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prepared to follow me. In this order we advanced not unnatural that an increasing population should to the Arreoy, and laid the whole down before occasion apprehensions of universal distress. Orders him. I then spoke several sentences dictated to of celibacy, which have proved so prejudicial in me by Tinah, the meaning of which I did not un- other countries, might perhaps in this have been derstand ; and my pronunciation not being very beneficial; so far at least as to have answered exact, caused a great deal of mirth. This speech their purpose by means not criminal. The number being finished, I was shown another Arreoy, who of inhabitants at Otaheite have been estimated at had come from Ulietea, and to him likewise I was above one hundred thousand. The island, howrequired to deliver an oration. Tinah, under- ever, is not cultivated to the greatest advantage : standing from me, that I had children in my own yet, were they continually to improve in hus. country, he desired me to make one more offering bandry, their improvement could not, for a length on their account. There still remained three of time, keep pace with an unlimited population. baskets of bread-fruit, a small pig, and another An idea here presents itself, which, however piece of cloth : with these, assisted as before, I fanciful it may appear at first sight, seems to made the offering in favour of my children to the merit some attention :- While we see among these man whom I had first addressed. He made no islands so great a waste of the human species, that reply to all my fine speeches, but sat with great numbers are born only to die; and, at the same gravity, and received every thing as a matter of time, a large continent so near them as New Holright, and not of courtesy.

land, in which there is so great a waste of land All that I could make out of this strange cere- uncultivated, and almost destitute of inhabitants; mony was, that the Arreoys are highly respected, it naturally occurs, how greatly the two countries and that the society is chiefly composed of men might be made to benefit each other; and gives distinguished by their valour or some other merit, occasion to regret that the islanders are not inand that great trust and confidence is reposed in structed in the means of emigrating to New Holthem ; but I could not comprehend what this had | land, which seems as if designed by nature to to do with my children, or why it should be ima- serve as an asylum for the superflux of inhabitants gined that an offering made on their account to a in the islands. Such a plan of emigration, if society of men, who destroy all their children, rendered practicable to them, might not only be should be propitious. I learnt from Tinah, in the means of abolishing the horrid custom of detalking about his children, that his first-born child stroying children, as it would remove the plea of was killed as soon as it came into the world, he necessity, but might lead to other important purbeing then an Arreoy; but before his second child poses. A great continent would be converted was born, he quitted the society. The Arreoys from a desert to a populous country; a number of are allowed great latitude in their amours, except our fellow-creatures would be saved; the inhabiin times of danger. Then, as they are almost all tants of the islands would become more civilized ; fighting men (tata toa) they are restricted, that and it is not improbable, but that our colonies in they may not weaken or enervate themselves. New Holland would derive so much benefit as to

These ceremonies being ended, I returned to the more than repay any trouble or expense, that ship.

might be incurred in endeavouring to promote so Such of the natives, as I conversed with about humane a plan. the institution of so extraordinary a society as the The latter, however, is a remote consideration, Arreoy, asserted that it was necessary, to prevent for the intertropical parts of New Holland are an over population. Worrow worrow no te mydidde, those most suited to the habits and manner of worrow worrow te tata. We have too many chil- living of the islanders; and likewise the soil and dren, and too many men, was their constant ex- climate are the best adapted to their modes of cuse. Yet it does not appear, that they are appre- agriculture. Man placed by his Creator in the hensive of too great an increase of the lower class warm climates, perhaps would never emigrate of people, none of them being ever admitted into into the colder, unless under the tyrannous influthe Arreoy society. The most remarkable in- ence of necessity; and ages might elapse before stance, related to me, of the barbarity of this the new inhabitants would spread to our settlers, institution, was of Teppahoo, the Earee of the though they are but barely within the limits of district of Tettaha, and his wife, Tetteehowdeeah, frost, that great cause of nine tenths of the neceswho is sister to Otow, and considered as a person sities of Europeans. Nevertheless, besides forwardof the first consequence. I was told that they have ing the purposes of humanity and general conhad eight children, every one of which was de- venience, in bringing a people without land to a stroyed as soon as born. That any human beings land without people, the benefit of a mutual interwere ever so devoid of natural affection, as not to course with a neighbouring and friendly colony, wish to preserve alive one of so many children, is would in itself be no inconsiderable advantage. not credible. It is more reasonable to conclude, Among people so free from ostentation as the that the death of these infants was not an act of Otaheiteans, and whose manners are so simple and choice in the parents; but that they were sacri- natural, the strictness with which the punctilios of ficed in compliance with some barbarous super- rank are observed, is surprising. I know not if stition, with which we are unacquainted. What any action, however meritorious, can elevate a strengthens this conjecture is, that they have man above the class in which he was born, unless adopted a nephew as their heir, of whom they are he were to acquire sufficient power to confer digexcessively fond.

