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To praise holden to human nature, as it received its due at diction, and procure envy and scorn. a man's self cannot be decent, except it be in rare the second hand. Neither had the fame of Cicero, cases; but to praise a man's office or profession, Seneca, Plinius Secundus, borne her age so well he may do it with good grace, and with a kind of if it had not been joined with some vanity in themmagnanimity. The cardinals of Rome, which selves; like unto varnish, that makes ceilings not are theologues, and friars, and schoolmen, have a only shine, but last. But all this while, when I phrase of notable contempt and scorn towards speak of vainglory, I mean not of that property civil business, for they call all temporal business that Tacitus doth attribute to Mucianus, "Omof wars, embassages, judicature, and other em- nium, quæ dixerat feceratque, arte quâdam ostenployments, sirrbirie, which is under-sheriffries, as tator:" for that proceeds not of vanity, but of if they were but matters for under-sheriffs and natural magnanimity and discretion; and, in some catchpoles; though many times those under-persons, is not only comely, but gracious: for sheriffries do more good than their high specula- excusations, cessions, modesty itself, well governtions. St. Paul, when he boasts of himself, he doth oft interlace, "I speak like a fool;" but speaking of his calling, he saith, "magnificabo apostolatum meum."
LIV. OF VAINGLORY.
It was prettily devised of Æsop, the fly sat upon the axletree of the chariot wheel, and said, "What a dust do I raise!" So are there some vain persons, that, whatsoever goeth alone, or moveth upon greater means, if they have never so little hand in it, they think it is they that carry it. They that are glorious must needs be factious; for all bravery stands upon comparisons. They must needs be violent to make good their own vaunts; neither can they be secret, and therefore not effectual; but according to the French proverb, "beaucoup de bruit, peu de fruit;" "much bruit, little fruit." Yet, certainly, there is use of this quality in civil affairs: where there is an opinion and fame to be created, either of virtue or greatness, these men are good trumpeters. Again, as Titus Livius noteth, in the case of Antiochus and the Ætolians, there are sometimes great effects of cross lies; as if a man that negotiates between two princes, to draw them to join in a war against the third, doth extol the forces of either of them above measure, the one to the other: and sometimes he that deals between man and man, raiseth his own credit with both, by pretending greater interest than he hath in either: and in these, and the like kinds, it often falls out, that something is produced of nothing; for lies are sufficient to breed opinion, In military and opinion brings on substance. commanders and soldiers, vainglory is an essential point; for as iron sharpens iron, so by glory, one courage sharpeneth another. In cases of great enterprise upon charge and adventure, a composition of glorious natures doth put life into business; and those that are of solid and sober natures, have more of the ballast than of the sail. In fame of learning the flight will be slow without some feathers of ostentation: "Qui de contemnendâ gloriâ libros scribunt, nomen suum inscribunt." Socrates, Aristotle, Galen, were men full of ostentation: certainly, vainglory helpeth to perpetuate a man's memory; and virtue was never so beVOL. I.-8
ed, are but arts of ostentation; and amongst those
LV. OF HONOUR AND REPUTATION.
THE winning of honour is but the revealing of a man's virtue and worth without disadvantage; for some in their actions do woo and affect honour and reputation; which sort of men are commonly much talked of, but inwardly little admired: and some, contrariwise, darken their virtue in the show of it; so as they be undervalued in opinion. If a man perform that which hath not been attempted before, or attempted and given over, or hath been achieved, but not with so good circumstance, he shall purchase more honour than by affecting a matter of greater difficulty, or virtue, wherein he is but a follower. If a man so temper his actions, as in some one of them, he doth content every faction or combination of people, the music will be the fuller. A man is an ill husband of his honour that entereth into any action, the failing wherein may disgrace him more than the carrying of it through can honour him. Honour that is gained and broken upon another hath the quickest reflection, like diamonds cut with facets; and, therefore, let a man contend to excel any competitors of his in honour, in outshooting them, if he can, in their own bow. Discreet followers and servants help much to reputation :" Omnis fama a domesticis emanat." Envy, which is the canker of honour, is best extinguished, by declaring a man's self in his ends, rather to seek merit than fame: and by attributing a man's successes rather to divine Providence and felicity, than to his own virtue or policy. The true marshalling of the degrees of sovereign
