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On the 3rd of September, the ship came out of PLAN OF THE EXPEDITION-OUTFIT, AND OCCURRENCES TO THE dock; but the carpenters and joiners remained on
TIME OF LEAVING ENGLAND_DESCRIPTION OF THE BREAD- | board much longer, as they had a great deal of FRUIT.
work to finish. The king having been graciously pleased to The next material alteration made in the fitting comply with a request from the merchants and out, was, lessening the quantity of iron and other planters interested in his majesty's West India ballast.—I gave directions that only nineteen tons possessions, that the bread-fruit tree might be of iron should be taken on board, instead of the introduced into those islands, a vessel, proper customary proportion, which was forty-five tons. for the undertaking, was bought, and taken into The stores and provisions I judged would be fully dock at Deptford, to be provided with the neces sufficient to answer the purpose of the remainder; sary fixtures and preparations for executing the for I am of opinion, that many of the misfortunes object of the voyage. These were completed which attend ships in heavy storms of wind, are oc
cording to a plan of my much honoured friend, casioned by too much dead weight in their bottoms. Sir Joseph Banks, which, in the event, proved The establishment of men and officers for the the most advantageous that could have been ship were as follows :-1 Lieutenant to command; adopted for the intended purpose.
1 Master ; 1 Boatswain ; 1 Gunner; 1 Carpenter; The ship was named the Bounty: I was appointed 1 Surgeon ; 2 Master's Mates ; 2 Midshipmen; to command her on the 16th of August, 1787. Her 2 Quarter Masters ; 1 Quarter Masters' Mate; burthen was nearly two hundred and fifteen tons ; | 1 Boatswain's Mate ; 1 Gunner's Mate ; 1 Carher extreme length on deck, ninety feet ten inches; penter's Mate ; 1 Carpenter's Crew ; 1 Sailmaker; extreme breadth, twenty-four feet three inches; 1 Armourer ; 1 Corporal ; 1 Clerk and Steward ; and height in the hold under the beams, at the 23 able seamen—Total 44. main hatchway, ten feet three inches. In the Two skilful and careful men were appointed, at cockpit were the cabins of the surgeon, gunner, Sir Joseph Banks's recommendation, to have the botanist, and clerk, with a steward - room and management of the plants intended to be brought store-rooms. The between decks was divided in home: the one, David Nelson, who had been on the following manner:—the great cabin was ap- similar employment in Captain Cook's last voyage ; propriated for the preservation of the plants, and the other, William Brown, as an assistant to him. extended as far forward as the after hatchway. – With these two, our whole number amounted to It had two large sky-lights, and on each side forty-six, three scuttles for air, and was fitted with a false! It was proposed, that our route to the Society floor cut full of holes to contain the garden-pots, Islands should be round Cape Horn; and the in which the plants were to be brought home. greatest despatch became necessary, as the season The deck was covered with lead, and at the foremost was already far advanced: but the shipwrig corners of the cabin were fixed pipes to carry off not being able to complete their work by the time the water that drained from the plants, into tubs the ship was ready in other respects, our sailing placed below to save it for future use. I had a was unavoidably retarded. However, by the 4th small cabin on one side to sleep in, adjoining to of October the pilot came on board to take us down the great cabin, and a place near the middle of the river ; on the 9th we fell down to Long Reach, the ship to eat in. The bulk-head of this apart where we received our gunner's stores, and guns, ment was at the after-part of the main hatchway, | four 4-pounders and ten swivels. and on each side of it were the births of the The ship was stored and victualled for eighteen mates and midshipmen; between these births the months. In addition to the customary allowance arm-chest was placed. The cabin of the master, of provisions, we were supplied with sour krout, in which was always kept the key of the arms, | portable soup, essence of m
| portable soup, essence of malt, dried malt, and a was opposite to mine. This particular descrip- / proportion of barley and wheat in lieu of oatmeal. tion of the interior parts of the ship is rendered I was likewise furnished with a quantity of ironnecessary by the event of the expedition.
