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of Werra and Fulda do join, making the river of the daughter of the Prince of Anhalt; his second Visurgis navigable. son, John George.

William, Duke of Luneburg hath his being at Cella, on the River Albera.

Henry, Duke of Silesia and Lignitz, son to the brother of George, dwelleth at Lignitz; he hath

Henry his brother at Gryson, where, before, no children alive. their uncle Francis was wont to dwell.

Otho, their cousin, Duke of Luneburg, inhabiteth Harbourg, on this side the Elbe, over-right against Hamburgh.

The Dukes of Pomerania, John Frederick dwelleth at Stetin.

Bugeslaus at Campena, some time an abbey in the county of Bardruse.

Ernest Ludovick at Wolgast, on the river of Panis that runneth into the Baltic sea.

Barmin at Ragenwald in Further Pomerania, on the borders of Poland and Prussia.

Casimire at Camyn, which bishopric he holdeth, either as administrator, or in his own possession and right.

Ulricke, Duke of Meckelbourg, remaineth most at Gustrow; his brother John Albert dwelleth at Swerin, whose two sons are in the court of the Duke of Saxon.

Adolph, Duke of Holst and Dytmarch; his chief seat is at Gottorp in the Duchy of Sleswick.

John, his elder brother, unmarried, hath his abode at Hadersburge: John, son to Christiern, King of Denmark, and brother to the Duke of Holst, and to Frederick now King of Denmark, Bishop of Oeselya and Courland in Livonia.

William, Duke of Juliers, Cleve, and Bergin, hath his court at Dusseldorp in the Dukedom of Bergense.

Frederick, brother to Henry, unmarried. Charles, Duke of Munsterburg and Olsse, his wife the Countess of Sternberg, in Bohemia, where he maketh his abode.

Henry, brother to Charles, remained at Olsse.
John Frederick, Duke of Teschen.

Charles, Duke of Lorrain, his chief court at

His eldest son Henry of man's estate.
Charles, Cardinal Archbishop of Metes.
A daughter in the French court.
Besides, there are in Germany three electors
bishops, and divers bishops of great livings.

The free towns of greatest importance are Noremberg, Auspurg, Ulmes, and Strasburg: then the cantons of the Swisses, the Grisons, and Valois.

The greatest trouble in Germany at this time is about the concordate, furthered by the Duke of Saxon, and the Count Palatine.

There is at this present no prince in Germany greatly toward or redoubted.

The Duke Casimir's credit is greatly impaired, and his ability small.

The diet imperial shortly should be held, where the concordate shall be urged, collection for Hungary made, and a King of Romans named.

The French king, Henry the Third, of thirty years of age, of a very weak constitution, and full of infirmities; yet extremely given over to his wanton pleasures, having only delight in dancing,

William, Landgrave of Hesse, dwelleth at Cas- feasting, and entertaining ladies, and chambersel on Fulda.

Ludovick at Marpurge.

Philip at Brubache on the Rhine.

George at Darmstadt.

pleasures: no great wit, yet a comely behaviour and goodly personage, very poor through exacting inordinately by all devices of his subjects greatly repining that revenge and hungry govern

Ludovick, Duke of Wirtenberge, his chief ment, abhorring wars and all action, yet daily house at Stutgard.

Frederick at Montbelgard.

The Marquises of Bathe: the elder Ernest, the second Jacob, the third brother yet younger; their chief dwelling-place is at Forsheim, or at Durlach.

The sons of Philip at the Bath called Badan. Earnest Joachim, prince of Anhalt, at Zerbest, in the midway between Magdebourg and Wittemberg; his other mansion is at Dessau on Mylda, where he was born, new built and fortified by his grandfather Ernest; he hath besides the castle of Cathenen, the which was the habitation of Wolfgang, Prince of Anhalt, his great uncle; Ernest favoureth religion.

George Ernest, Prince and Earl of Henneberg, at Schlewsing, by the forest called Turing.