nity on himself. If any woman of the inferior In countries so limited as the islands in the classes has a child by an Earee, it is not suffered South Seas, the natives of which, before they were to live. Perhaps the offspring of Teppahoo and discovered by European navigators, probably had Tetteehowdeeah were destined to satisfy some cruel not an idea of the existence of other lands, it is I adjustment of rank and precedency.



great knowledge. I desired Tinah to take what CHAPTER VII.

he thought proper as a present for him ; and I must do Tinah the justice to say, he was more sparing than I should have been. I likewise received a visit to-day from Oedidee, the man who

had been at sea with Captain Cook in 1773 and Monday, November 3rd.—The trade for provi- | 1774, as related in the account of that voyage. He sions I directed to be carried on at the tent by Mr. still retained some of the English words which he Peckover, the gunner. Moannah likewise resided had learnt in that expedition. there, as a guard over his countrymen; but though Wednesday, 5th.—The weather variable, with it appeared to be the wish of all the chiefs, that we lightning, and frequent showers of rain. Wind should remain unmolested, it was not possible en

E.N.E. tirely to prevent them from pilfering.

This was the first day of our beginning to take My table at dinner was generally crowded. up plants: we had much pleasure in collecting Tinah, Oreepyah, Poeeno, and Moannah, were my them, for the natives offered their assistance, and regular guests, and I was seldom without some perfectly understood the method of taking them chiefs from other districts. Almost every indi- up and pruning them. vidual of any consequence has several names, The crowd of natives was not so great as hitherto which makes it frequently perplexing, when the it had been: the curiosity of strangers was satis

ame person is spoken of, know who is meant. fied; and, the weather began to be unsettled Every chief has perhaps a dozen or more names and rainy, they had almost all returned to their in the course of thirty years; so that the person homes ; so that only the people of Matavai and who has been spoken of by one visitor, will not Oparre remained with us, except a few chiefs from perhaps be known to another, unless other circum- other islands : our supplies however were abunstances lead to a discovery. The father of Tinah, dant; and what I considered as no small addition at this time called Otow, was known in 1769 by to our comforts, we ceased to be incommoded, the name of Whappai.

when on shore, by the natives following us, and I showed Tinah the preparations I was making could take our waiks almost unnoticed." In any to take on board the bread-fruit plants, which

house that we wished to enter, we always expepleased him exceedingly, but he did not forget to rienced a kind reception, and without officiousness. remind me, that when the next ship came out he The Otaheiteans have the most perfect easiness of hoped King George would send him large axes, manners, equally free from forwardness and forfiles, saws, cloth of all kinds, hats, chairs, and mality. When they offer refreshments, if they bedsteads, with arms, ammunition, and in short are not accepted, they do not think of offering every thing he could think of mentioning.

them the second time; for they have not the least This afternoon, the gudgeon of the rudder be- idea of that ceremonious kind of refusal which longing to the large cutter, was drawn out and expects a second invitation. In like manner, at stolen, without being perceived by the man that taking leave, we were never troubled with soliciwas stationed to take care of her. Several petty tations to prolong our visit, but went without thefts having been committed by the natives, ceremony, except making use of a farewell exmostly owing to the negligence of our own people; pression at parting. Another advantage, seldom and as these kind of accidents generally created found in warm countries, was, in this part of alarm, and had a tendency to interrupt the good Otaheite, being free from muskitoes, though, at terms on which we were with the chiefs, I thought it particular times of the year, the inhabitants are would have a good effect to punish the boat-keeper pestered with great numbers of flies. in their presence, many of them happening to be Moannah continued our constant friend at the then on board ; and accordingly I ordered him a tent, and, with Tinah and all his friends, dined dozen lashes. Tinah, with several of the chiefs, with me every day. attended the punishment, and interceded very The ship's barber had brought with him from earnestly to get it mitigated : the women showed London, a painted head, such as the hair-dressers great sympathy, and that degree of feeling which have in their shops, to show the different fashions characterises the amiable part of their sex. of dressing hair; and it being made with regular