work and trinkets, to serve in our intercourse The ship was masted according to the propor. | with the natives in the South Seas : and from the tion of the navy; but, on my application, the Board of Longitude I received a time-keeper, made masts were shortened, as I thought them too by Mr. Kendal. much for her, considering the nature of the voyage. On the 15th I received orders to proceed to
Spithead; but the winds and weather were so eastern side of Java to some port on the north side of that unfavourable that we did not arrive there till the island, where any bread-fruit trees which may have been 4th of November. On the 24th I received from injured, or have died, may be replaced by mangosteens,
duriens, jacks, nancas, lansas, and other fine fruit trees Lord Hood, who commanded at Spithead, my
of that quarter, as well as the rice plant which grows upon final orders. The wind, which for several days
dry land; all of which species (or such of them as shall be before had been favourable, was now turned
judged most eligible) you are to purchase on the best terms directly against us. On the 28th the ship's com
you can from the inhabitants of that island, with the ducats pany received two months' pay in advance, and with which you have also been furnished for that purpose; on the following morning we worked out to St., taking care, however, if the rice plants above-mentioned Helen's, where we were obliged to anchor.
cannot be procured at Java, to touch at Prince's Island for We made different unsuccessful attempts to get
them, where they are regularly cultivated.
From Prince's Island, or the Island of Java, you are to down channel, but contrary winds and bad weather
proceed round the Cape of Good Hope to the West Indies constantly forced us back to St. Helen's, or Spit
(calling on your way thither at any places which may be head, until Sunday the 23rd of December, when
thought necessary) and deposit one half of such of the we sailed with a fair wind.
above-mentioned trees and plants as may be then alive The object of all the former voyages to the at his majesty's botanical garden at St. Vincent, for the South Seas, undertaken by the command of his benefit of the Windward Islands, and then go on to present majesty, has been the advancement of | Jamaica : and, having delivered the remainder to Mr. science, and the increase of knowledge. This East, or such person or persons as may be authorised by voyage may be reckoned the first, the intention of
the governor and council of that island to receive them ; which has been to derive benefit from those distant
refreshed your people, and received on board such provi
| sions and stores as may be necessary for the voyage, make discoveries. For the more fully comprehending
the best of your way back to England; repairing to Spitthe nature and plan of the expedition, and that
head, and sending to our secretary an account of your the reader may be possessed of every information arrival and proceedings. necessary for entering on the following sheets, I And whereas you will receive herewith a copy of the shall here lay before him a copy of the instructions instructions which have been given to the above-mentioned I received from the Admiralty, and likewise a short gardeners for their guidance, as well in procuring the said description of the bread-fruit.
trees and plants, and the management of them after they
shall be put on board, as for bringing to England a small By the Commissioners for executing the office of
sample of each species, and such others as may be prepared Lori High Admiral of Great Britain and
by the superintendant of the botanical garden at St. VinIreland, &c.
cent's, and by the said Mr. East, or others, for his majesty's
garden at Kew; you are hereby required and directed to Whereas the king, upon a representation from the mer
afford, and to give directions to your officers and company chants and planters interested in his majesty's West India
to afford, the said gardeners every possible aid and assistpossessions, that the introduction of the bread-fruit tree
ance, not only in the collecting of the said trees and plants into the islands of those seas, to constitute an article of
at the places before-mentioned, but for their preservation food, would be of very essential benefit to the inhabitants,
during their conveyance to the places of their destination. hath, in order to promote the interests of so respectable a
Given under our hands the 20th November, 1787.-HOWE, body of his subjects (especially in an instance which pro
CHAS. BRETT, Rp. HOPKINS, J. LEVESON GOWER, mises general advantage) thought fit that measures should be taken for the procuring some of those trees, and con
To Lieut. W. Bligh, commanding H.M.'s veying them to the said West India islands: and whereas
armed vessel the Bounty, at Spithead. the vessel under your command hath, in consequence By command of their Lordships, P. STEVENS. thereof, been stored and victualled for that service, and fitted with proper conveniences and necessaries for the In the foregoing orders it is to be observed, preservation of as many of the said trees as, from her size, that I was particularly directed to proceed round can be taken on board her; and you have been directed to
Cape Horn ; but, as the season was so far adreceive on board her the two gardeners named in the mar
vanced, and we were so long detained by contrary gin*, who, from their knowledge of trees and plants, have
winds, I made application to the Admiralty for been hired for the purpose of selecting such as shall appear to be of a proper species and size:
discretional orders on that point; to which I reYou are, therefore, in pursuance of his majesty's plea
ceived the following answer :sure, signified to us by Lord Sydney, one of his principal secretaries of state, hereby required and directed to put to
By the Commissioners for executing the office of sea in the vessel you command, the first favourable oppor
Lord High Admiral of Great Britain and tunity of wind and weather, and proceed with her, as
Ireland, &c. &c. expeditiously as possible, round Cape Horn, to the Society The season of the year being now so far advanced as to Islands, situate in the southern ocean, in the latitude of render it probable, that your arrival, with the vessel you about eighteen degrees south, and longitude of about two command, on the southern coast of America, will be too hundred and ten degrees east from Greenwich, where, | late for your passing round Cape Horn without much difaccording to the accounts given by the late Capt. Cook, ficulty and hazard; you are, in that case, at liberty (notand persons who accompanied him during his voyages, withstanding former orders) to proceed in her to Otaheite, the bread-fruit tree is to be found in the most luxuriant round the Cape of Good Hope. state.
