: but some there were, who wished that a translation had been set forth, in which the genius and spirit of the Lord Bacon had more appeared. And I have seen a letter written by certain gentlemen to Dr. Rawley, wherein they thus importune him for a more accurate version, by his own hand. 'It is our humble suit to you, and we do earnestly solicit you to give yourself the trouble to correct the too much defective translation of De Augmentis Scientiarum, which Dr. Wats hath set forth. It is a thousand pities that so worthy a piece should lose its grace and credit by an ill expositor; since those persons who read that translation, taking it for genuine, and upon that presumption not regarding the Latin edition, are thereby robbed of that benefit which, if you would please to undertake the business, they might receive. This tendeth to the dishonour of that noble lord, and the Advancement of Learning.'”
Of the correctness or incorrectness of these observations, some estimate may be formed from the following specimens ; The Instauratio Magna thus begins: "Franciscus de Verulamio sic cogitavit."-Translation by Wats: "Francis Lord Verulam consulted thus."
Another specimen: Advancement of Learning.-"We see in all other pleasures there is satiety, and after they be used their verdure departeth; which showeth well they be but deceits of pleasure, and not pleasures, and that it was the novelty which pleased, and not the quality; and therefore we see that voluptuous men turn friars, and ambitious men turn me. lancholy; but of knowledge there is no satiety, but satisfac tion and appetite are perpetually interchangeable, and therefore appeareth to be good in itself simply, without fallacy or accident."
Wats's Translation.-"In all other pleasures there is a finite variety, and after they grow a little stale, their flower and verdure fades and departs; whereby we are instructed that they were not indeed pure and sincere pleasures, but shadows and deceits of pleasures, and that it was the novelty which pleased, and not the quality; wherefore voluptuous men often turn friars, and the declining age of ambitious