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that art, as the assistant of nature, and even an absorption and destruc(when too slow in her operations) tion of the alveolar processes, which should interfere as far as possible to all provident nature intended for the alleviate them. It is also at this cri- security of those instruments. tical time that the greatest attention The consequences of this are, ocshould be paid to the state of the casional severe fits of tooth-ach, gums, to mark the protrusion of the swelled face, and other marks of inteeth, as well as the after change; for disposition, wbich by the least cold it is only by knowing the steps and lay him aside for weeks and months, order of their progress that proper putting a stop to every study and aid can be given the efforts of pursuit. nature during the years of child. The body, instead of being graduhood.

ally increased and duly nourished, So important is the interference as in the other instance, is here puof art at this time, that to judge pro- ny and diminutive; nay, even rickeperly of its effect, let us compare tý, deformed, and unsightly, upon two children from the time of denti- too many occasions. The mind, intion, or immediately after the pro- stead of being active and vigorous, trusion of the front teeth; in one of is fretful, peevish, and not alive to

whom a proper attention has been external impressions, owing to con- paid to their cleanliness, and the tinual irritation and pain.

other where it is neglected. The The most critical years of life, first evidently enjoys the greatest ad- which are intended to form the mind, vantage for securing comfort and are lost in a struggle to get the bet. health, bis organs will receive the ter of indisposition, brought on by supplies of nourishment, duly pre- neglect, and nourished and renderpared; his system will not only be ed permanent by the saine cause; for thriving, but the development of na- it is an incontrovertible fact, that tural attributes and bodily strength, no child, with bad teeth is ever heal. will gradually proceed to maturity, thy; and as this fact has been abundHe will possess sound health and an antly verified, in my experience, the active frame, his mind unfolding same cause will prove a certain exwith equal rapidity and perfection citement of whatever constitutional as his body.

disease the system may be naturally No disorder of the mouth will predisposed to. Thus, diseases, which communicate its distress to the other might have been dormant without parts, and excite sympathetic an- this baneful cause, are always reaguish.

dy to appear in children whose teeth His mind, vigorous and active, are bad, and to the disgrace of their will apply with ardour to every stu- purses, neglected; for little in a hady and pursuit suitable to his years. bit predisposed will excite the action Flis disposition will be pleasant and of inbred disease. cheerful, for he has had no malady In concluding this letter (on the to contort his temper, or distress his treatment of children, says Dr. Ewframe.

ell) I feel some pain at the appreContrast this bappy picture with hension that I have not said enough that of a child where the teeth and to induce a strict adherence to the gums are diseased from a want of practices recommended. I knew cleanliness.

them to be so judicious, that I felt as The causes of pain and irritation if argument were useless. The subare ever present, and are increased ject is those, of whom our Christ deby the influence of the tartar, which clared, “ of such is the kingdom of gradually accumulates on the teeth, heaven!" Ladies, if you feel as moproducing inflammation of the gums, thers, if you have souls to partake of the heaven of doing good to inno- drink; and the particles of the matcence in pain, you will not require ter so accumulated are highly dislong arguments to adopt practices posed to morbid changes, deleterious promoting the health of children. I to the healthful state of these organs. ask, I pray you, if I have not urged The same matter introduced into sufficiently to induce you to do it; the stomach, which thus acts on the then, as a favour, as a kind compli- teeth, would be harmless to that orance, in return for the wish I have to gap:—the constant motion of its serve, immediately prescribe.” contents, their admixture with a va

Thus the proper treatinent of the riety of fluids, changing their relateeth, when properly considered, tions and powers, and the strong informs the foundation of happiness; fluence of the living principle on First, as the prime strengthener of this viscus, are counteracting cirthe constitution; Secondly, as the cumstances which prevent all injugrand means of extending the ry and accumulation here. Thus growth; and, Thirdly, as the sure we sce it is not by any failure of the fouodation of health and harmony in natural qualities of the teeth that the system. By care of the teeth, their premature decay is occasionand thereby avoiding frequent ill- ed. This malady is alone to be atnesses, directly or indirectly arising tributed to the situation in wbich from the neglect of thein, we are they are placed, whereby they are enabled to undertake those pursuits exposed to the common fate of all fitted to our age and genius. We may matter under the influence of chymithus economise time, and apply life cal powers, and which even their to every beneficial purpose.

compact structure cannot resist, unThe possession of carious teeth, less those accumulations be preventbesides its effects on the temper and ed, which finally constitute a corrodgrowth of childhood, is liable to pro- ing power they cannot of themselves duce very serious evils at a more ad- oppose. vanced period of life, by giving to From these facts we may venture the air inhaled a putrid taiot or im- to assert, that soundness of constitupregnation, which being conveyed tion and duration of life, greatly deinto the lungs, diminishes the bene- pend upon the healthy condition of fits of its otherwise healthful oflice. the mouth.