honour are these: in the first place are "condi- | turbatus, et vena corrupta est justus cadens in causâ tores imperiorum," founders of states and common- suâ coram adversario." The office of judges may wealths; such as were Romulus, Cyrus, Cæsar, have reference unto the parties that sue, unto the Ottoman, Ismael: in the second place are "legis- advocates that plead, unto the clerks and ministers latores," lawgivers; which are also called second of justice underneath them, and to the sovereign founders, or "perpetui principes," because they or state above them. govern by their ordinances after they are gone; First, for the causes or parties that sue. "There such were Lycurgus, Solon, Justinian, Edgar, be (saith the Scripture) that turn judgment into Alphonsus of Castile the Wise, that made the wormwood ;" and surely there be, also, that turn "Siete partidas:" in the third place are "libera- it into vinegar; for injustice maketh it bitter, and tores," or "salvatores," such as compound the delays make it sour. The principal duty of a long miseries of civil wars, or deliver their coun-judge is, to suppress force and fraud; whereof tries from servitude of strangers or tyrants; as force is the more pernicious when it is open, and Augustus Cæsar, Vespasianus, Aurelianus, Theo- fraud when it is close and disguised. Add thereto doricus, King Henry the Seventh of England, contentious suits, which ought to be spewed out, King Henry the Fourth of France: in the fourth as the surfeit of courts. A judge ought to prepare place are "propagatores," or "propugnatores im- his way to a just sentence, as God useth to prepare perii," such as in honourable wars enlarge their his way, by raising valleys and taking down hills: territories, or make noble defence against invaders; so when there appeareth on either side an high and, in the last place, are "patres patriæ," which hand, violent prosecution, cunning advantages reign justly, and make the times good wherein taken, combination, power, great counsel, then is they live; both which last kinds need no exam- the virtue of a judge seen to make inequality ples, they are in such number. Degrees of honour equal; that he may plant his judgment as upon in subjects are, first, "participes curarum," those an even ground. "Qui fortiter emungit, elicit upon whom princes do discharge the greatest sanguinem;" and where the winepress is hard weight of their affairs; their right hands, as we wrought, it yields a harsh wine that tastes of the call them the next are "duces belli," great lead-grape-stone. Judges must beware of hard coners; such as are princes' lieutenants, and do them notable services in the wars: the third are gratiosi," favourites; such as exceed not this scantling, to be solace to the sovereign, and harmless to the people: and the fourth, "negotiis pares;" such as have great places under princes, and execute their places with sufficiency. There is an honour, likewise, which may be ranked amongst the greatest, which happeneth rarely; that is, of such as sacrifice themselves to death or danger for the good of their country; as was M. Regu-wise judges confined in the execution; "Judicis lus, and the two Decii.
structions, and strained inferences, for there is no worse torture than the torture of laws: especially in case of laws penal, they ought to have care that that which was meant for terror be not turned into rigour; and that they bring not upon the people that shower whereof the Scripture speaketh," Pluet super eos laqueos;" for penal laws pressed are a shower of snares upon the people; therefore let penal laws, if they have been sleepers of long, or if they be grown unfit for the present time, be by
officium est, ut res, ita tempora rerum," &c. In causes of life and death, judges ought (as far as the law permitteth) in justice to remember mercy, and to cast a severe eye upon the example, but a merciful eye upon the person.
LVI. OF JUDICATURE. JUDGES ought to remember that their office is "jus dicere," and not "jus dare," to interpret Secondly, for the advocates and counsel that law, and not to make law, or give law; else will plead. Patience and gravity of hearing is an essenit be like the authority claimed by the church of tial part of justice; and an over-speaking judge Rome, which under pretext of exposition of Scrip- is no well-tuned cymbal. It is no grace to a ture, doth not stick to add and alter, and to pro-judge first to find that which he might have heard nounce that which they do not find, and by show in due time from the bar; or to show quickness of antiquity to introduce novelty. Judges ought of conceit in cutting off evidence or counsel too to be more learned than witty, more reverend than short, or to prevent information by questions, plausible, and more advised than confident. Above though pertinent. The parts of a judge in hearing all things, integrity is their portion and proper are four; to direct the evidence; to moderate virtue. "Cursed (saith the law) is he that re- length, repetition, or impertinency of speech; to removeth the landmark." The mislayer of a mere capitulate, select, and collate the material points stone is to blame; but it is the unjust judge of that which hath been said, and to give the rule that is the capital remover of landmarks, when he or sentence. Whatsoever is above these is too defineth amiss of lands and property. One foul much, and proceedeth either of glory and willingsentence doth more hurt than many foul examples; ness to speak, or of impatience to hear, or of shortfor these do but corrupt the stream, the other ness of memory, or of want of a staid and equal corrupteth the fountain; so saith Solomon, "Fons | attention. It is a strange thing to see that the
boldness of advocates should prevail with judges; | again, when judges do often consult with the king whereas they should imitate God, in whose seat and state: the one, when there is matter of law
they sit, who represseth the presumptuous, and giveth grace to the modest: but it is more strange, that judges should have noted favourites, which cannot but cause multiplication of fees, and suspicion of by-ways. There is due from the judge to the advocate some commendation and gracing, where causes are well handled and fair pleaded, especially towards the side which obtaineth not; for that upholds in the client the reputation of his counsel, and beats down in him the conceit of his cause. There is likewise due to the public a civil reprehension of advocates, where there appeareth cunning counsel, gross neglect, slight information, indiscreet pressing, or an over-bold defence; and let not the counsel at the bar chop with the judge, nor wind himself into the handling of the cause anew after the judge hath declared his sentence; but, on the other side, let not the judge meet the cause halfway, nor give occasion to the party to say, his counsel or proofs were not heard.
