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the flower thereof by thy hope is gathered ; so as all our hope is to be bestowed upon the heavenly when it comes the grace of it is gone, and it seems life to come: but here on earth the purer our sense used, and therefore sooner draweth on satiety; is from the infection and tincture of imagination, admit thy success prove better than thy hope, it is the better and wiser soul. true a gain seems to be made : but had it not been

“The sum of life to little doth amount, better to have gained the principal by hoping for And therefore doth forbid a longer count." nothing, than the increase by hoping for less; and this is the operation of hope in good fortunes,

OF HYPOCRITES. but in misfortunes it weakeneth all force and

"I demand mercy, and not sacrifice." vigour of the mind; for neither is there always matter of hope, and if there be, yet if it fail but All the boasting of the hypocrite is of the works in part, it doth wholly overthrow the constancy of the first table of the law, which is of adoration and resolution of the mind; and besides, though and duty towards God; whereof the reason is it doth carry us through, yet it is a greater dignity double, both because such works have a greater of mind to bear evils by fortitude and judgment, pomp and demonstration of holiness, and also than by a kind of absenting and alienation of the because they do less cross their affections and mind from things present to things future, for that desires; therefore the way to convict hypocrites, it is to hope. And therefore it was much light- is to send them from the works of sacrifice to the ness in the poets to fain hope to be as a counter- works of mercy, whence cometh that saying: poison of human diseases, as to mitigate and “ This is pure and immaculate religion with assuage the fury and anger of them, whereas in- God the Father, to visit orphans and widows in deed it doth kindle and enrage them, and causeth their tribulations:" and that saying, “ He that both doubling of them and relapses. Notwith loveth not his brother whom he hath seen, how standing we see that the greatest number of men can he love God, whom he hath not seen.” give themselves over to their imaginations of hope Now there is another kind of deeper and more and apprehensions of the mind in such sort, that extravagant hypocrisy; for some, deceiving themungrateful towards things past, and in a manner selves, and thinking themselves worthy of a more unmindful of things present, as if they were ever near access and conversation with God, do neglect children and beginners, they are still in longing the duties of charity towards their neighbour, as for things to come. “I saw all men walking inferior matters, which did not indeed cause under the sun, resort and gather to the second originally the beginning of a monastical life, (for person, which was afterwards to succeed: this is the beginnings were good,) but brought in that an evil disease, and a great idleness of the mind.” excess and abuse which are followed after; for it

But perhaps you will ask the question, whether is truly said, “That the office of praying is a great it be not better, when things stand in doubtful office in the church:” and it is for the good of the terms, to presume the best, and rather hope well church that there be consorts of men freed from than distrust; especially seeing that hope doth the cares of this world, who may with daily and cause a greater tranquillity of mind ?

devout supplications and observances solicit the Surely I do judge a state of mind which in all Divine Majesty for the causes of the church. But doubtful expectations is settled and floateth not; unto this ordinance, that other hypocrisy is a nigh and doth this out of a good government and com- neighbour; neither is the general institution to be position of the affections, to be one of the principal blamed, but those spirits which exalt themselves supporters of man's life: but that assurance and too high to be refrained; for even Enoch, which repose of the mind, which only rides at anchor was said to walk with God, did prophesy, as is upon hope, I do reject as wavering and weak; delivered unto us by Jude, and did endow the not that it is not convenient to foresee and presup- church with the fruit of his prophesy which he pose out of a sound and sober conjecture, as well left: and John Baptist, unto whom they did refer the good as the evil, that thereby we may fit our as to the author of a monastical life, travelled and actions to the probabilities and likelihoods of their exercised much in the ministry both of prophesy event, so that this be a work of the understanding and baptizing; for as to these others, who are so and judgment, with a due bent and inclination of officious towards God, to them belongeth that the affection: but which of you hath so kept his question, “ If thou do justly what is that to God, hopes within limits, as when it is so, that you or what profit doth he take by thy hands ?” have out of a watchful and strong discourse of Wherefore the works of mercy are they which the mind set down the better success to be in are the works of distinction, whereby to find ont apparency the more likely; you have not dwelt i hypocrites. But with heretics it is contrary; for upon


very muse and forethought of the good as hypocrites, with their dissembling holiness to come, and giving scope and favour unto your towards God, do palliate and cover their injuries mind, to fall into such cogitations as into a plea- towards men; so heretics, by their morality and sant dream; and this it is which makes the mind honest carriage towards men, insinuate and make light, frothy, unequal, and wandering; wherefore I a way with their blasphemies against God.