Indeed, it may be regarded as an All these facts are important reaestablished fact, that it is only by sons then, for an early attention to the influence of the living principle the teeth, and the natural organs that the human frame is prevented connected with them, for it is prinfrom yielding to the powers of a chy- cipally in childhood that the means mical agency constantly acting on of preserving them perfect can fully it, as on inanimate substances. But succeed before the evil commences. there are certain parts to which this The preservation of the teeth and living principle dues not so strong- gums, therefore, is one of the first ly extend, and here the laws of chy- objects to be studied for insuring mistry take full effect; the part be. health and strength. ing subjected to all these changes As they form by nature, a comwbich heat and stagnation produce, plete arch, the removal of a tooth and thus exciting a fermentation in destroys the evenness of the gum the matter subjected to their opera- and the alveoli, diminishing the tion, as is strongly marked in the strength of the jaw, and proportionteeth, which are, as we have seen, ally reducing the perfection of voice beyond the reach of the circula- and articulation. tion, since they are exposed to ac- If the great distinctive attribute cumulations om what we eat and of man be the faculty of speech, that

speech can never be complete or Nay, from the very form, position, perfect, without two arches of teeth and cleanliness of the teeth, so far to modulate the sound, and give pro- as depends on the individual himself, per utterance to the words. Indeed, may be justly inferred his taste in it is obvious to every one, that when other matters. Hence, in order to the teeth are lost, the speech be- win that admiration whicb is the na. comes imperfect, and often scarcely tural wish of every one, the care of intelligible.

the teeth becomes an essential quaThis circumstance makes them lification, and ought to form an earvaluable beyond measure, to a pub- ly branch of education, which canlic speaker, and their preservation not be too forcibly impresed on the ought lo meet due attention from minds of children. those who wish to shine either in Independent of their soundness, the senate, at the bar, or in the pul- as a necessary appendage of exterpit.

nal symmetry, the teeth are no less Without these instruments of ut. important, as has been stated, to the terance, the graces of eloquence are preservation of the general health. lost, and the power of impressing From their structure being bighly the mind, and convincing the under- sensible, and every where surround standing, if not taken away, is con- ed with parts of equal sensibility, siderably diminished.

they communicate every impression Il is the premature loss of this part of their disease to the system at of the human structure, that produ- large. Thus, the first pains that unces the leading mark of age, and dermine the constitution, and sow occasions the contracted counte- the seeds of irreparable mischief, nance, the wrinkles of the face, and may often be traced to the diseased those unseemly changes which state of the teeth when unable to youth and beauty ever wish to see perform their natural functions. placed at a distance.

So conspicuous is this with all This may be done in a certain animals in a domesticated state, that degree, and the countenance exhi. the failure of their teeth may be bit the great lines of character that considered as the very breaking up belong to it, by a proper attention to of their constitution, Unless fed on the cleanliness and regularity of soft food, where the use of the teeth the teeth. No face, however pleas- is less required, their lives cannot ing and prepossessing, can ever be be protracted. In proof of the same complete in its attraction where the fact, we may adduce the long lives mouth is disfigured.

of fowls, and other animals, having However worthy of admiration by no teeth are consequently not subnatural symmetry, or intelligence of ject to any disease of the mouth; a character, a still and silent counte- strong corroboration of which, is alnance may be, we at once lose the so afforded by the long lives of some grateful impression, when a disclo- kinds of fish. sure of bad teeth is made by the in- Thus the lives of animals as well fuence of any excitement.

as man, seem by nature to be in a The circumstance either attaches considerable degree regulated by disgrace to the individual for present the health and permanence of the want of cleanliness, or to its parents, mouth. In the teeth of all animals or nurse, for past neglect. Even the in a state of nature, we discover no laugh, the test of good humour and diseased structure or deformity, and openness which invites to cordiality therefore we must ascribe it in the and confidence, fails to produce, a human subject to fortuitous, not reciprocal effect, where we are dis. constitutional or bereditary causes; gusted by a foul mouth.

for that they are less destructible, VOL. II.

3 H

than any other part of the frame is dern sense of that term. But, where evident, since, in places where bo- shall we look, in Italy, for the eledies have lain for centuries, teeth ments of such a reform? There can are found entire and sound, while be little hope of its political ameliothe other bones crumble to dust; a ration, till some improvement has sufficient proof that disease is not taken place in its moral condition. naturallv entailed upon their struc- How can any thing great or good be ture, but is the effect of the constant expected from a people, where the accumulation and action of offensive state of society is so depraved, as to matter upon them, which operates tolerate the cavaliere servenle sysby a putrid fermentation on those tem?-a system, which sanctions the parts unnoticed, before the agoniz- public display of apparent, if not ing pain of a single tooth calls our real, infidelity to the most important attention to those adjoining; when and religious engagement of domeswe are astonished, as much as we tic life. And yet, constituted as soare grieved, to find many in a state ciety is in Italy, this system ought of rapid decay:

perhaps to excite little surprise.

