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named Jacobs, in 1650. See Disraeli's Cur. of Lit., Chambers' Book of Days, the Tatler and the Spectator, passim, Macaulay's Hist. Eng., &c.

48. 395. shining Altars of Japan = a bright japanned stand. Perhaps he used the plural altars because the plural (altaria) is the common form in Latin. "All substances that are dry and rigid, or not too flexible, as woods, metals, leather, and paper prepared, admit of being japanned.” (Pop. Encycl.) Japan ware was in great esteem at this time. Swift speaks of a “japan glass," a standish well japanned,” &c. Probably the art reached us from the island whence it derives the name in the course of the seventeenth century, through the medium of the Dutch.

397. liquors. The plural seems here to be used in a distributive sense ; liquors = the several cupfuls or draughts of liquor.

399. (What is the force of at once here? What other force has it?]

401. [hover. What would have been the difference in meaning had Pope written hovers ?]

402. fuming. So Paradise Lost, vii. 600, &c. The metaphorical sense of the word is now its prevailing one. Comp. w'apour.

403. display'd. See Il Penseroso, 149.

405. Coffee "much quickens the spirits and makes the heart lightsome,” says an old coffee-house handbill. See Chambers' Book of Days.

49. 410. Scylla. See Class. Dict. She must not be confounded with her of the straits of Sicily, a confusion committed by Virgil (Ecl. vi. 70), Ovid (Fast. iv. 500), and others. For the story of her crime and its punishment, see Ovid's Metam. viii. the beginning. 411. Comp. Ovid, 1.c. 150 :

“ Pluma fuit; plumis in avem mutata vocatur

Ciris, et a tango est hoc nomen adepta capillo.” See the


called Ciris, attributed to Virgil, 488 et seq.
413. See the converse in Shakspere, King John, IV. ii. 219.

416. Comp. Scott's Marmion, VI. xii. 1-6; Sir Bevis of Hamptoun, p. 249 of Ellis's Early Eng. Met. Rom. (Bohn's edition), where Josyan arms Sir Bevis.

420. engine. See Lycid. 130.
422. (steams. Explain the plural.]
425. thrice. So the Latin ter is used. See e.g. Ovid's T'rist. I. iii. 55.

433. expir'd. This cannot be called a passive participle. It is, in fact, a past participle active.

434. Resign’d. Observe the absolute use of this word. [How would you explain the phrase “I was resigned”?]

439. shears. See Milton, Lycid. 75.
440. Comp. Paradise Lost, vi. 344-9; Wordsworth's Laodamia:

“The phantom parts, but parts to re-unite."
447. Comp. Moral Essays, II. “ On the Characters of Women,” 268.

[How do you scan this line ?) 50. 451. See Virg. Bucol. v. 76.

453. Atalantis. The New Atalantis, entitled “ Secret Memoirs and Manners of several Persons of Quality of both sexes, from the New Atalantis, an Island in the Mediterranean, published in 1709, was in fact a personal satire on certain families well known at the time. It was written by Mary de la Rivière Manley, a daughter of Sir Roger Manley, Governor of Guernsey. “Deceived by a false marriage, and then deserted and thrown upon her own resources, she sustained herself by writing and by 'intrigue.' She died in 1724. Atalantis, with a key to it,' was one of the works in Leonora's Library.” (Spect. No. 37.) See above, line 186.

454. the small pillow. This was a richly decorated pillow which supported ladies in a

sitting posture when they received visits in their bedchambers. The custom of so receiving Visits was introduced from France. Courir les ruelles (to take the run of the bedsides) was a Parisian phrase for fashionable morning calls upon the ladies. The ruelle is the little path between the bedside and the wall.” (Professor Morley, note to Spect. No. 45.) This custom is described with exquisite humour in Spect. No. 45. 50. 461. the labour of the Gods. See Laomedon in Class. Dict.

466. unresisted = irresistible. Comp. unreproved, L'Allegro, 40 ; Paradise Lost,

iv. 493

Canto IV.

See l. 493.

472. ancient ladies = what are now called old maids.
474. awry. Comp. across, athwart, aslant, &c. cross-wise, &c.

manteau, from French manteau, or from the Italian town of Mantua. (Comp. milliner from Milan, Italian irons, Leghorn hats.) See Proceedings of Phil. Soc. v. 136.

481. (What does scene mean here?)

482. Spleen = melancholy, ennui, low spirits, hypochondria, ill-humour ; what is vulgarly called “ the blues” or “the dismals." A number of the Spectator speaks of “the spleen so frequent in studious men,” and “the vapours to which the other sex are so often subject.” Pope couples “spleen, vapours, and small-pox ;” Swift:

“ You humour me when I am sick,

Why not when I am splenetic?" Comp. "a spleeny Lutheran,” Shakspere, Henry VIII. III. ii. 99; Persius' “petulanti splene cachinno.” See Tatler and Spect. passim. Sir William Temple's Essay on Poetry: "Our country must be confessed to be what a great foreign physician called it, the region of spleen,&c.