intervenient in business of state; the other, when there is some consideration of state intervenient in matter of law; for many times the things deduced to judgment may be "meum" and "tuum,” when the reason and consequence thereof may trench to point of estate: I call matter of estate, not only the parts of sovereignty, but whatsoever introduceth any great alteration, or dangerous precedent; or concerneth manifestly any great portion of people: and let no man weakly conceive that just laws, and true policy, have any antipathy; for they are like the spirits and sinews, that one moves with the other. Let judges also remember that Solomon's throne was supported by lions on both sides: let them be lions, but yet lions under the throne: being circumspect, that they do not check or oppose any points of sovereignty. Let not judges also be so ignorant of their own right, as to think there is not left to them, as a principal part of their office, a wise use and application of laws; for they may remember what the apostle saith of a greater law than theirs:
LVII. OF ANGER.
To seek to extinguish anger utterly is but a bravery of the Stoics. We have better oracles: Be angry, but sin not: let not the sun go down upon your anger." Anger must be limited and confined both in race and in time. We will first speak how the natural inclination and habit "to be angry," may be attempted and calmed; secondly, how the particular motions of anger may be repressed, or, at least, refrained from doing mischief; thirdly, how to raise anger, or appease anger in
Thirdly, for that that concern clerks and ministers. The place of justice is an hallowed place; and therefore not only the bench but the foot-pace"Nos scimus quia lex bona est, modo quis eâ and precincts, and purprise thereof ought to be utatur legitime." preserved without scandal and corruption; for, certainly, "Grapes (as the Scripture saith) will not be gathered of thorns or thistles ;" neither can Justice yield her fruit with sweetness amongst the briers and brambles of catching and polling clerks and ministers. The attendance of courts is subject to four bad instruments; first, certain persons that are sowers of suits, which make the court swell, and the country pine: the second sort is of those that engage courts in quarrels of jurisdiction, and are not truly "amici curiæ," but "parasiti curiæ," in puffing a court up beyond her bounds for their own scraps and advantage: the third sort is of those that may be accounted the left hands of courts: persons that are full of nimble and sinister tricks and shifts, whereby they pervert the plain and direct courses of courts, and bring justice into oblique lines and labyrinths: and the fourth is the poller and exacter of fees; which justifies the common resemblance of the courts of justice to the bush, whereunto, while the sheep flies for defence in weather, he is sure to loose part of his fleece. On the other side, an ancient clerk, skilful in precedents, wary in proceeding, and understanding in the business of the court, is an excellent finger of the court, and doth many times point the way to the judge himself.
For the first, there is no other way but to meditate and ruminate well upon the effects of anger, how it troubles man's life: and the best time to do this, is to look back upon anger when the fit is thoroughly over. Seneca saith well, "That anger is like ruin, which breaks itself upon that it falls." The Scripture exhorteth us "To possess our souls in patience;" whosoever is out of patience, is out of possession of his soul. Men must not turn bees;
.."animasque in vulnere ponunt." Anger is certainly a kind of baseness; as it ap pears well in the weakness of those subjects in whom it reigns, children, women, old folks, sick folks. Only men must beware that they carry their anger rather with scorn than with fear; so that they may seem rather to be above the injury than below it; which is a thing easily done, if a man will give law to himself in it.