Given under our hands the 18th December, 1787.-Howe, Having arrived at the above-mentioned islands, and CHAS, BRETT, BAYHAM. taken on board as many trees and plants as may be thought To Lieut. J. Bligh, commanding H.M.'s necessary (the better to enable you to do which, you have
armed vessel Bounty, Spithead. already been furnished with such articles of merchandise
By command of their Lordships, P. STEVENS. and trinkets as it is supposed will be wanted to satisfy the natives) you are to proceed from thence through Endea
The bread-fruit is so well known and described, vour Streights (which separate New Holland from New
that to attempt a new account of it would be unGuinea) to Prince's Island, in the Streights of Sunda, or, if
necessary and useless. However, as it may conit should happen to be more convenient, to pass on the
tribute to the convenience of the reader, I have * David Nelson, William Brown.
given the following extracts respecting it.
Extract from the account of Dampier's Voyage round the like a truffle: it is covered with a thin skin, and World, performed in 1688.
has a core about as big as the handle of a small “ The bread-fruit (as we call it,) grows on a knife. The eatable part lies between the skin and large tree, as big and high as our largest apple- | the core; it is as white as snow, and somewhat of trees. It hath a spreading head, full of branches | the consistence of new bread : it must be roasted and dark leaves. The fruit grows on the boughs before it is eaten, being first divided into three or like apples; it is as big as a penny-loaf when wheat four parts. Its taste is insipid, with a slight is at five shillings the bushel; it is of a round sweetness somewhat resembling that of the crumb shape, and hath a thick tough rind. When the of wheaten bread mixed with a Jerusalem artifruit is ripe, it is yellow and soft, and the taste is
choke.” sweet and pleasant. The natives of Guam use
| “Of the many vegetables that have been menit for bread. They gather it, when full-grown, | tioned already as serving them for food, the prinwhile it is green and hard ; then they bake it in | cipal is the bread-fruit, to procure which costs them an oven, which scorcheth the rind and makes it no trouble or labour but climbing a tree. The black ; but they scrape off the outside black crust, tree which produces it does not indeed shoot up and there remains a tender thin crust; and the spontaneously; but, if a man plants ten of them inside is soft, tender, and white like the crumb of a
in his life-time, which he may do in about an hour, penny-loaf. There is neither seed nor stone in the
he will as completely fulfil his duty to his own inside, but all is of a pure substance, like bread. | and future generations as the native of our less It must be eaten new ; for, if it is kept above | temperate climate can do by ploughing in the cold twenty-four hours, it grows harsh and choaky; | winter, and reaping in the summer's heat, as often but it is very pleasant before it is too stale. This | as these seasons return; even if, after he has profruit lasts in season eight months in the year,
cured bread for his present household, he should during which the natives eat no other sort of food convert a surplus into money, and lay it up for his of bread kind. I did never see of this fruit any
children. where but here. The natives told us, that there
“ It is true, indeed, that the bread-fruit is not is plenty of this fruit growing on the rest of the always in season; but cocoa-nuts, bananas, planLadrone islands : and I did never hear of it any tains, and a great variety of other fruits, supply where else.”
Extract from the account of Captain Cook's last Voyage. Extract from the account of Lord Anson's Voyage, published by Mr. Walter.
