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rities of the church over its own members; the second is employed by one sect against another. The Protestant churches are justly chargeable with the latter infirmity, the church of Rome with both.

The despotism which prevails within a church. is a greater evil than the rage which exercises itself without, because it is a greater bar to the progress of truth and knowledge; but it is apparently less cruel, and offends less the public eye. It is more reasonable than intolerance. The latter is the most irrational of all the vices of sectaries, because a small degree of reflection would convince us, that various modes and forms of worship are not only the unavoidable result of the variety of mind and infinite modifications of perception which exist in the species, but that they are indispensable means for the preservation of zeal, purity, and propriety in religion. A variety of forms of worship may be built upon one simple foundation of truth, and where that foundation exists, the variety of superstructure is not only harmless but useful, whether it be the florid gothic, with all its superfluous adornments, or the naked and stern simplicity of the church of the covenant, which rejects with horror all decoration but that of "grace."

Tyrconnel, notwithstanding his change of counsel, thought it prudent to carry on a semblance of negotiation with the new government

of England. Chief Baron Rice, on the part of the Catholics, and Lord Mountjoy, on the side of the Protestants, were deputed by the lord-lieutenant to wait upon James at Paris, and to represent to him the necessity which his subjects of Ireland were under of submitting to the government of the Prince of Orange. Tyrconnel further intimated his resolution, that in case James should not concur in the plan of surrendering the government, he would feel himself warranted in resigning his authority. It was stipulated that there should be a cessation of arms until the result of this application were known.

On the arrival of the Deputies at Paris, the true character of this unmeaning juggle was discovered. Lord Mountjoy was committed to the Bastile by a shameful breach of faith, and Rice, who alone was entrusted with the secret of the deputation, entered into negotiations with the French government for the transportation of arms, troops, and stores to Ireland.

Tyrconnel now resumed the prosecution of the war. The northern Protestants had been unmolested during his hesitation, and had been active and decided in their measures. In the south Lord Inshiquin had been successful in collecting some troops under William's standard. Lord Kingston raised the Prince's flag in Connaught, and gathered a few Protestant adherents. These were small corps, but their spirits were

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raised by the events which had recently occurred in England. They hastened to proclaim William and Mary, and were the first to commence hostilities. They made a hasty attack upon Carrickfergus, in which they failed. They were further confounded by a proclamation from the lordlieutenant and council, ordering them to lay down their arms. The proclamation of the lordlieutenant would not have disturbed them; but this was signed Lord Granard and other Protestant noblemen, and therefore commanded their respect.

To support this proclamation Lieutenantgeneral Hamilton was despatched to the north with about a thousand regular troops and a considerable body of irregulars. Hamilton encountered the insurgents at Dromore, and defeated them with great slaughter. He pursued them to Hillsborough, where they rallied, but were again defeated and scattered in every direction. Hamilton followed up his success; subdued a number of detached corps, and finally reduced the northerns to their strong towns of Derry and Enniskillen.

In the south, General M'Carty had been equally vigorous and successful in clearing Munster of William's adherents. He routed Inshiquin in every encounter, and drove him from the field. The Protestants, lately so confident and bold, now fled in all directions from

the kingdom. All their posts in Munster were surrendered. In the north, Newry, Armagh, Coleraine, and other places were given up.

Derry, the great strength of the northern Protestants, was in want of every thing. Their applications to the new government in England had been little attended to in the multitude of interests that pressed for consideration. Their repeated and earnest representations were answered from time to time with assurances of support and succour; but those assurances were all they received. In the mean time violent dissentions prevailed in the town. Lundy, the governor, was suspected of being in the interest of James. The more moderate portion of the inhabitants wished an accommodation with the existing government; and that the city of Derry should abide its fate according to the issue of the war, and not be forced into a disastrous importance in the contest. But the majority were opposed to this scheme, and clamoured for resistance to the last extremity.

While these transactions were in progress, James sailed from Brest with three and twenty ships of war of all classes, and about fifteen hundred troops, chiefly Irish, in the pay of France, and a number of French officers, intended to command the Royal army in Ireland. The king landed at Kinsale on the 12th of March, and proceeded to Cork, where he was met by

Lord Tyrconnel. From Cork, James continued his progress to Dublin, where he arrived on the 24th of March, attended by a considerable train of British, Irish, and French noblemen and gentlemen, and accompanied by the French ambassador D'Avaux.

James seems in his first acts of government in Ireland to have been willing to adopt those measures of prudence and moderation which might, if employed in time, have preserved the crown of England to him and his family. Addresses were presented to him by the several public bodies, and by the clergy of the Established Church. His answers were prudent. He promised favour and protection to the establishment and encouragement to all. James had ever been a man of his word; and he cannot be charged with any breach of promise during his stay in Ireland. He invited the Protestants who had fled the kingdom, to return to their homes, and assured them of safety and his particular care. He commanded the Catholics, all but the military, not to carry arms in public. And finally he summoned a parliament to meet in Dublin on the seventh of May.

Having done so much upon paper, James thought it necessary to attempt something in the field; and believing that the reduction of the north, in which Hamilton had made such

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