George, Duke of Silesia and Brieke, of the family of the Kings of Poland, dwelleth at Brieke; his eldest son, Joachim Frederick, hath married

worketh the ruin of those he hateth, as all of the religion and the house of Bourbon; doting fondly on some he chooseth to favour extremely, without any virtue or cause of desert in them, to whom he giveth prodigally. His chief favourites now about him are the Duke Joyeuse, La Valette, and Monsieur D'Au. The queen-mother ruleth him rather by policy and fear he hath of her, than by his good will: yet he always doth show great reverence towards her. The Guise is in as great favour with him as ever he was; the house is now the greatest of all France, being allied to Ferrara, Savoy, Lorrain, Scotland, and favoured of all the Papists; the French king having his kinswoman to wife, and divers great personages in that realm of his house.

The chiefest at this present in credit in court, whose counsel he useth, are Villeroy, Villaquier, Bellievre, the chancellor and lord keeper, Birague and Chiverny.

He greatly entertaineth no amity with any prince, other than for form; neither is his friendship otherwise respected of others, save in respect of the reputation of so great a kingdom.

The pope beareth a great sway, and the king of Spain by means of his pensions; and of the queen-mother with the Guise; she for her two daughters, he for other regard, can do what he list there, or hinder what he would not have done.

abroad. This duke first had intelligence with the Count Ludovic in King Charles's days, and an enterprise to escape from the court, and in this king's time joined with them of the religion and malcontents: after was carried against them; seeketh the marriage with her majesty, so mighty a princess, as it were to marry might with his activity.


He hath had practice in Germany to be created The division in his country for matters of reli- King of Romans, made a sudden voyage with great gion and state, through miscontentment of the no-expedition into the Low Countries, now is there bility to see strangers advanced to the greatest again with better success than so soon was looked charges of the realm, the offices of justice sold, the treasury wasted, the people polled, the country destroyed, hath bred great trouble, and like to see more. The faction between the house of Guise against that of Montmorancy hath gotten great advantage.

At this present the king is about to restore Don Antonio, King of Portugal, whereto are great levies and preparation.

The King of Spain, Philip, son to Charles the Fifth, about sixty years of age, a prince of great understanding, subtle and aspiring, diligent and cruel. This king especially hath made his benefit of the time where his last attempt on Portugal deserveth exact consideration, thereby as by the workmanship to know the master.

The first success he had was at St. Quintin, where he got a notable hand of the French; he sought to reduce the Low Countries to an absolute subjection.

He hath kept France in a continual broil, where, by his pensions and the favour of the house of Guise, by means of the queen-mother in contemplation of her nieces, he beareth great sway. With the pope he is so linked as he may do what him list, and dispose of that authority to serve his purposes: as he has gotten great authority in pretending to protect the church and religion.

Francis, Duke of Anjou and of Brabant, for his calling and quality greatly to be considered as any prince this day living, being second person to the king, his brother, and in likelihood to succeed him. There is noted in the disposition of this prince a quiet mildness, giving satisfaction to all men; facility of access and natural courtesy; understanding and speech great and eloquent; secrecy more than commonly is in the French; from his youth always desirous of action, the which thing hath made him always followed and respected. And though hitherto he hath brought to pass no great purpose, having suffered great He possesseth the one half of Italy, comprehendwants and resistance both at home and abroad,|ing Sicily and Sardinia, with Naples and Milan; yet by the intermeddling is grown to good ex- the which estates do yield him little other profit, perience, readiness, and judgment the better save the maintenance of so many Spaniards as he thereby able to guide and govern his affairs, keepeth there always. both in practice, in treaty, and action. Moreover, The Duke of Florence relieth greatly upon the diseased estate of the world doth so concur | him, as well in respect of the state of Siena, as of with this his active forwardness, as it giveth him the ports he holdeth, and of his greatness. Lucca matter to work upon: and he is the only man to be is under his protection. Genoa, the one faction seen of all them in distress, or desirous of altera- at his devotion, with their galleys: at his pension tion. A matter of special furtherance to all such is most of the greatest there. as have achieved great things, when they have found matter disposed to receive form.

Besides the Low Countries, he holdeth the French Comte, the best used of all his subjects, and Luxembourg: the West Indies furnish him gold and silver, the which he consumeth in the wars of the Low Countries, and in pensions, and is greatly indebted; while he worketh on the foundation his father laid, to erect a monarchy, the which, if he succeed in the conquest of Portugal, he is likely to achieve, unless death do cut him off.