IN THE SOCIETY ISLANDS. “ There was, at Tinian, a kind of fruit, peculiar
“I (Captain Cook) have inquired very carefully to these (Ladrone) islands, called by the Indians
into their manner of cultivating the bread-fruit rhymay, but by us the bread-fruit; for it was
tree at Otaheite; but was always answered, that constantly eaten by us, during our stay upon the
they never planted it. This, indeed, must be eviisland *, instead of bread ; and so universally
dent to every one who will examine the places preferred, that no ship's bread was expended in
where the young trees come up. It will be always that whole interval. It grew upon a tree which
observed, that they spring from the roots of the is somewhat lofty, and which towards the top
old ones, which run along near the surface of the divides into large and spreading branches. The
ground. So that the bread-fruit trees may be leaves of this tree are of a remarkable deep green,
reckoned those that would naturally cover the are notched about the edges, and are generally
plains, even supposing that the island was not from a foot to eighteen inches in length. The
inhabited; in the same manner that the whitefruit itself is found indifferently on all parts of barked trees, found at Van Diemen's Land. conthe branches; it is, in shape, rather elliptical
stitute the forests there. And from this we may than round; it is covered with a tough rind, and
observe, that the inhabitant of Otaheite, instead is usually seven or eight inches long; each of
of being obliged to plant his bread, will rather be them grows singly, and not in clusters. This
under the necessity of preventing its progress; fruit is fittest to be used when it is full-grown,
which, I suppose, is sometimes done, to give room but still green; in which state, after it is pro
for trees of another sort, to afford him some variety
in his food.” perly prepared by being roasted in the embers, its taste has some distant resemblance to that of
IN THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. an artichoke's bottom, and its texture is not very “ The bread-fruit trees are planted, and flourish different, for it is soft and spungy.”
with great luxuriance, on rising grounds.”—
“ Where the hills rise almost perpendicularly in Extracts from the account of the first Voyage of Captain a great variety of peaked forms, their steep sides Cook. Hawkesworth, Vol. II.
and the deep chasms between them are covered IN THE SOCIETY ISLANDS.
with trees, amongst which those of the bread-fruit « The bread-fruit grows on a tree that is about | were observed particularly to abound.” the size of a middling oak ; its leaves are frequently
The climate of the Sandwich Islands differs a foot and a half long, of an oblong shape, deeply
an oblong shape deeply | very little from that of the West India Islands, sinuated like those of the fig-tree, which they
which lie in the same latitude. Upon the whole, resemble in consistence and colour, and in the
perhaps, it may be rather more temperate.” exuding of a white milky juice upon being broken.
“The bread-fruit trees thrive in these islands, The fruit is about the size and shape of a child's
not in such abundance, but produce double the head, and the surface is reticulated not much un- quantity of fruit they do on the rich plains of Ota
| heite. The trees are nearly of the same height, * About two months; viz. from the latter end of August but the branches begin to strike out from the to the latter end of October, 1742.
trunk much lower, and with greater luxuriance.”
ship’s business with the utmost dispatch, and gave CHAPTER II.
the necessary directions to Messrs. Collogan and DEPARTURE FROM ENGLAND-ARRIVAL AT TENERIFFE-SAIL | Sons, the contractors, for the supplies I wanted. FROM THENCE-ARRIVAL OFF CAPE HORN-SEVERITY OF I also got leave of the governor for Mr. Nelson to THE WEATHER-OBLIGED TO BEAR AWAY FOR THE CAPE range the hills and examine the country in search OF GOOD HOPE.