486. (all the wind. In what sense is the wind used here ?] 51. 487. grotto = cave or cavern. “This was found at the entry of the grotto in the Peak,” = Peak Cavern. (Woodward apud Johnson.) So grot, French grotte, Italian grotta. The word is said to be a corruption of crypt. Mr. Wedgwood, more probably, connects it with Fr. gratter, German grab, our“ grave.” The termination is perhaps diminutival. Wedgwood quotes crottot as a dialectic form of the French word. Grotesque is the style in which grottoes were ornamented.” Pope's grotto at his Twickenham house was a subterranean passage connecting his lawn (on the river-bank) and his garden, which were separated by the road. See Chambers' Book of Days, i. 703.

[What part of speech is close here ?] 488. (in shades. Would by shades be precisely the same ?)

Compare or contrast Il Penseroso, 28. 490. Megrim: French migraine = Greek qurkpavia (literally a half-headedness). Halliwell quotes from Chron. Vilodun, : A fervent mygreyn was in the ryght syde of hurr hedde.” In a plural form the word was used, and still is in the provinces, for “whims, fancies, bad spirits."

491. wait the throne. See above, 1. 301.
495. store. See Proth. 1. 33.
496. lampoons: originally drinking songs.
499. See Spect. No. 38. [Explain the force of Practis'd here.)

501. quilt. See Wedgwood's Dict. According to that authority, the counter in counterpane is radically the same word. 504. See above.

So Zoilus, according to Martial (ii. 16), fell ill to show off his fine bedfurniture :

“Zoilus ægrotat : faciunt hanc stragula febrem:

Si fuerit sanus, coçcina quid facient?

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51. 509. snakes on rolling spires. See Paradise Lost, ix. 496-502.

(Explain rolling.) 512. Angels in machines, i.e. angels coming to succour, angels "interfuturi” (comp. Hor. Ars Poet, 191). Comp the Latin deus ex machina; Greek beos útró unxavñs, of which see Suidas' explanation, quoted by Orelli on Hor. Ars Poet. 191. 513 Comp. Milton's Com. 526–30; Hom. Od. x. 139 et seq. Comp. Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, Part I. Sec. ii. Mem. 1 Subs. 4:

“One thinks himself a giant, another a dwarf; one is heavy as lead, another is as light as a feather.

One fears heaven will fall on his head ; a second is a cock, and such a one Guianerius saith he saw at Padua that would clap his hands together and crow. Another thinks he is a nightingal, and therefore sings all night long; another he is all glass, a pitcher, and will therefore let nobody come near him,” &c. &c.

517. [Pipkin. Mention other instances of this termination. i
like Homer's Tripod. Sec. Iliad, xviii. 372–81, esp. 373-77, which Pope translates :

" Full cwenty tripods for his hall he fram’d,

That, plac'd on living wheels of massy gold,
(Wondrcus to tell) instinct with spirit rollid
Fiom place to place, around the blest abodes,

Self-mov'd, obedient to the beck of gods."
521. [past. What part of the trh is past here?)

522. Just as Odysseus was protected by his “ good antidote," which the gods called moly" (Od. x. 305), so the attendant spirit declared himself protected by his root of hæmony. Com. 629-41.

[Has healing here a strictly participial sense ?] 523. wayward Queen: on the “like man, like master” principle. From the time of Virgil's “varium et mutabile semper fæmina” downwards, and long before it, women have been specially so characterized by men poets.

524. the ser. This somewhat jaunty phrase was popular in Pope's time. It is perhaps an abridgment of “the fair sex.'

525. vapours. See above, line 482.

527. [What should we say for by ?) 52. 533 Comp. Chryses' prayer, Iliad, i. 37-42.

Aqua vitæ, distilled with the rind of citrons.” (Johnson.) See Mor. Ess. II. Of the Characters of Women,” 64 :

“Now drinking citron with his Grace and Chartres." See Swift's Journal of a Modern Young Lady:

And then, to cool her heated brains,

Her night-gown and her slippers brought her,
Takes a large dram of citron-water."

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[What part of the sentence is like citron waters ?] 536. at a losing game. On losing see note, L'All. 20. Cards were perhaps at their very greatest popularity in England about this time.

538. head-dress. On the head-dresses of this time see Spect. No. 98.

541. Radically chagrin and shagreen are the same word. The primitive sense is more ?:scernible in shagreen.

52. 546. See Hom. Od. x. 19 and 20.

547. (What is meant by the force here ?)
549. (What is meant by fainting fears ?]
555. (What is the force of Full here ?]

556. vent is generally a small opening (as Shaksp. Ant. and Cleop. V. ii. 352), but not necessarily so. It is the Fr. fente (from Lat. findo) the f flattened. Comp. our fat, vat.

furies used generally, not specifically, as in Lycid. 75.
562. bodkin. See above, l. 274.
565. fillet = headband, snood.

568. Fops. “ Fop” and “fopling” and “ beau were the special words at this time for what at other times has been called “buck," “ dandy.”

569. [What does she mean by honour? Comp. below, l. 652.] 53. 578. [What word in this line would our present usage omit ?]

579. circling = encircling. So pales for “impales” (Shakspere, Cymbeline, III. i. 19). 581, Hyde-Park Circus. See above, 1. 44.