And there is to be found no other prince in this part of the world so towards and forward as the duke, towards whom they in distress may turn their eyes. We do plainly see in the most countries of Christendom so unsound and shaken an estate, as desireth the help of some great person, to set together and join again the pieces asunder and out of joint. Wherefore the presumption is great, that if this prince continue this his course, he is likely to become a mighty potentate: for, one enterprise failing, other will be offered, and still men evil at ease, and desirous of a head and captain, will run to him that is fittest to receive them. Besides, the French, desirous to shake off the civil wars, must needs attempt somewhat millions. VOL. I.-50

He hath one son of the years of five by his last wife, two daughters by the French king's sister. two base sons.

He hath greatly sought the marriage of the queen's daughter of France, sister to his last wife. and cousin-german removed.

His revenues are reckoned to amount to sixteen

The chief in credit with him of martial men and for counsel are ....

His father deceased in the year 1559, after which he had wars ten years space with the

He maketh account to have in continual pay Swede, which gave him occasion to arm by sea. fifty thousand soldiers.

He maintaineth galleys to the number of one hundred and forty, whereof there are sixty in Portugal, the rest are at Naples and other places. Now is on league with the Turk.

D. Antonio, elect King of Portugal, thrust out by the King of Spain, of forty-five years of age, a mild spirit, sober and discreet: he is now in France, where he he hath levied soldiers, whereof part are embarked, hoping by the favour of that king and the good will the Portugals do bear him, to be restored again. He holdeth the Torges, and the East Indians yet remain well affected to him, a cause of itself deserving the considering and relief of all other princes. Besides in his person, his election to be noted with the title he claimeth very singular, and seldom the like seen, being chosen of all the people; the great dangers he hath escaped likewise at sundry times.

The King of Poland, Stephen Batoaye, a Baron of Hungary, by the favour of the Turk chosen King of the Pollacks, after the escape made by the French king; a prince of the greatest value and courage of any at this day, of competent years, sufficient wisdom, the which he hath showed in the siege of Danske, and the wars with the Muscovite.

The Hungarians could be content to exchange the emperor for him. The Bohemians likewise wish him in the stead of the other. He were like to attain to the empire were there not that mortal enmity between those two nations as could not agree in one subjection.

Straight upon his election he married the Infant of Poland, somewhat in years and crooked, only to content the Pollacks, but never companied with her. He doth tolerate there all religions, himself heareth the mass, but is not thought to be a Papist: he had a great part of his education in Turkey, after served the last emperor.

Frederick the Second, of forty-eight years, King of Denmark and Norway; his wife Sophia, daughter to Ulricke, Duke of Mechelebourg, by whom he hath six children, four daughters and two sons, Christianus and Ulricus, the eldest of five years of age.

The chiefest about him, Nicolas Cose, his chancellor, in whose counsel he doth much repose.

He hath always eight hundred horse about his court, to whom he giveth ten dollars the month.

His navy is six great ships of one thousand five hundred ton, and fifteen smaller, ten galleys which sail to pass the Straits.

His revenues grow chiefly in customs, and such living as were in the hands of the abbeys, and bishops, whereby he is greatly enriched: his chief haven is Copenhagen, where always his navy lieth.

His brother John, Duke of Holst in Jutland, married to the daughter of the Duke of Inferior Saxony.

Magnus, his other brother, Bishop of Courland, married the daughter of the Muscovite's brother. The chiefest wars that the King of Denmark hath is with Sweden, with whom now he hath peace. The Duke of Holst is uncle to the king now reigning; they make often alliances with Scotland.

John, King of Sweden, son of Gustavus. This Gustavus had four sons, Erick, John, Magnus, Charles.

Erick married a soldier's daughter, by whom he had divers children, and died in prison. John, now king, married the sister of Sigismond, late King of Poland.

Magnus bestraught of his wits.

Charles married a daughter of the Palsgrave. Five daughters of Gustavus.

Katherine married to the Earl of East-Frise


Anne to one of the Palsgraves.
Cicilia to the Marquis of Baden.
Sophia to the Duke of Inferior Saxony.
Elizabeth to the Duke of Mecleburg.