* Avoid fond and idle fables."


of that belief; for seeing it makes not for him “ Whether we be transported in mind it is to Godward; that there should be a God, he doth seek by all Or whether we be sober it is to youward."

means accordingly to persuade and resolve himThis is the true image and true temper of a self, and studies to affirm, prove, and verify it to man, and of him that is God's faithful workman; himself as some theme or position: all which his carriage and conversation towards God is full labour, notwithstanding that sparkle of our creaof passion, of zeal, and of tramisses; thence pro- tion light, whereby men acknowledge a Deity ceed groans unspeakable, and exultings likewise burneth still within; and in vain doth he strive in comfort, ravishment of spirit and agonies; but utterly to alienate it or put it out, so that it is out contrariwise, his carriage and conversation towards of the corruption of his heart and will, and not men is full of mildness, sobriety, and appliable out of the natural apprehension of his brain and demeanour. Hence is that saying, “I am become conceit, that he doth set down his opinion, as the all things to all men,” and such like. Contrary comical poet saith, “ Then came my mind to be it is with hypocrites and impostors, for they in the of mine opinion," as if himself and his mind had church, and before the people, set themselves on been two divers things; therefore the atheist hath tìre, and are carried as it were out of themselves, rather said, and held it in his heart, than thought and becoming as men inspired with holy furies, or believed in his heart that there is no God; they set heaven and earth together; but if a man secondly, it is to be observed, that he hath said did see their solitary and separate meditations and in his heart, and not spoken it with his mouth. conversation whereunto God is only privy, he But again you shall note, that this smothering of might, towards God, find them not only cold and this persuasion within the heart cometh to pass without virtue, but also full of ill-nature and for fear of government and of speech amongst leaven; “Sober enough to God, and transported men; for, as he saith, “To deny God in a public only towards men."

argument were much, but in a familiar conference

were current enough:” for if this bridle were reOF THE SEVERAL KINDS OF IMPOS- moved, there is no heresy which would contend TURE.

more to spread and multiply, and disseminate “ Avoid profane strangeness of words, and oppositions of itself abroad, than atheism: neither shall you see knowledge falsely so called."

those men which are drenched in this frenzy of “Let no man deceive you by high speech.”

mind to breathe almost any thing else, or to inculThere are three forms of speaking, which are cate even without occasion any thing more than as it were the style and phrase of imposture: the speech tending to atheism, as may appear in Lufirst kind is of them, who as soon as they have crecius the epicure, who makes of his invectives gotten any subject or matter do straight cast it into against religion as it were a burden or verse of

a an art, inventing new terms of art, reducing all return to all his other discourses; the reason into divisions and distinctions; thence drawing seems to be, for that the atheist not relying suffiassertions or positions, and so framing oppositions ciently upon himself, floating in mind and unsaby questions and answers. Hence issueth the tisfied, and enduring within many faintings, and cobwebs and clatterings of the schoolmen. as it were fails of his opinion, desires by other

The second kind is of them, who out of the men's opinions agreeing with his, to be recovered vanity of their wit (as church poets) do make and and brought again; for it is a true saying, devise all variety of tales, stories, and examples; Whoso laboureth earnestly to prove an opinion whereby they may lead men's minds to a belief, to another, himself distrusts it:' thirdly, it is a from whence did grow the legends and infinite fabu-| fool that hath so said in his heart, which is most lous inventions and dreams of the ancient heretics. true; not only in respect that he hath no taste in

The third kind is of them who fill men's cares those things which are supernatural and divine; with mysteries, high parables, allegories, and but in respect of human and civil wisdom: for illusions; which mystical and profound form first of all, if you mark the wits and dispositions many of the heretics also made choice of. By which are inclined to atheism, you shall find them the first kind of these, the capacity and wit of light, scoffing, impudent, and vain; briefly of such man is fettered and entangled; by the second, it a constitution as is most contrary to wisdom and is trained on and inveigled; by the third, it is moral gravity. astonished and enchanted; but by every of them Secondly, amongst statesmen and politics, those the while it is seduced and abused.

which have been of greatest depths and compass,

and of largest and most universal understanding, OF ATHEISM.

have not only in cunning made their profit in seem“The fool hath said in his heart there is no God.” ing religious to the people, but in truth have First, it is to be noted, that the Scripture saith, been touched with an inward sense of the know“ The fool hath said in his heart, and not thought ledge of Deity, as they which you shall evermore in his heart;" that is to say, he doth not so fully note to have attributed much to fortune and prothink it in judgment, as he hath a good will to be vidence.