The natives brought off to-day two different features, and well coloured, I desired him to dress kinds of roots that grow like yams; one they call it, which he did with much neatness, and with a Ettee, which is a sweet root, common also to the stick, and a quantity of cloth, he formed a body. Friendly Islands, and may be eaten as a sweet- It was then reported to the natives that we had an meat: the other they call Appay, a root like the English woman on board, and the quarter-deck Tyah or Eddie in the West Indies. A fruit called was cleared of the crowd, that she might make Ayyah, which is the jambo of Batavia, was like- her appearance. Being handed up the ladder, and wise brought off to us: they are as large as mid- carried to the after-part of the deck, there was a dle-sized apples, very juicy and refreshing, and general shout of " Huaheine no Brittanne myty." may be eaten in large quantities. Also some Huaheine signifies woman, and myty, good. Many Avees, which are the real Otaheite apple ; but of them thought it was living, and asked if it was my they were not yet in season. These are a delicious wife. One old woman ran with presents of cloth high-Havoured fruit, and before they are ripe, and bread-fruit, and laid them at her feet; at last answer the culinary purposes of our apples. they found out the cheat; but continued all de

Tuesday, 4th.--A chief called Tootaha, who came lighted with it, except the old lady, who felt herself from the island Ulietea, was introduced to me to- mortified, and took back her presents, for which day, by Tinah, as one of his particular friends. I she was laughed at exceedingly. Tinah and all was told that he was a priest, and a person of the chiefs enjoyed the joke, and, after making many inquiries about the British women, they to be admitted of whom they wished me to take strictly enjoined me, when I came again, to bring notice. The company of the priest brought on a a ship full of them.

religious conversation. He said their great God Some very fine sugar-cane was brought to me; was called Oro ; and that they had many others of each of the pieces was six inches round. I had less consequence. He asked me if I had a God ?-if before told Tinah that our sugar was made of it, he had a son ? and who was his wife? I told them he and he was very desirous to discover the means ; had a son, but no wife. Who was his father and for they were so fond of our loaf sugar, that a mother? was the next question. I said he never present to any chief would have been incomplete had father or mother ; at this they laughed exceedwithout a piece of it. Another article in great ingly. You have a God then who never had a father estimation, and likewise expected to make part of or mother, and has a child without a wife! Many a present, was scissors, which they made use of to other questions were asked, which my little knowkeep their beards in order.

ledge of the language did not enable me to answer. By this time Nelson had, with assistance from The weather was now fine again, and a great the ship, completed a large garden near the tents ; number of people were come from other parts of in which were sown seeds of different kinds, that the island. Tinah informed me that there was to we had collected at the Cape of Good Hope. I be a heiva and a wrestling match on shore, and likewise distributed fruit-stones and almonds for that the performers waited for our attendance ; planting, among the chiefs, who, I hope, will en- we therefore set off with several of our friends, deavour to make them succeed: and, as they are and about a quarter of a mile from the tents we very fond of sweet-smelling flowers, with which found a great concourse of people formed into a the women delight to ornament themselves, I gave ring. As soon as we were seated, a dancing heiva them some rose-seed.

began, which was performed by two girls and four Thursday, 6th.—We had very variable weather, men : this lasted half an hour, and consisted of much rain, and some westerly winds; so that a wanton gestures and motions, such as have been considerable swell ran into the bay, and a number described in the account of former voyages. When of spotted white and black porpoises made their the dance ended, Tinah ordered a long piece of appearance. I had the mortification to see that cloth to be brought ; his wife Iddeah and myself our garden-ground had been much trod over; were desired to hold the two first corners, and, and what was worse, the chiefs appeared but little the remaining part being supported by many concerned at it. To this kind of carelessness and others, we carried it to the performers and gave indifference I attribute the miscarriage of many it them. Several other chiefs made a like present of the plants left here by Captain Cook. I had or payment. The performers were strollers, that now in a flourishing state, two orange plants, some travelled about the country as in Europe. vines, a fig-tree, and two pine-apple plants, which After this the wrestling began, and the place I gave to Poeeno, whose residence is a place soon became a scene of riot and confusion. A favourable for their growth.