This prince is of no great force nor wealth, but of late hath increased his navigation, by reason of the wars between him and the Dane, the which, the wars ceasing, they hardly maintain.

The Muscovite Emperor of Russia, John Basil, of threescore years of age, in league and amity with no prince; always at wars with the Tartarians, and now with the Pollake.

He is advised by no council, but governeth altogether like a tyrant. He hath one son of thirty years of age. Not long sithence this prince deposed himself, and set in his place a Tartar, whom he removed again. Of late sent an ambassador to Rome, giving some hope to submit himself to that see. Their religion is nearest the Greek church, full of superstition and idolatry.








QUEEN ELIZABETH, both in her natural endowments, and her fortune, was admirable amongst women, and memorable amongst princes. But this is no subject for the pen of a mere scholar, or any such cloistered writer. For these men are eager in their expressions, but shallow in their judgments; and perform the scholar's part well, but transmit things but unfaithfully to posterity. Certainly it is a science belonging to statesmen, and to such as sit at the helms of great kingdoms, and have been acquainted with the weight and secrets of civil business, to handle this matter dexterously. Rare in all ages hath been the reign of a woman, more rare the felicity of a woman in her reign, but most rare a permanency and lasting joined with that felicity. As for this lady she reigned four-and-forty years complete, and yet she did not survive her felicity. Of this felicity I am purposed to say somewhat; yet without any excursion into praises; for praises are the tribute of men, but felicity the gift of God. | First, I reckon it as a part of her felicity, that she was advanced to the regal throne from a private fortune. For this is ingenerate in the nature and opinions of men, to ascribe that to the greatest felicity, which is not counted upon, and cometh unlooked for, but this is not that I intend, it is this, princes that are trained up in their father's courts, and to an immediate and apparent hope of succession, do get this by the tenderness and remissness of their education, that they become, commonly, less capable and less temperate in their affections. And therefore you shall find those to have been the ablest and most accomplished kings that were tutored by both fortunes. Such was with us, King Henry the Seventh; and with the French, Lewis the Twelfth both which, in recent memory and almost about the same time. obtained

their crowns, not only from a private, but also from an adverse and afflicted fortune; and did both excel in their several ways; the former in prudence, and the other in justice. Much like was the condition of this princess, whose blossoms and hopes were unequally aspected by fortune, that afterwards when she came to crown, fortune might prove towards her always mild and constant. For Queen Elizabeth, soon after she was born, was entitled to the succession in the crown, upon the next turn disinherited again, then laid aside and slighted: during the reign of her brother, her estate was most prosperous and flourishing; during the reign of her sister, very tempestuous and full of hazard. Neither yet did she pass immediately from the prison to the crown, which sudden change might have been enough to make her cast off all moderation: but first she regained her liberty, then there buded forth some probable hopes of succession; and lastly, in a great still and happiness she was advanced to the imperial crown without either noise or competitor. All which I allege that it may appear that the divine Providence, intending to produce a most exquisite princess, was pleased to prepare and mould her by these degrees of discipline. Neither ought the misfortune of her mother justly to stain the pure stream of her blood; especially seeing it is very evident that King Henry the Eighth did first burn with new loves, before he was inflamed with indignation against Queen Anne: neither is it unknown to the ages since that he was a king naturally prone to loves and jealousies; and not containing himself in those cases from the effusion of blood. Besides, the very person for whom she was suspected showeth the accusation to be less probable, and built upon weak and frivolous suppositions; which was both secretly whispered

in many men's ears at that time; and which ed, I take to be a matter worthy our observation;
Queen Anne herself testified by her undaunted
courage, and that memorable speech of her's at
the time of her death. For having gotten, as she
supposed, a faithful and friendly messenger, in
the very hour before her death, she delivered him
these words to relate unto the king: "That she
had ever found the king very constant and firm
to his purpose of advancing her; for first, from
the estate of a gentlewoman only, and no way
pretending to noble titles, he raised her to the
honour of a marchioness; next, he vouchsafed to
make her his consort both of his kingdom and
bed and now that there remained no higher
earthly honour, he meant to crown her innocency
with the glory of martyrdom." But though the
messenger durst not relate these words to the
king, who was already inflamed with new loves,
yet certain tradition, the conserver of truth, hath
conveyed them to posterity.