For the second point, the causes and motives
of anger are chiefly three; first, to be too sensible of hurt; for no man is angry that feels not himself hurt; and, therefore, tender and delicate persons must needs be oft angry, they have so many things to trouble them, which more robust natures have little sense of: the next is, the apprehension and construction of the injury offered, to be, in the circumstances thereof, full of contempt: for contempt is that which putteth an edge upon anger, as much, or more, than the hurt itself; and, therefore, when men are ingenious in picking out circumstances of contempt, they do kindle their anger much lastly, opinion of the touch of a man's reputation doth multiply and sharpen anger; wherein the remedy is, that a man should have, as Consalvo was wont to say, "telam honoris crassiorem." But in all refrainings of anger, it is the best remedy to win time, and to make a man's self believe that the opportunity of his revenge is not yet come; but that he foresees a time for it, and so to still himself in the mean time, and reserve it.
To contain anger from mischief, though it take hold of a man, there be two things whereof you must have special caution: the one, of extreme bitterness of words, especially if they be aculeate and proper; for "communia maledicta" are nothing so much; and again, that in anger a man reveal no secrets; for that makes him not fit for society: the other, that you do not peremptorily break off in any business in a fit of anger; but howsoever you show bitterness, do not act any thing that is not revocable.
For raising and appeasing anger in another, it is done chiefly by choosing of times, when men are frowardest and worst disposed to incense them; again, by gathering (as was touched before) all that you can find out to aggravate the contempt: and the two remedies are by the contraries: the former to take good times, when first to relate to a man an angry business, for the first impression is much; and the other is, to sever, as much as may be, the construction of the injury from the point of contempt; imputing it to misunderstanding, fear, passion, or what you will.
LVIII. OF VICISSITUDE OF THINGS. SOLOMON Saith, "There is no new thing upon the earth;" so that as Plato had an imagination that all knowledge was but remembrance; so Solomon giveth his sentence, "That all novelty is but oblivion:" whereby you may see, that the river of Lethe runneth as well above ground as below. There is an abstruse astrologer that saith, if it were not for two things that are constant, (the one is, that the fixed stars ever stand at like distance one | from another, and never come nearer together, nor go further asunder; the other, that the diurnal motion perpetually keepeth time,) no individual would last one moment: certain it is, that the
matter is in a perpetual flux, and never at a stay` The great winding-sheets that bury all things in oblivion are two; deluges and earthquakes. As for conflagrations and great droughts, they do not merely dispeople, but destroy. Phaeton's car went but a day: and the three years' drought in the time of Elias, was but particular, and left people alive. As for the great burnings by lightnings, which are often in the West Indies, they are but narrow; but in the other two destructions, by deluge and earthquake, it is further to be noted, that the remnant of people which happen to be reserved, are commonly ignorant and mountainous people, that can give no account of the time past; so that the oblivion is all one as if none had been left. If you consider well of the people of the West Indies, it is very probable that they are a newer or a younger people than the people of the old world; and it is much more likely that the destruction that hath heretofore been there, was not by earthquakes, (as the Egyptian priest told Solon, concerning the island of Atlantis, that it was swallowed by an earthquake,) but rather, that, it was desolates by a particular deluge: for earthquakes are seldom in those parts: but on the other side, they have such pouring rivers, as the rivers of Asia, and Africa, and Europe, are but brooks to them. Their Andes likewise, or mountains, are far higher than those with us; whereby it seems, that the remnants of generations of men were in such a particular deluge saved. As for the observation that Machiavel hath, that the jealousy of sects doth much extinguish the memory of things; traducing Gregory the Great, that he did what in him lay to extinguish all heathen antiquities; I do not find that those zeals do any great effects, nor last long; as it appeared in the succession of Sabinian, who did revive the former antiquities.
The vicissitude, or mutations, in the superior globe, are no fit matter for this present argument. It may be Plato's great year, if the world should last so long, would have some effect, not in renewing the state of like individuals, (for that is the fume of those that conceive the celestial bodies have more accurate influences upon these things below, than indeed they have,) but in gross. Comets, out of question, have likewise power and effect over the gross and mass of things; but they are rather gazed upon, and waited upon in their journey, than wisely observed in their effects; especially in their respective effects; that is, what kind of comet for magnitude, colour, version of the beams, placing in the region of heaven, or lasting, produceth what kind of effects.
