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was furnished with a passport in the name of John Anderson, signed by Arnold, “ to go to White Plains, or lower, if he thought proper, he being upon public business by my direction.” He was accompanied by the aforesaid Smith. They crossed the river at King's Ferry, from Stony Point to Verplanck's, and passed the American works at those places without suspicion. It was now quite dark, and they were induced, from the representation of danger which they received from a patrolling party which they met, to stop for the night at the house of Andreas Miller, near Crompond, about eight miles from Verplanck's Point. At the first dawn of light, Andre, who, according to Smith's testimony, spent a "restless night,” roused his companion, and ordered their horses to be prepared for an early departure. They took the road towards Pine's Bridge, and pressed forward without interruption. Here they breakfasted at the house of a good Dutch woman ; and here Andre and Smith separated; the former pursuing his way toward Tarrytown, while the latter returned to his home.
Andre was now upon the “ Neutral Ground,” as it was called. This part of the country was greatly infested with a set of robbers from the “Lower” or British party, denominated “ Cow Boys." They lived within the British lines, and stole or bought a supply of cattle for the army. It happened that the same morning on which Andre crossed Pine’s Bridge, seven persons, who resided near Hudson's River, on the neutral ground, agreed voluntarily to go out in company, watch the road, and intercept any suspicious stragglers, or droves of cattle, that might be seen passing towards New York. Four of this party were stationed on a hill, where they had a view of the road for some distance. The other three, named John Paulding, David Williams, and Isaac Van Wart, were concealed in the bushes about half a mile north of the village of Tarrytown. [See Tarrytown.] As Andre, who had met with no interruption from Pine's Bridge, approached this spot, Paulding stepped out and seized his horse by the bridle. The surprise of the moment put Andre off his guard, and, instead of showing his pass, he hastily asked, “Where do you belong?” They answered, “Down below," meaning New York, a true Yankee reply. Elated with the belief that he was once more among friends, after so much danger, Andre instantly replied, “So do I." He then foolishly declared himself to be a British officer, upon urgent business, and begged that the men would not delay him. But his mistake was soon apparent. He was taken into the bushes and searched. In his boots they found six papers, as Paulding observed, " of a dangerous tendency." Andre now proceeded to offer his watch, his horse, and large amounts of money, to be set free. But he pleaded in vain. The nearest military post was at North Castle, where Lieut. Colonel Jameson was stationed. To this place Andre was taken.
Andre still passed for John Anderson, and requested permission to write to General Arnold to inform him that he was detained. Col. Jameson thoughtlessly permitted the letter to be sent, and forwarded to General Washington
papers found upon the prisoner, with a statement of the manner in which he was taken. The General was then on his return from Hartford, and the express took a road different from that on which he was travelling, and passed him. This occasioned so great a loss of time, that Arnold, having received Andre's letter, made his escape on board the Vulture before the order for his arrest arrived at West Point.
As soon as Andre learned that Arnold was safe, he flung off all disguise, and assumed his true character as a British officer. General Washington referred his case to a board of fourteen general officers, of which Generals La Fayette and Steuben were members. They were to determine in what character he was to be considered, and what punishment ought to be inflicted. They treated Andre with great delicacy and tenderness, desiring him to answer no questions that embarrassed his feelings. But, concerned only for his honor, he frankly confessed that he did not come on shore under a flag, and stated so fully all facts respecting himself, that it became unnecessary to examine a single witness. The board, after due consideration, gave it as their opinion that Andre was a spy; and that, agreeably to the laws and usages of nations, he ought to suffer death. His execution took place the following day. [See Tappan.]
Andre was reconciled to death, but not to the mode of dying. He wrote to Gen. Washington, soliciting that he might be shot, rather than to die on a gibbet. But the stern maxims of justice forbade a compliance with this request.
Great, but unavailing, endeavors were made by Sir Henry Clinton to save Andre. Even Arnold had the presumption to write a threatening letter to Washington on the subject. An exchange for Arnold was suggested in an indirect manner, but Clinton would not listen to the proposal. Arnold was subsequently appointed Major General in the British army, and served out the war in that capacity. He was also paid the sum of fifty thousand dollars. After the war was finished he returned to England, where he died, in 1801, at the age of sixty-one years. He lived to be despised as well by those he served as those he attempted to betray; and his name is held in execration by the whole civilized world.
One mile above Peekskill, the cars pass along close to the base of Anthony's Nose. This mountain is a complete mass of rock, partly covered in some places with stunted trees. It rises very abruptly from the river to the height of 1128 feet. On the opposite shore of the river is the Dunderburg, presenting a romantic spectacle. Between these two elevations is that part of Hudson River termed the “Horse Race," a name derived from the rapidity of the current at this point at ebb tide.
Various stories are told concerning the manner in which one of these mountains obtained its name. The following is generally believed to be
genuine." Before the Revolution, a vessel was passing up the river, under the command of Captain Hogans. He had an enormous nose, which was frequently the subject of joking among the crew.