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contrariwise, those who ascribed all things to The second degree is of them to whom the matheir own cunning and practices, and to the imme- jesty of God seems too much wronged, in setting diate and apparent causes, and as the prophet saith, up and erecting against him another adverse and “ Have sacrificed to their own nets,” have been opposite principle, namely such a principle as always but petty counterfeit statesman, and not should be active and affirmative, that is to say, capable of the greatest actions.

cause or fountain of any essence or being ; thereLastly, this I dare affirm in knowledge of na-fore rejecting all such presumption, they do neverture, that a little natural philosophy, and the first theless bring in against God a principal negative entrance into it, doth dispose the opinion to athe- and privative, that is a cause of not being and subism; but on the other side, much natural philo-sisting, for they will have it to be an inbred prosophy and wading deep into it, will bring about per work, and nature of the matter and creature men's minds to religion ; wherefore atheism every itself, of itself to turn again and resolve into way seems to be combined with folly and igno- confusion and nothing, not knowing that it is an rance, seeing nothing can can be more justly allot- effect of one and the same omnipotency to make ted to be the saying of fools than this, “ There is nothing of somewhat as to make somewhat of no God.”

nothing. The third degree is, of those who

abridge and restrain the former opinion only to OF HERESIES.

those human actions which partake of sin, which " You ers, not knowing the Scriptures nor the power of actions they will have to depend substantively and

originally, and without any sequel or subordination

: This canon is the mother of all canons against of causes upon the will, and make and set down heresy; the causes of error are two; the igno- and appoint larger limits of the knowledge of God rance of the will of God, and the ignorance or not than of his power, or rather of that part of God's sufficient consideration of his power; the will of power, (for knowledge itself is a power whereby God is more revealed by the Scriptures, and there- he knoweth,) than of that by which he moveth fore the precept is, “ Search the Scriptures;" the and worketh, making him foreknow some things will of God is more revealed by the creatures, and idle, and as a looker on, which he doth not predestitherefore the precept is, “ Behold and consider the nate nor ordain: not unlike to that devise which creatures :" so is the fulness of the power of God Epicurus brought into Democritus' opinion, to take to be affirmed, as we make no imputation to his away destiny, and make way to fortune, to wit; will; so is the goodness of the will of God to be the start and slip of Attemus, which always of the affirmed, as we make no derogation from his wiser sort was rejected as a frivolous shift: but power: therefore true religion seated in the mean whatsoever depends not of God, as author and prinbetwixt superstition, with superstitious heresies ciple by inferior links and degrees, that must needs on the one side, and atheism with profane here- be in place of God, and a new principle, and a cersies on the other; superstition, rejecting the light tain usurping God; wherefore worthily is that of the Scriptures, and giving itself over to un opinion refused as an indignity and derogation to grounded traditions, and writings doubtful and not the majesty and power of God, and yet it is most canonical, or to new revelations, or to untrue in- truly affirmed, that God is not the author of evil, not terpretations of the Scriptures, themselves do forge because he is not author, but because not as of evil. and dream many things of the will of God, which are strange and far distant from the true sense of OF THE CHURCH AND THE SCRIP. the Scriptures; but atheism and theomachy re