party of the Arreoys also began to exercise a priWe got on successfully with our plants, having vilege, which it seems they are allowed, of taking a hundred potted at the tent, and in a fair way of from the women such of their clothes as they doing well. The cabin also was completed, and thought worth it ; so that some of them were left ready to receive them on board.

little better than naked. One young woman, who I have before remarked that my friend Tinah was attacked, opposed them with all her strength, was rather of a selfish disposition, and this after- and held fast her cloth, though they almost noon he showed a stronger instance of it than I dragged her along the ground. Observing that I was witness to at any time before or after. His took notice of her, she held out her hand, and brother Oreepyah sent on board to me a present begged my assistance; and at my request she of a large hog and a quantity of bread-fruit ; but escaped being pillaged. these kind of presents are much more expensive Soon after a ring was again made, but the than purchasing at the market. Soon after wrestlers were so numerous within it, that it was Oreepyah himself came on board. Tinah was impossible to restore order. In the challenges, with me at the time, and whispered me to tell they lay one hand upon their breast, and on the Oreepyah not to bring any more hogs or fruit, and bending of the arm at the elbow, with the other to take those back which he had sent. This advice, hand they strike a very smart blow, which, as the as may be supposed, did not produce the effect hand is kept hollow, creates a sound that may be intended. Oreepyah appears to be a man of great heard at a considerable distance ; and this they spirit, and is highly respected by his countrymen. do so frequently, and with such force, that the flesh Among other visitors to-day was one of the men becomes exceedingly bruised, and, the skin breakwho had been to Lima in 1776.

ing, bleeds considerably. At this time, the sound Saturday, 8th.-Our plants had now increased from so many resembled that of a number of to 252 : as they were all kept on shore at the tent people in a wood felling trees. This is the general I augmented the guard there, though, from the challenge ; but when any two combatants agree general conduct of the natives, there did not to a trial, they present their hands forward, joinappear the least occasion for so much caution. ing them only by the extremities of the fingers.

While I was at dinner, Tinah desired I would They begin by watching to take an advantage ; at permit a man to come down into the cabin, whom length they close, seize each other by the hair, he called his Taowah, or priest ; for I was obliged and are most commonly parted before either reto keep a sentinel at the hatchway to prevent ceives a fall. Only one couple performed any being incommoded at my meals with too much thing like the part of good wrestlers; and, as they company ; a restriction which pleased the chiefs, were an equal match, this conflict lasted longer who always asked leave for any particular person than any of the others; but they also were parted. Iddeah was the general umpire, and she managed Otaheite, had been preserved, and were in a thrivwith so much address as to prevent any quarrel- | ing state. I was likewise informed that there was ling, and there was no murmuring at her deci- a bull and a cow alive at Otaheite, but on different sions. As her person was large, she was very parts of the island ; the former at a place called conspicuous in the circle. Tinah took no part in Itteah, the latter at the district of Tettaha. All the management. Upon the whole, this perform- | the rest were taken away or destroyed by the ance gave me a better opinion of their strength people of Eimeo. As Tettaha was at no great than of their skill or dexterity.

distance, I determined to go thither myself the first For some time past Tinah had talked of going opportunity, and make inquiries, in hopes that the to the island of Tethuroa, which lies eight or ten breed might still be preserved. leagues north from Otaheite, to fetch his mother ; I had much discourse with my guests about but I found I had only half understood him, for Omai : they confirmed to me that he died about this morning he inquired when we were to sail thirty months after Captain Cook left the islands. there in the ship ; however he seemed to feel no Soon after Captain Cook's departure from Huagreat disappointment at my not complying with heine, there were some disputes between the his wish. Tethuroa, he informed me, is the pro- people of that island and those of Ulietea, in which perty of his family. He likewise spoke to me about also the natives of Bolabola took a part. Omai, an island called Roo-opow, the situation of which who was become of consequence from the possesshe described to be to the eastward of Otaheite ing three or four muskets and some ammunition, four or five days' sail, and that there were large was consulted on the occasion. Such was his animals upon it with eight legs. The truth of this opinion and assurances of success, that a war was account he very strenuously insisted upon, and determined on, and took place immediately.wished me to go thither with him. I was at a loss Victory soon followed, through the means of those to know whether or not Tinah himself gave credit few arms, and many of the Ulietea and Bolabola to this whimsical and fabulous account; for though men were killed. In this contest their flints they have credulity sufficient to believe any thing, proved bad, or probably the locks of the muskets however improbable, they are at the same time so had got out of order : this they remedied by a much addicted to that species of wit which we lighted stick, one man presenting the musket, and call humbug, that it is frequently difficult to dis- another with the burnt stick setting fire to the cover whether they are in jest or earnest. Their priming ; without which contrivance their arms ideas of geography are very simple ; they believe would have proved useless. This expedition, it the world to be a fixed plane of great extent, and seems, consumed all their ammunition. Peace that the sun, moon, and stars are all in motion was soon after established, but I did not underround it. I have been frequently asked by them stand that Omai had increased his possessions or if I have not been as far as the sun and moon ; his rank. Nevertheless, I have reason to confor they think we are such great travellers that clude, that he was in some degree of favour with scarce any undertaking is beyond our ability. his countrymen, from the general good character