of plants and natural curiosities. On Sunday morning, the 23d of December 1787, As there was a great surf on the shore, I barwe sailed from Spithead, and, passing through the gained for every thing I wanted to be brought off Needles, directed our course down channel, with a by the shore boats, and agreed to give five shilfresh gale of wind at east. In the afternoon one lings per ton for water. Very good wine was of the seamen, in furling the main-top-gallant sail, bought at ten pounds per pipe, the contract price; fell off the yard, and was so fortunate as to save but the superior quality was fifteen pounds; and himself by catching hold of the main-top-mast-stay some of this was not much inferior to the best in his fall. At night the wind increased to a London Madeira. I found this was an unfavourstrong gale, with a heavy sea. It moderated, I able season for other refreshments : Indian corn, however, on the 25th, and allowed us to keep our potatoes, pumpkins, and onions, were all very Christmas with cheerfulness ; but the following scarce, and double the price of what they are in day it blew a severe storm of wind from the east- summer. Beef also was difficult to be procured, ward, which continued till the 29th, in the course and exceedingly poor ; the price nearly sixpence of which we suffered greatly. One sea broke farthing per pound. The corn was three current away the spare yards and spars out of the star- dollars per fanega, which is full five shillings per board main chains. Another heavy sea broke bushel ; and biscuit at twenty-five shillings for the into the ship, and stove all the boats. Several hundred pounds. Poultry was so scarce that a casks of beer that had been lashed upon deck good fowl cost three shillings. This is, therefore, were broke loose and washed overboard, and it not a place for ships to expect refreshments at a was not without great difficulty and risk that we reasonable price at this time of the year, wine were able to secure the boats from being washed excepted ; but from March to November supplies away entirely. On the 29th we were in latitude are plentiful, particularly fruit ; of which at this 39° 35' N. and longitude 14° 26' W. when the time we could procure none, except a few dried gale abated, and the weather became fair. Besides figs and some bad oranges. other mischief done to us by the storm, a large The landing on the beach is generally impracquantity of our bread was damaged and rendered | ticable with our own boats, at least without great useless, for the sea had stove in our stern, and risk ; but there is a very fine pier, on which people filled the cabin with water. From this time to may land without difficulty if there is not much our arrival at Teneriffe we had moderate weather, swell in the road. To this pier the water is conand winds mostly from the northward.
veyed by pipes for the use of shipping, and for January 4th. This forenoon we spoke a French which all merchant-ships pay. ship bound to the Mauritius. The next day, at 1 There is a degree of wretchedness and want nine in the forenoon, we saw the island of Tene- among the lower class of people, which is not any riffe, bearing W.S.W. I W. about twelve leagues, where so common as among the Spanish and distant. It was covered with a thick haze, except Portuguese settlements. To alleviate these evils, the north-westernmost part, which is a remarkable the present governor of Teneriffe has instituted a headland, resembling a horse's head, the ears very | most charitable society, which he takes the trouble distinct. To the eastward of this head lie two to superintend ; and by considerable contributions, round rocks, the northern boundary of Teneriffe. a large airy dwelling, that contains one hundred A Spanish packet, bound to Corunna, an American and twenty poor girls, and as many men and boys, brig, and several other vessels, were lying here. has been built, and endowed with a sufficiency of
As soon as the ship was anchored, I sent an | land round it, not only for all present purposes, officer (Mr. Christian) to wait on the governor, but for enlarging the building for more objects of and to acquaint him I had put in to obtain re- charity as their funds increase. I had the honour freshments, and to repair the damages we had to be shown by his excellency this asylum, sustained in bad weather. To this I had a very (Hospicio they call it,) where there appeared in polite answer from the governor*, that I should every countenance the utmost cheerfulness and be supplied with whatever the island afforded. I content. The decency and neatness of the dress had also directed the officer to acquaint him that of the young females, with the order in which they I would salute, provided an equal number of guns were arranged at their spinning-wheels and looms, were to be returned ; but, as I received an extra- | in an extensive airy apartment, was admirable. ordinary answer to this part of my message, pur- | A governess inspected and regulated all their porting that his excellency did not return the same works, which were the manufacturing of ribbons number but to persons equal in rank to himself, of all colours, coarse linens, and tapes ; all which this ceremony was omitted.
were managed and brought to perfection by themDuring this interval I was visited by the port- selves, from the silk and flax in their first state; master (Captain Adams), and shortly afterwards even the dyeing of the colours is performed by several officers came on board from his excellency, them. These girls are received for five years, at to compliment me on my arrival. As soon as the the end of which they are at liberty to marry, and ship was moored, I went on shore, and paid my have for their portions their wheel and loom, with respects to him.
a sum of money proportioned to the state of the On Monday morning I began to forward the fund, which is assisted by the produce of their
labour, and at this time was estimated at two * Marquis de Brancheforté.
| thousand dollars per annum.