TURES. belleth and mutinieth against the power of God,

“Thou shalt protect them in thy tabernacle from the tradi. giving no faith to his word which revealeth his

tion of tongues." will, upon a discredit and unbelief of his power to The contradiction of tongues doth everywhere whom all things are possible. Now, those here- meet with us out of the tabernacle of God, theresies which spring out of this fountain seem more fore whithersoever thou shall turn thyself thou heinous than the other; for even in civil govern- shalt find no end of controversies except thou withments it is held an offence in a higher degree to draw thyself into that tabernacle. Thou wilt say deny the power and authority of a prince than to it is true, and that it is to be understood of the touch his honour and fame. Of these heresies unity of the church; but hear and note; there was which derogate from the power of God, beside plain in the tabernacle the ark, and in the ark the testiatheism, there are three degrees, and they all have mony or tables of the law: what dost thou tell me one and the same mystery; for all antichristianity of the husk of the tabernacle without the kernel worketh in a mystery, that is, under the shadow of the testimony: the tabernacle was ordained for of good, and it is this, to free and deliver the will the keeping and delivering over from hand to of God from all imputation and aspersion of evil. hand of the testimony. In like manner the custody The first degree is of those who make and suppose and passing over of the Scriptures is committed two principles contrary and fighting one against unto the church, but the life of the tabernacle is the other, the one of good, the other of evil, the testimony,



A FRAGMENT.*-A.D. 1597.


I send you the last part of the best book of Aristotle of Stagira, who, as your lordship knoweth, goeth for the best author. But saving the civil respect which is due to a received estimation, the man being a Grecian, and of a hasty wit, having hardly a discerning patience, much less a teaching patience, hath so delivered the matter, as I am glad to do the part of a good house-hen, which without any strangeness will sit upon pheasants’ eggs. And yet perchance some that shall compare my lines with Aristotle's lines, will muse by what art, or rather by what revelation, I could draw these conceits out of that place. But I, that should know best, do freely acknowledge, that I had my light from him; for where he gave me not matter to perfect, at the least he gave me occasion to invent. Wherein as I do him right, being myself a man that am as free from envying the dead in contemplation, as from envying the living in action or fortune: so yet nevertheless still I say, and I speak it more largely than before, that in perusing the writings of this person so much celebrated, whether it were the impediment of his wit, or that he did it upon glory and affectation to be subtile, as one that if he had seen his own conceits clearly and perspicuously delivered, perhaps would have been out of love with them himself; or else upon policy, to keep himself close, as one that had been a challenger of all the world, and had raised infinite contradiction: to what cause soever it is to be ascribed, I do not find him to deliver and unwrap himself well of that he seemeth to conceive; nor to be a master of his own knowledge. Neither do I for my part also, though I have brought in a new manner of handling this argument, to make it pleasant and lightsome, pretend so to have overcome the nature of the subject, but that the full understanding and use of it will be somewhat dark, and best pleasing the taste of such wits as are patient to stay the digesting and soluting unto themselves of that which is sharp and subtile. Which was the cause, joined with the love and honour which I bear to your lordship, as the person I know to have many virtues, and an excellent order of them, which moved me to dedicate this writing to your lordship after the ancient manner: choosing both a friend, and one to whom I conceived the argument was agreeable.


In deliberatives the point is, what is good, and strengthen the opinions and persuasions which what is evil, and of good what is greater, and of are true: for reasons plainly delivered, and always evil what is less.

after one manner, especially with fine and fastiSo that the persuader's labour is to make things dious minds, enter but heavily and dully: whereas appear good or evil, and that in higher or lower if they be varied and have more life and vigour degree, which as it may be performed by true and put into them by these forms and insinuations, solid reasons, so it may be represented also by they cause a stronger apprehension, and many colours, popularities and circumstances, which are times suddenly win the mind to a resolution. of such force, as they sway the ordinary judgment Lastly, to make a true and safe judgment, nothing either of a weak man, or of a wise man not fully can be of greater use and defence to the mind, and considerately attending and pondering the than the discovering and reprehension of these matter. Besides their power to alter the nature Colours, showing in what cases they hold, and in of the subject in appearance, and so to lead to

* See the "Advancement of Learning," and the treatise error, they are of no less use to quicken and

"De Augmentis," under the title Rhetoric. 72



what they deceive: which as it cannot be done, May. Sometimes because the nature of some but out of a very universal knowledge of the na- kinds is to be more equal, and more indifferent, and ture of things, so being performed, it so cleareth not to have very distant degrees, as hath been man's judgment and election, as it is the less apt noted in the warmer climates, the people are to slide into any error.

generally more wise, but in the northern climates the wits of chief are greater. So in many armies,

if the matter should be tried by duel between two A Table of the Colours or Appearances of Good and yet if it be tried by the gross, it would go on

champions, the victory should go on the one side, and Evil, and their degrees, as places of persua- the other side ; for excellencies go as it were by

sion and dissuasion, and their several fallacies chance, but kinds go by a more certain nature, as and the elenches of them.

by discipline in war. I.