Another island, called Tappuhoi, situated like- which they give of him. It appears that he wise to the eastward, was described to me by always remembered England with kindness ; for Tinah, the inhabitants of which were said to be all his accounts to his countrymen have been such as warriors, and that the people of Otaheite did not to give them, not only a great idea of our power dare to go there. He told me, that very lately and consequence, but of our friendship and goodcanoe from Tappuhoi was at the island Maitea ; will towards him. that as soon as they landed they began to fight Tyvarooah, the eldest of the New Zealand boys with the people of Maitea, who killed them all that were left with him, died a short time after except a young lad and a woman, who have since Omai. About Coah, the youngest, I had always been at Otaheite. I saw the boy, but could get no doubtful accounts till I came to Huaheine, where information from him. It is most probable, that

I learnt that he likewise was dead. this unfortunate visit of the canoe from Tappuhoi was not designed, but occasioned by adverse winds, which forced them so far from their own island;

CHAPTER VIII. and that the people of Maitea began the attack, taking advantage of their superior numbers on account of some former quarrel.

Thursday, 13th.—I had a large company to dine with me to-day. Some of my constant visitors had observed that we always drank His Majesty's health as soon as the cloth was removed, but they AFTER dinner I went on shore, and while I was at were by this time become so fond of wine, that the tents, from having exposed myself too much they would frequently remind me of the health in the sun, I was taken ill, and continued in much in the middle of dinner, by calling out King George pain for near an hour. This was soon known Earee no Brittannee, and would banter me if the among the natives, and I was exceedingly surglass was not filled to the brim. Nothing could prised to see Tinah and all the principal people, exceed the mirth and jollity of these people when both men and women, collecting round me and they met on board.

offering their assistance. For this short illness I was assured by Oediddee and several others, I was made ample amends, by the pleasure I that the vines planted at the island Huaheine by received from the attention and appearance of Captain Cook had succeeded and bore fruit ; and affection in these kind people. that some of the other plants, both at Huaheine Friday, 14th November.—This morning I had and at Oaitepeha, a district on the S.E. part of numberless inquiries after my health.

The wea



ther being fine, I invited Tinah, Oreepyah, and hoo, and invited him on board : before we parted, Poeeno, to accompany me to Tettaha, in order to I bargained with him for the heifer, which he inquire after the cow, and soon after sunrise we promised to bring in five days. My intention set off in the launch. Tettaha is nearly four was, that if I got the heifer, I would endeavour to leagues from Point Venus. On our arrival, Tinah purchase the bull at Itteah : but if that could not sent a man to give notice of our visit. The chief be done, then I could send the heifer as a present of the district, whose name was Teppahoo, did not to the possessor of the bull, which might equally appear, but sent a messenger to demand, if I came well answer my purpose. only to see the cow, or to take it away with me? It has been mentioned, that Tinah had a place In answer to this, I sent assurances that I only in my cabin to keep those things which I gave desired to see it; and the chiefs who were with him, as being more secure on board than on shore. me spoke to the same effect. I was then desired I had remarked lately, that his hoard seemed to to proceed in the boat further along shore to the diminish the more I endeavoured to increase it : westward. In our way Tinah made me stop at length I discovered that Iddeah kept another among some fishing canoes to purchase fish for hoard in the master's cabin, which she regularly him, which he ate raw, with salt water for sauce. enriched from her husband's, whenever I made When we arrived at the landing-place, a great him a present, apprehending that I should cease number of people had collected, and soon after giving, when I saw Tinah's locker full. At his Teppahoo arrived. Oreepyah and I went with request, I set the carpenters to work to make him him about a quarter of a mile, when I was shown a chest large enough for himself and wife to sleep one of the most beautiful heifers I ever saw. I on. Captain Cook had formerly given him such asked if they had any more, but they all said there a chest, but it had been taken from him by the was no other than a bull at Itteah, as before-men- Eimeo people. tioned. I could not refrain from expressing my Friday, 21st.—This forenoon, I received a mesdispleasure at the destruction and the foolish sepa- sage from Teppahoo, to acquaint me the heifer ration of these fine animals. I had shared with was brought to Matavai. I immediately went on Captain Cook in the trouble of this business, and shore, and found that he had been as good as his had been equally anxious for the success.

