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minutes owing to dark clouds. In examining the lighting of a school-room (by daylight) the medical man proceeds with Cohn's apparatus slowly from the window until he is no longer able to read 20 figures in 30 seconds at a distance of 40cm. with three, with two glasses, with one glass in front of the eyes, and finally without glass. The different portions of the room are marked on the ground plan as excellent, good, satisfactory and unsatisfactory according to the results of examination just mentioned.

To recapitulate, by the use of Cohn's apparatus the following questions must be answered:

1. How many figures are read in half a minute, by the window, without any of the grey glasses in front of the eyes?

2. How far from the window are so many figures read through three grey glasses placed in front of the eyes? (Only 1 per cent. of the daylight passes through these glasses). In the ground plan of the room such places are marked as “excellent illumination.”

3. How far from the window are the same number of figures read through two grey glasses? (Only 5 per cent of the daylight passes through the two glasses). In the ground plan of the room such places are marked as “good illumination."

4. How far from the window are the same number of figures read through one glass only? (20 per cent. of the daylight passes through one glass). In the ground plan of the room such places are marked as a satisfactory illumination."

5. In what parts of the room are the figures read only without the grey glasses? Such parts of the room are marked as unsatisfactory."

[Further details of the examination of the lighting of schoolrooms are given by Cohn in his small pamphlet, “ Wie soll der gewissenhafte Schularzt die Tagesbeleuchtung in den Klassenzimmern prüfen ?” Berlin: Oscar Coblentz, 1901.]

Cohn advises that every case of defective vision among school children should be sent for further examination to an ophthalmic surgeon. He also drew attention to the risk of defects of vision being produced or increased at home, in the time devoted to home lessons, by the same causes which act injuriously at school. Finally, Cohn advocated the inspection of all schools by special ophthalmic

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surgeons, and concluded his address with the words: “Keine Schule ohne Augenarzt.” (No school without eye specialist).

Prof. Hueppe (Prague) gave an address on the Prevention of Infectious Diseases in Schools. Small-pox did not require consideration, because in Germany it had been practically stamped out out by vaccination. In the case of whooping cough and measles, greater care should be paid to the closure of the schools, and to the isolation of the affected children. It is important also that the number of pupils in one class should not be too great—not more than 50. Mumps and chicken-pox are easily controlled by rigid isolation. In diphtheria and scarlet fever the duration of the risk of infection is very long. The disinfection of the school is usually unnecessary if the school-rooms are thoroughly cleaned daily. Cleanliness very greatly diminishes the risk of infection in tuberculosis. Tuberculous disease in the teacher is far more dangerous than in the scholar, as regards the risk of infection. The prophylactic value of holiday colonies is capable of further development.

Prof. Axel V. Johannessen (Christiania, Norway) gave an address on the Development and Position of School Hygiene in Vorway. He gave an account of the school sports, and of the feeding of poor school children in Norway. Human physiology, hygiene and school hygiene are included amongst the subjects taught in schools in Norway.

Dr. Le Gendre (Paris) spoke of the relation between Scholars and Teachers, with regard to Infectious Diseases and Moral Influence. He considers that schools present favourable conditions for the transmission of the infection of tuberculous disease. The impure atmosphere of the crowded classes, the overstraining of the organs of respiration and speech, the fatigue through the long hours of tuition, and, in many cases, the insufficient food owing to the low salaries, all increase the susceptibility of the teacher to tuberculous disease. In the case of the scholars, the miserable homes in the large towns, and hereditary tendency play an important part in the development of tuberculous disease. The risk of infection between teacher and scholar is the same as between all tuberculous cases in close association with non-tuberculous individuals. But in the close school-rooms, the abundance of dust, brought in from the street, and the large number of pupils in the school-room, increase the risk of infection. Also there is the risk of infection from tuberculous sputum by the common use of objects, which may be placed in the mouth, as pencils and pens, or through the wetting or smearing of the slates or books, with tuberculous saliva. In order to prevent the spread of tuberculous disease in schools Le Gendre attaches importance to the diminution of the number of scholars in one class-room, to better ventilation, and to the avoidance of the appointment of tuberculous teachers. Tuberculous teachers should be sent at once to suitable sanitoria.

Prof. Lieberman (Buda Pest) gave an address on the Work and Training of the School Doctor. One of the most important means of diffusing hygienic knowledge is instruction in hygiene in schools, and the school doctor should teach it in the school. He should also give advice with reference to the plan and methods of teaching, in order that mental overstrain may be avoided. In addition to general medical training, a school doctor should have had a special training in hygiene and in the science of education, and should be able to furnish a special certificate thereof.