582. in the sound of Bow, i.e. amongst the “cits," or in any sort of neighbourhood to Grub Street. The City was but one large butt for the jests of the “wits ;” while its immediate suburbs were the head-quarters of that pinched and starved fraternity of scribblers between whom and Pope there was never peace. See Spect. No. 34: “Upon this my

friend the Templar told Sir Andrew that he wondered to hear a man of his sense talk after that manner; that the City had always been the province for satyr; and that the wits of King Charles's time jested upon nothing else during his whole reign.” “In the early part of Blackmore's time a citizen was a term of reproach ; and his place of abode was another topic to which his adversaries had recourse in the penury of scandal.” (Johnson's Life of Blackmore.) After the Restoration, Fashion moved its residence well to the west of the City; then the “West End” began to be. See a forthcoming work by H. B. Wheatley, Esq. on Piccadilly and its neighbourhood. 585. repairs. Repair is a very favourite word at this time.

Sir Plume Sir George Brown, brother of Thalestris (Mrs. Morley). 588. clouded. Comp.

“ The handle smooth and plain, Made of the clouded olive's easy grain.”

a phras e as

593. l’tis past a jest. What part of speech is past here? Comp. "beyond,” and such
One may

have too much of a joke.”]
595. [What is the sense of again here ?]
598. Comp. Hom. Il. i. 234 et seq.
599. (What is meant by renew its honours ?]
601. Comp. Virg. Æn. i. 387.

[What is the mock-heroic element in this line ?]
604. long contended = long contended for.
605. [What is the meaning of so here ?)
609. heav'd has here the force of a pres. part. pass.

(What exactly does hung mean here? What other pret. has the verb “hang"? Mertion other verbs with two prets. Have any three ?] 54. 619. marks = furrows, makes tracks on.

620. Obs, the rhyme here. See above, l. 296.
622. Comp. the trite lines in Gray's Elegy, and Waller's “Go, lovely son.
627. China. See above, 1. 254.
628. Poll. See above, l. 584.
630. As were those Cassandra saw and announced.

631. hairs. This plural occurs sometimes in our older writers, where we should rather use the singular in a collective sense.

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54. 633. break was pronounced breek in Pope's time, as the Staffordshire people pro nounce it. 635. uncouth.

See L'Allegro, 5. 639. Cruel. So we use “dear," savage ;” but these are also used substantively.


CANTO V. 646. See Virg. Æn. iv. 330.

647. (What does graceful qualify here?] 55, 651.

“A new character introduced in the subsequent editions, to open more clearly the moral of the poem, in a parody of the speech of Sarpedon to Glaucus in Homer.” (Pope.) See Niad, xii. 310-28.

See Spect. No. 15. 654. The ladies, it would seem, occupied the front boxes, the gentlemen the side. See below, 1. 657. See Epistle to Miss Blount, of Pamela :

“She glares in balls, front boxes, and the Ring." 660. The small-pox was one of the most fearful plagues of society about this time. One of the chief terrors of the day, it is very frequently mentioned by the poets : see Dryden's lines Upon the Death of Lord Hastings, his Ode on the Death of Mrs. Anne Killigrew, Cartwright's lines On his Majesty's Recovery from the Small-pox, &c. &c.

663. ogle is of the same root as English eye, German auge, Latin oculus, &c. The notion of sidelong sly glances has attached to the word. See the Spect. No. 46, where "an Irish Gentleman” announces his intention of setting up for an ogling-master: "I teach the church cgle in the morning, and the playhouse ogle by candlelight. I have also brought over with me a new flying ogle fit for the Ring, which I teach in the dusk of the evening, or in any hour of the day by darkning one of my windows. I have a manuscript by me called the Compleat Ogler, which I shall be ready to show you upon any occasion.” Comp. Arbuthnott : "Jack was a prodigious ogler; he would ogle you the outside of his eye inward and the white upward."

665. to paint. See Spect. on the Picts, especially No. 41.
668. (How would you emphasize the words of this line ?]
672. flights. Comp. Moral Ess. ii. 49, 50:

'Strange graces still, and stranger flights she had,

Was just not ugly, and was just not mad.” Comp. our use of " fighty," "to fly into a passion.”

On scolding see Spect. Nos. 479, 482; Freeholder: “A shrewd in domestic life is now become a scold in politics.” 673. [What is the force of


674. strike, i.e. produce an immediate impression on.

Comp. the use of this word of planetic influence, as in Hamlet, I. i. 162:

“ The nights are wholesome ; then no planets strike.676. Prude is derived from the Latin probus, and so is etymologically connected with prove, &c. The old French form is prode, feminine of prod. Comp. Modern French prud. homme. On the degradation of meaning see Trench's Study of Words.

677. Virago. “ Melpomene represented like a virago, or manly lady, with a majestick and grave countenance.” (Peacham.) 685. See Iliad, xxi. 272-513.

(What does makes mean here ?] 687. Mars. He means Ares. This identification of the Latin and Greek gods, and consequent treatment of their names as convertible, is a scarcely yet obsolete habit ; but it is hoped that it is at last becoming so.

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