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marched for Mallow, on their way to Cork. The remainder of the army was distributed in Cashel, Clonmel, Waterford, and Carlow. After this dispersion, Count Solmes went to Dublin, and shortly afterwards proceeded to England; and the chief command of the army in Ireland devolved upon General Ginckle, who fixed his headquarters at Kilkenny.

Solmes and Ginckle were both Dutchmen; for William had no confidence in his British officers, and entrusted them with no important command. He showed distrust and jealousy of Marlborough, and with some cause.

William was too able a proficient in his art of war, not to discern Marlborough's talent; and he was too good a judge of human nature to trust a man, who, on the first change of fortune, had deserted a prince, who, whatever were his errors, was his friend and benefactor, for a stranger and a foreigner.

About the middle of September the new lords justices arrived in Dublin, and were received with great joy by the citizens, who had been greatly displeased by the coldness, and almost contempt, with which William had treated their overflowing loyalty and protestantism. The justices found the city in great disorder. Their first attention was directed to settle the militia of the town upon a good footing, as some check upon the violent proceedings of a foreign soldiery. Having done this, a proclamation was

issued, ordering, “that country people bringing provisions to market should be protected.” William's troops had acted invariably since their arrival in Ireland as in an enemy's country, and could never be made to comprehend the distinction between Papists and Protestants : they robbed all alike, but the Protestants suffered most, being most in contact with them.

The city was now almost in a state of famine, owing to the depredations committed by the soldiers on such of the country people as ventured to bring in provisions. Another proclamation ordered “all Papists to keep within their own parishes." A third commanded the wives and children of soldiers, and other persons belonging to King James's army, “ to remove beyond the Shannon.' A fourth forbad all Papists “to dwell within ten miles of the frontier, on any pretence whatsoever.'

This series of proclamations exhibits a melancholy condition of society. The effort to check the outrages of the troops led to the most alarming feuds between them and the militia, without producing much effect in letting in a supply of food to the almost starving citizens. To the evil of scarcity was added a state of almost constant disorder, arising out of the quarrels of the troops. The precautions relative to “Papists” were chiefly directed against the “ Rapparies,” and those who harboured them. The vast in

crease of this disorderly peasantry had grown into a serious mischief, and had been chiefly occasioned by the outrages practised upon them by the soldiery, which left them no means of living, but by reprisal. Their cottages were invariably plundered and burned on the march of the army wherever it moved. The consequence was, that the houseless peasantry assembled in great bodies in the mountains, and being all able to procure pikes, and many of them having fire-arms, they soon became a formidable force, and hanging on the rear and flanks of the British divisions cut off all stragglers, and frequently succeeded in defeating detached parties, and capturing stores, arms, and ammunition. But their hostilities were not confined to the mi. litary. They retaliated the injuries they suffered from the soldiers, upon the unfortunate Protestant inhabitants of the country and the villages, or wherever they happened to be exposed to their violence. In the course of this war the Protestants were undoubtedly the greatest sufferers.. The Catholics had a powerful and friendly army in the country; and could live in perfect safety within their frontier, and the walls of their fortified towns. The Protestants had no place of safety; they were equally a prey to William's and to James's army, and met with as little mercy from the one as the other; neither did they find security in their walls and ram

parts. In those situations they were rather in the condition of persons shut up with wild animals in a cage, and in momentary apprehension of being devoured.

The lords lieutenants of counties, and justices of peace, in every place within the British

frontier," exerted themselves to the uttermost to restrain the excesses of the troops. They issued recommendations addressed to the military, assuring them, that “if they would not take things into their own hands, the country would find them with meat, drink, and whatever else they could reasonably think on.” But these efforts had little effect. The better disposed of the soldiery became weary of the disorders in which they lived, and great numbers deserted whenever they found an opportunity of escaping to England: these were mostly Englishmen. To put an end to this practice, which was thinning the army, the lords justices issued a proclamation, prohibiting “all masters of ships or other vessels from taking on board any officers or soldiers, unless those of known quality, without passes from the lords justices.”

While the government at Dublin were occupied with those regulations which the state of the country rendered necessary, the Irish, according to their custom, were waging a winter's campaign of posts and skirmishes; and with

considerable success.

Sarsefield had the chief direction of this warfare, at the head of a large body of light cavalry, and a larger force of armed peasants.

The peasants at Mallow had been bold enough to dispute with General Scravenmore the passage through that town; and he had to dislodge them with some difficulty from the bridge and castle, before he was able to continue his march to Cork.

The Earl of Marlborough was now expected every day at-Cork to undertake the siege of that town; and Scravenmore was ordered to support him. Marlborough had become impatient of the inglorious inactivity to which William condemned him; and had contrived to manage a party in the council, and to force himself into command, contrary to the wishes of the king, or with only his reluctant assent. The Princess Anne was at the head of the English party at court; and as Marlborough had deserted James for William, so now, with the true instinct of a courtier, or finding that his defection from his old master was not rewarded as he expected, he deserted William for the princess.

The intrigue which led to his appointment to the Cork expedition was probably the mere working of that great military genius, which afterwards filled Europe with its fame, seeking

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