[Prof. Schuschny, of Buda Pest states that since the year 1885, courses in school hygiene for medical men have been given every year in Hungary, in Buda Pest and Klausenburg. These courses are of three months' duration; examinations are held in the subject, and a special diploma is given. Medical men must now possess this diploma before obtaining an appointment as school doctor. In 1887 the first school doctor was appointed in Hungary. It is the duty of the school doctor to make a detailed medical examination of the scholars, to examine the vision and hearing, and to report the results of his examination. The school doctor is a member of the teaching body, and he gives instruction in hygiene in the highest classes. It is found that these classes are very popular with the scholars. It is worthy of note that in all schools in Hungary, also in all the faculties of the Hungarian Universities, in technical high schools, and in training colleges for clergymen and school teachers, instruction is given in hygiene.]

Prof. Schuschny, of Buda Pest, considered Sexual Questions in Relation to School Life. For ten years he had given addresses to youths who were leaving school, on sexual hygiene, on the dangers of venereal disease and on the advantages of chastity.

Dr. Clement Dukes, of Rugby, read a paper on the Organisation of Physical Education. The physical development of the body is of importance for the mental development, and Dr. Dukes is of opinion that school games are important in the education of boys, and that such games should be made compulsory on all boys. He was not in favour of Swedish exercises, except in certain cases. Excessive exercise was, however, as bad as deficient exercise, and tended to stunt the body.

Dr. James Kerr, of London, gave an interesting address on School Ventilation. He pointed out the advantages of the mechanical system of ventilation, as tested by the amount of carbonic acid gas and other impurities in the atmosphere. Charts were shown demonstrating the advantages, in this respect, of mechanical over natural ventilation. The inlets of air to the rooms should be high on the wall, the outlets low; 2,000 cubic feet per

hour should be the amount of air for each scholar. The air should be moistened. Accessory heating by low pressure steam or water was advisable. Dr. Kerr pointed out objections to the mechanical system, and considers that the most suitable system of ventilation in the future will be a combined mechanical method of propulsion and extraction by fans, along with ventilation by means of doors and windows. The lecture was illustrated by many useful diagrams shown by lantern demonstration.

Dr. Hintzmann (Elberfeld) read a paper on the Advantage of haring the Afternoons free from School Work. He thinks that in all of the higher schools, teachers and scholars suffer from mental over-strain, owing to the number of subjects of study, to the large number of hours devoted to school work, and to home lessons. To diminish this overstrain, he proposes an arrangement of school work so that the home lessons may be done in the afternoon instead of the evening. He suggests that all school teaching, with the exception of gymnastics and sports, should be in the morning.

proposes that 52 hours should be devoted to morning teaching. In this time six lessons should be given, each lesson being of 45 minutes' duration instead of one hour. He would allow an interval of 10 minutes between each lesson.


Dr. Bende (Berlin) pleaded for several afternoons in the week free from school work, in order that this time might be given to gymnastic exercises, sport, and play. He also pleaded for Sundays free from school work, and considered several other questions, of interest only with regard to German educational systems.

Prof. Dr. Schwend (Stuttgart) suggested the omission of many portions and sections of the various subjects usually taught in school.

Prof. Leubuscher delivered an eloquent address on The duty of the State with respect to Medical Inspection of Schools. He considers the medical inspection of schools to be the best means of preventing or diminishing the impairment of health, which may be caused by school-work. Since the State has made school attendance compulsory, it is its duty to appoint school doctors for all schools—high, middle and elementary schools—both in towns and villages. The interest of the State, in the medical inspection of schools, is not limited to the improvement of the hygienic conditions of school children. Medical inspection of schools will also furnish information as to the relation between the dwellinghouses, the industries, and feeding of the population, and the diseases of school children. The medical inspection of schools will lead to improvement in school hygiene and in the hygiene of teaching

Prof. Axel Hertel (Copenhagen) read a paper on Co-education in the Higher School. He drew attention to the greater liability of girls to impairment of health during school life. In Denmark, in a period of 13 years, the percentage of schoolboys who suffered from illness was 31, the percentage of schoolgirls 50. The much greater tendency of girls to suffer from illness was chiefly owing to anæmia and nervous diseases. This fact should be kept in mind in the arrangement of school work. Either certain subjects of study should be omitted from the curriculum for school girls, or if girls are required to pass the same examinations as boys, a year longer should be allowed for the preparation for such examinations.

Prof. Palmberg (Helsinfors, Finnland) discussed the question of the advisability of the Co-education of Male and Female Students, i.e., the advisability of females attending the courses of higher education in colleges and universities. In Finnland female

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