for if her lot had fallen amongst the desolate
Palmyrenes, or in Asia, a soft and effeminate race
of men, a woman-prince might have been suffi-
cient for a womanish people; but for the English,
a nation stout and warlike, to be ruled by the check
of a woman, and to yield so humble obedience to
her, is a thing deserving the highest admiration.
Neither was this disposition of her people
(hungry of war, and unwillingly bowing to peace)
any impediment to her, but that she enjoyed and
maintained peace all her days: and this desire in
her of peace, together with her fortunate accom-
plishment thereof, I reckon to be one of her chief-
est praises. For this was happy for her time,
comely for her sex, and comfortable to her con-
science. Indeed, about the tenth year of her
reign, there was an offer of a commotion in the
northern parts, but it was soon laid asleep and ex-
tinguished; but all her reign beside was free
from the least breath or air of civil broils. Now
I judge the peace maintained by her to be the
more eminent for two causes, which indeed make
nothing for the merit of that peace, but much for
the honour: the one, that it was set off, and made
more conspicuous by the broils and dissensions
of neighbouring nations, as it were by so many
lights and torches: the other, that amidst the
benefits of peace she lost not the honour of arms;
insomuch, that the reputation of the English arms
was not only preserved, but also advanced by
her upon many glorious occasions. For the suc-
cours sent into the Netherlands, France, and
Scotland, the expeditions by sea into both the
Indies, whereof some circled the whole globe of .
the earth; the fleets sent into Portugal, and to
annoy the coasts of Spain: and lastly, the often
suppressions and overthrows of the rebels in Ire-
land, did both show the warlike prowess of our
nation to be no whit diminished, and did much
increase the renown of the queen.

Another principal thing, which I cast into Queen Elizabeth's felicity, was the time and period of her reign; not only for that it was long, but also because it fell into that season of her life, which was most active and fittest for the swaying of a sceptre, for she was fully five-and-twenty years old (at which age the civil law freeth from a curator) when she came to the crown, and reigned to the seventieth year of her life; so that she never suffered either the detriments of pupilage, and check of an over-awing power, or the inconveniences of an impotent and unwieldy old age; and old age is not without a competent portion of miseries, even to private men; but to kings, besides the common burden of years, it brings for the most part a declining in the estates they govern, and a conclusion of their lives without honour. For there hath scarce been known a king that hath lived to an extreme and impotent old age, but he hath suffered some detriment in his territories, and gone less in his reputation. Of which thing there is a most eminent example in Philip the There was another thing that did greatly adSecond, King of Spain, a most puissant prince, vance her glory; that both by her timely succours, and an excellent governor, who, in the last years her neighbour kings were settled in their rightful of his life, and impotent old age, was sensible of thrones, and the suppliant people, who by the ill this whereof we speak; and therefore with great advisedness of their kings were abandoned and circumspection submitted himself to nature's law, given over to the cruelty of their ministers, and to voluntarily surrendered the territories he had got- the fury of the multitude, and to all manner of ten in France, established a firm peace in that butchery and desolation, were relieved by her; kingdom, attempted the like in other places, that by reason whereof they subsist unto this day. so he might transmit his kingdoms peaceable and Neither was she a princess less benign and forentire to his next heir. Contrariwise, Queen tunate in the influence of her counsels than of Elizabeth's fortune was so constant and deeply her succours; as being one that had oftentimes rooted, that no disaster in any of her dominions interceded to the King of Spain, to mitigate his accompanied her indeed declining, but still able wrath against his subjects in the Netherlands, years: nay, further, for an undeniable token of her and to reduce them to his obedience upon some felicity, she died not before the rebellion in Ire- tolerable conditions; and further, as being one land was fortunately decided, and quashed by a that did perpetually and upon all occasions reprebattle there, lest otherwise it might have defal- sent to the French kings the observation of their cated from the total sum of her glory. Now the own edicts, so often declaring and promising condition also of the people over whom she reign-peace to their subjects. I cannot deny but that

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