For, marriage is here, for the most Further Extracts from the f Diary of an part, a mere arrangement of conInvalid.'

venience; and the parties often meet, State of Society in Italy.-May for the first time, at the foot of the 16th. After six days of continued altar. An Italian does not expect travelling, a short season of repose from such an union, the bappiness succeeds as an agreeable vicissitude. of home, with the whole train of Let me employ a portion of it, in domestic charities which an Englishrecording my impressions of the mo- man associates with the marriage ral and political state of the coun- state; the spes animi credula mutui try, in which I have been sojourn is certainly not the hope of an Itae ing:

lian husband, -and the Cavaliere The discontent of the people, par robs him of nothing, which he is not ticularly in the Papal and Neapoli- quite content to spare. tan states, is loud and open; - for, It is indeed, nine times in ten, to though the liberty of the press is un- the fault of the husband, that the inknown, they indulge in the fullest fidelity of the wife is to be ascribed. freedom of speech, in canvassing This is a reflection I have often made the conduct of their rulers. There to Italian men, who have always is indeed amplecause for discontent; seemned disposed to admit the truth -the people seem every day more of it, but the truth is better attested impatient of the civil and ecclesias- by the exemplary conduct of those tical oppressions, to which they are women, whose husbaods take upon subjected;-—and a revolution is the themselves to perform the offices of common topic of conversation. If affection, that are ordinarily left to there were any rational hope of re- the Cavaliere.

An Italian said to volution bringing improvement, it me one day, · Una donna ha sempre would be difficult not to wish for a bisogno d'appoggiarsi ad un uomo.!" revolution in Italy.

-If she cannot repose her cares and A revolution, however, to be pro- ber confidence in the bosom of her ductive of benefit, ought to be ef- husband, is it very surprising that fected by the quiet operation of pub- she should seek some other support! lic opinion; that is, of the virtuous Consider the character of the Italian and well informed part of the pub- woman. Ardent and impassioned, lic;-and this would be, not revo- --jealous of admiration,-enthusiaslution, but reform-the best way of tic alike in love or in resentment, preventing a revolution, in the mo- -she is trembling alive to the pro

vocations which she has so often to in the verses of Petrarch, if indeed endure from the open neglect and Petrarch's love were Platonic, glows infidelity of the man, who has sworn with a rapturous warmth, which ofto love and protect her.

ten speaks the very language of a The spretæ injuria formæ is an grosser feeling; while the most deinsult which has provoked colder praved of all passions has been constitutions than the Italian, to re- clothed with a tenderness and delitaliate. What indeed is there to re- cacy of sentiment and expression, strain her-a sense of duty!--there wbich would seem to belong only to is no such sense. An Italian wo. our purest affections. Witness Homap is accustomed to consider the race's address to Ligurinus: conjugal duties as strictly reciprocal, and would laugh to scord, as Sed cur beu Ligurine, cut, taine and slavish submission, the Manat rara ineas lacryma per merk and gentle spirit which genas? prompted the reply of the divine Cur facunda parum decoro, Desdemona'

later verba cadit lingua silentio? · Unkindness may do nich; And his unkindness may defeat my it be Pope's beautiful imitation

What can be more tender, unless life, But never taint my


But why ah! tell me ah! too dear! And while there is so little to re- Steals down my cheek th' involun: strain, the effect of example is to en

tary tear? courage her to follow the bent of Why words so flowing, thoughts so her inclinations, and she is attend

free, ed by a licensed seducer, privileged Stop or turn nonsense at one glance to approach ber at all hours, and at

of thee? full liberty to avail bimself of all the aid that importunity and opportuni- But to return;—the Cavaliere systy can lend him, for the accomplish- tem must ever remain the great moment of bis purpose.

ral blot in the Italian character;These observations can only be and yet, this system, founded as it meant to apply to the higher classes is in the violation of all laws and of society, to which the Cavaliere feelings, has its owu peculiar regusystem is confined; and it must not lations, which it would be an unparbe supposed, even amongst these, donable breach of etiquette to transthat there are not many examples gress. The lady must not have of domestic virtue and doinestic bap- children by her Paramour;—at least, piness;-or that busbands and wives the notoriety of such a fact would may not be found in Italy, as in be attended with the loss of reputaother places, fondly and faithfully tion. What can be said of a state attached to each other. Nor is it al. of society that can tolerate such ways a criminal connexion that sub things, but „Reform it altogethsists between a lady and her Cava- er.' liere, though it is generally suppo- I am afraid the morals of Engsed to be so; but, many instances land will not derive much benefit might be cited, where it is well from familiarizing our countrywoknown that it is not.

men to hear these connexions talk. There is indeed a sort of mysti- . ed of, as they constantly are, withcism in the tender passion, as it out censure or surprise. It would be seems always to have existed in this impossible, however, to introduce country, which it is difficult to un. the system into England, as it exists derstaod or explain. Platonic love, here.

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