word. The purchase money was paid, which conThe district of Tettaha is not so luxuriant and sisted of a shirt, a hatchet, å spike-nail, a knife, a fruitful as the country about Matavai. As I saw pair of scissors, a gimlet, and file ; to which was nothing of consequence to detain me, I made a added, a small quantity of loaf-sugar. Teppahoo present to Teppahoo, and, after inviting him to appeared well pleased with his bargain; and I sent visit me on board the ship, which he promised to

the heifer to Poeeno's residence, near which was do, I took leave. Tinah had remained all this plenty of grass. time in the boat. I observed that no respect was In the afternoon, I was invited to a heiva, the shown to him at this place, nor was he able to most extraordinary part of which was an oration, procure a cocoa-nut, or a bread-fruit, otherwise with some ceremonies in compliment to us. Twelve than by purchasing it. The heifer being here is men were divided into four ranks, with two women a proof of this district not having been friendly to in the front; behind them all stood a priest, who the people of Matavai and Oparre.

made a speech which lasted ten minutes, and which In our way back, having to row against the was listened to with some attention. During this, wind, we stopped to refresh at Oparre, and it was the picture of Captain Cook, which had been brought eight o'clock by the time we arrived at the ship. for that purpose, was placed by my side. When I kept my fellow-travellers on board to supper, the priest left off speaking, a piece of white cloth and they did not fail to remind me of the king's was wrapt round the pieture, and another piece health.

round me. The priest then spoke again for a Monday, 17th.–Our collection of bread-fruit short time, and an old man placed a piece of plants at the tents continued increasing. This plaited cocoa-nut leaf at my feet; the same was morning I sent twelve on board, in pots, to dis- done to Tinah, and one piece was put under the cover where they would thrive the best, the air picture. After this the dancing began, which was being more temperate on board the ship than on in the same style that we had already seen. shore. While I was absent from the ship, Tep

The head of the ship was the figure of a woman, pahoo had been on board, and left a hog as a and not ill carved. As we were painting the ship's present for me.

upper works, I directed this figure to be painted After dinner to-day, Tinah, who was my con- in colours, with which the islanders were much stant visitor, left the table sooner than usual. pleased. Not only the men, but the women, deWhen he was gone, Oreepyah, his brother, and sired me to bring English women when I came Oedidde, told me a piece of scandal, which had again. To-day Oedidde, thinking I was not conbeen before hinted to me, but which till now I vinced of the truth of what he had told me about had not heard of with certainty : this was, that Iddeah, mentioned the affair to the lady herself Iddeah, Tinah's wife, kept a gallant, who was a in my hearing, at which she laughed, but said he towtow, or servant, and the very person who did ill to tell me of it. However, it was evident always fed Tinah at dinner : and this was so far she was not much offended; for they were both from being without Tinah's knowledge or consent, very much diverted in discoursing upon the that they said it was by his desire. They added subject. many other circumstances, and, as I appeared to I find it is not at all uncommon for brothers to doubt, they took several opportunities, in the have connexion with the wives of each other, course of the day, of mentioning it to other people, particularly elder brothers with the wives of their who all declared it was true.

younger brothers, which is generally allowed, and Tuesday, 18th.—This afternoon, I saw Teppa- no offence taken : but if any person, not belonging

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