When immediately opposite this mountain, the mate looked rather quizzically, first at the mountain and then at the captain's nose. “What,” said Captain Hogans, “ does that look like my nose? Well, then, let us call it Anthony's Nose.” The story was repeated on shore, and the mountain thenceforward assumed the name, becoming an everlasting monument to the memory of Captain Anthony Hogans and his nose.
About opposite the second tunnel, above Peekskill, stand the two forts, Clinton and Montgomery, one upon each side of the mouth of a small stream which falls into the Hudson at this point. These forts were the main defences of the Highlands during the Revolution. They were too high to be battered from the water, and surrounded by steep and rugged hills, which made the approach to them on the land side very difficult. To stop the ascent of the enemy's ships, frames of timber, with projecting beams shod with iron, were sunk in the river. A boom, formed of large trees fastened together, extended from bank to bank; and in front of this boom was stretched a huge iron chain. Higher up the river, upon a small island, was Fort Constitution, and here was another boom and chain. Forts Montgomery and Clinton, having been left with a force of only eight hundred men, under the belief that they were sécure, were captured by the British, October 6, 1777. At that time General Burgoyne was closely hemmed in near Saratoga, by General Gates. Sir Henry Clinton, anxious to afford General Burgoyne an opportunity to force his way to Hudson River, left New York on the fifth of October with four thousand troops, and landed at Verplanck's Point. While a part of this force led General Putnam, who was at Peekskill, to believe that Fort Independence was the object of the expedition, a stronger party crossed the river to Stony Point, and, pushing inland through the mountain defiles, approached in rear of Forts Clinton and Montgomery, of which the entire garrison did not exceed six hundred men, and both were captured. Immediately after the news of the surrender of Burgoyne's army, which took place October 16, the forts were evacuated by the captors.
GARRISON's, fifty miles from New York, is the station at which West Point passengers leave the trains. A ferry connects the two places. Two miles below this station, on the western shore of the river, are the BUTTERMILK Falls. These present a very beautiful appearance, especially when the stream is swollen by heavy rains. The water descends, for more than a hundred feet, in two successive cascades, spreading out in sheets of milk-white foam.
West Point, fifty-one miles from New York, is unquestionably the most romantic place upon the Hudson River. The approach to it is highly interesting. The village is placed upon the top of a promontory one hundred and eighty-eight feet above the river, where there is spread out a level plateau or
terrace, more than a mile in circumference. The declivity is very steep on all sides, and the surrounding craggy hills seem to be nothing but masses of rocks, fantastically heaped by nature, crowding the stream below into a channel less than half a mile in width.
West Point is chiefly noted as the seat of the Military Academy, established here in 1802. The land — about two hundred and fifty acres — ceded to the United States by New York in 1826. The buildings are two stone barracks occupied by two hundred and fifty cadets, the limited number; a large stone building, for military exercises in the winter, and as a depository for models of fortifications, &c.; a two-story stone building, with three towers, for astronomical purposes; a chapel, hospital, mess-rooms, &c., &c., and a number of other dwelling-houses for the officers of the institution.
The number of applications for admission to the West Point Academy is so great that the candidate must feel his claims to be transcendent who can calculate upon admission with any degree of certainty. The ratio of appointments is about three for every congressional district in four years. In selecting candidates for admission, the descendants of revolutionary officers, and of those who served in the last war, are considered as having peculiar claims to notice. There is no other distinction between the candidates, save their accredited talents and abilities to be of public service. The age of admission is from sixteen to twenty-one.
The months of July and August of each year are devoted solely to military exercises; for which purpose the cadets leave the barracks and encamp in tents on the plain, under the regular police and discipline of an army in time of war.
purpose, the cadets are organized into a battalion of four companies, under the command of the chief instructor of tactics and his assistants. The corporals are chosen from the third class, or cadets who have been present one year; the sergeants from the second class, who have been present two years; and the commissioned officers, or captains, lieutenants, &c., from the first class, or highest at the academy. All the other cadets fill the ranks as private soldiers, although necessarily acquainted with the duties of officers. In rotation they have to perform the duty of sentinels, at all times, day or night, storm or sunshine. The drills, or military exercises, consist in the use of the musket, rifle, cannon, mortar, howitzer, sabre and rapier, or broad-sword ; fencing, firing at targets, &c., evolutions of troops, including those of the line ; and the preparation and preserving of all kinds of ammunition and materials of war. The personal appearance of the corps uf cadets cannot fail to attract admiration, especially when on parade. The uniform is a gray coatee, with gray pantaloons in winter, and white linen in
The dress cap is of black leather, bell-crowned, with plate, chain, &c.
The cadets return from camp duty to the barracks on the last of August, and the remaining part of the year is devoted to study. The ceremony of