Lastly many kinds have much refuse, which “Cui

cateræ partes vel sectæ secundas unanimiter deferunt, countervail that which they have excellent, and cum singule principatuni sibi vindicent, melior reliquis therefore generally metal is more precious than videtur. Nam primas quæque ex zelo videtur sumere, stone; and yet a diamond is more precious than secundas autem ex vero et merito tribuere."*

gold. So Cicero went about to prove the sect of Academics, which suspended all asseveration, for to be

III. the best: for, saith he, ask a Stoic which philo- “Quod ad veritatem refertur majus est quam quod ad opinisophy is true, he will prefer his own. Then ask

Modus autem et probatio ejus quod ad opinionem

pertinet hæc est, quod quis si clam putaret fore facturus him which approacheth next the truth, he will non esset.''! confess the Academics. So deal with the Epi- So the Epicures say of the Stoics felicity placed cure, that will scant endure the Stoic to be in sight in virtue ; that it is like the felicity of a player, of him, so soon as he hath placed himself, he will who if he were left of his auditory and their applace the Academics next him.

plause, he would straight be out of heart and counSo if a prince took divers competitors to a place, tenance, and therefore they call virtue « bonum and examined them severally, whom next them- theatrale.” But of riches the poet saith; selves they would rarest commend, it were like

"Populus me sibilat, the ablest man should have the most second voices.

At mihi plaudo."

And of pleasure, The fallax of this colour happeneth oft in respect

“Grata sub imo of envy, for men are accustomed after themselves

Gaudia corde premens, vultu simulante pudorem.” and their own faction, to incline unto them which the fallax of this colour is somewhat subtile, are softest, and are least in their way, in despite though the answer to the example be ready, for and derogation of them, that hold them hardest to virtue is not chosen " propter auram popularem.” it. So that this colour of meliority and pre-emi- But contrariwise, “ maxime omnium teipsum revenence is a sign of enervation and weakness.

rere," so as a virtuous man will be virtuous in

“ solitudine," and not only in theatro,” though II.

percase it will be more strong by glory and fame, “Cujus excellentia vel exsuperantia melior, id toto genere as an heat which is doubled by reflection ; but

melius.”+ APPERTAINING to this are the forms: 6 Let

that denieth the supposition, it doth not reprehend not wander in generalities : Let us compare parti- the fallax, whereof the reprehension is: Allow cular with particular," &c. This appearance,

that virtue, (such as is joined with labour and though it seem of strength, and rather logical than conflict,) would not be chosen but for fame and rhetorical yet is very oft a fallax.

opinion, yet it followeth not, that the chief motive Sometime because some things are in kind

of the election should not be real and for itself, for very

fame casual, which if they escape, prove excellent, so

may be only a causa impulsiva," and not that the kind is inferior, because it is so subject

“ causa constituens, or efficiens." As if there to peril, but that which is excellent ng proved

were two horses, and the one would do better withis superior, as the blossom of March and the out the spur than the other : but again, the other blossom of May, whereof the French verse goeth: with the spur would far exceed the doing of the “Burgeon de Mars, enfans de Paris,

former, giving him the spur also: yet the latter will Si un eschape, il en vaut dix.”

be judged to be the better horse. And the form as So that the blossom of May is generally better to say, “ Tush, the life of this horse is but in the than the blossom of March, and yet the best blos- spur," will not serve as to a wise judgment; for som of March is better than the best blossom of since the ordinary instrument of horsemanship is

and that it is no manner of impediment, “Since all parties or sects challenge the pre-eminence of the first place to themselves, that to which all the rest nor burden, the horse is not to be accounted the with one consent give the second place, seems to be better than the others : for every one seems to take the first place "That which hath a relation to truth is greater than that out of self-zeal but to give the second where it is really due.” which refers to opinion : but the measure and trial of that

+ “That kind is altogether best, whose excellence or pre- which belongs to opinion is this: It is that which a man eminence is best."

would not do, if he thought it would not be known" VOL. J.-10



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