There is a toy, which I have heard, and I would not have it given over, but waited upon a little. They say it is observed in the Low Countries, (I know not in what part) that every five and thirty years the same kind and suit of years and weathers comes about again; as great frosts, great wet, great droughts, warm winters, summers with
little heat, and the like, and they call it the prime: it is a thing I do the rather mention, because, computing backwards, I have found some
But to leave these points of nature, and to come to men. The greatest vicissitude of things amongst men, is the vicissitude of sects and religions; for those orbs rule in men's minds most. The true religion is built upon the rock; the rest are tossed upon the waves of time. To speak, therefore, of the causes of new sects, and to give some counsel concerning them, as far as the weakness of human judgment can give stay to so great revolutions.
people have invaded the northern, but contrariwise; whereby it is manifest that the northern tract of the world is in nature the more martial region be it in respect of the stars of that hemisphere, or of the great continents that are upon the north; whereas the south part, for aught that is known, is almost all sea; or, (which is most ap-, parent,) of the cold of the northern parts, which is that, which, without aid of discipline, doth make the bodies hardest, and the courage warmest.
Upon the breaking and shivering of a great state and empire, you may be sure to have wars; for great empires, while they stand, do enervate and destroy the forces of the natives which they have subdued, resting upon their own protecting forces; and then, when they fail also, all goes to ruin, and they become a prey; so was it in the
empire of Almaigne, after Charles the Great, every bird taking a feather; and were not unlike to befal to Spain, if it should break. The great accessions and unions of kingdoms do likewise stir up wars: for when a state grows to an overpower, it is like a great flood, that will be sure to overflow; as it hath been seen in the states of Rome, Turkey, Spain, and others. Look when the world hath fewest barbarous people, but such as commonly will not marry, or generate, except they know means to live, (as it is almost everywhere at this
When the religion formerly received is rent by discords, and when the holiness of the professors of religion is decayed and full of scandal, and withal the times be stupid, ignorant, and barba-decay of the Roman empire, and likewise in the rous, you may doubt the springing up of a new sect: if then also there should arise any extravagant and strange spirit to make himself author thereof; all which points held when Mahomet published his law. If a new sect have not two properties, fear it not, for it will not spread: the one is the supplanting, or the opposing of authority established; for nothing is more popular than that; the other is the giving license to pleasures and a voluptuous life: for as for speculative heresies, (such as were in ancient times the Arians, and now the Arminians,) though they work mighti-day, except Tartary,) there is no danger of inundaly upon men's wits, yet they do not produce any great alterations in states; except it be by the help of civil occasions. There be three manner of plantations of new sects; by the power ofsity that once in an age or two they discharge a signs and miracles; by the eloquence and wis- portion of their people upon other nations, which dom of speech and persuasion; and by the sword. the ancient northern people were wont to do by lot; For martyrdoms, I reckon them amongst mira-casting what part should stay at home, and what cles, because they seem to exceed the strength of should seek their fortunes. When a warlike state human nature: and I may do the like of super- grows soft and effeminate, they may be sure of a lative and admirable holiness of life. Surely war: for commonly such states are grown rich in there is no better way to stop the rising of new the time of their degenerating; and so the prey sects and schisms, than to reform abuses; to inviteth, and their decay in valour encourageth a compound the smaller differences; to proceed war. mildly, and not with sanguinary persecutions; and rather to take off the principal authors, by winning and advancing them, than to enrage them by violence and bitterness.
The changes and vicissitude in wars are many, but chiefly in three things; in the seats, or stages of the war, in the weapons, and in the manner of the conduct. Wars, in ancient time, seemed more to move from east to west; for the Persians, Assyrians, Arabians, Tartars, (which were the invaders,) were all eastern people. It is true, the Gauls were western, but we read but of two incursions of theirs; the one to Gallo-Græcia, the other to Rome: but east and west have no certain points of heaven; and no more have the wars, either from the east or west, any certainty of observation: but north and south are fixed; and it hath seldom or never been seen that the far southern
tions of people: but when there be great shoals of people, which go on to populate, without foreseeing means of life and sustentation, it is of neces
As for the weapons, it hardly falleth under rule and observation: yet we see even they have returns and vicissitudes; for certain it is, that ordnance was known in the city of the Oxidrakes, in India; and was that which the Macedonians called thunder and lightning, and magic; and it is well known that the use of ordnance hath been in China above two thousand years. The conditions of weapons, and their improvements, are, first, the fetching afar off; for that outruns the danger, as it is seen in ordnance and muskets; secondly, the strength of the percussion; wherein likewise ordnance do exceed all arietations, and ancient inventions: the third is, the commodious use of them; as that they may serve in all wea thers, that the carriage may be light and manage able, and the like.
For the conduct of the war; at the first, men