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Confequently, the obligation to all thofe virtues that are more immediately derived from that great vital fpring and principle of all virtue, devotion, thofe which give a fuperiority to the world, a fearlefs integrity, and a noble independence of mind in the practice of our duty, is more strongly felt, and therefore may be fuppofed to take a deeper root in the mind, than upon any other system whatever. In fhort, it is that philofophy which alone fuits the doctrine of the fcriptures, though the writers of them were not philofophers, but had an instruction infinitely fuperior to that of any philofophical school. Every other system of philofophy is difcordant with the fcriptures, and, as far as it lays any hold upon the mind, tends to counteract their influence.

In the laft place, I think it may not be unuseful to obferve, that a distinction ought to be made with refpect to the relative importance and mutual fubordination of the different pofitions contended for in this treatife. The principal object is, to prove the uniform compofition of man, or that what we call mind, or the principle of perception and thought, is not a fubftance diftinct from the body, but the refult of corporeal organization; and what I have advanced preliminary to this, concerning the nature of matter, though fubfervient to this argument, is by no means effential to it for whatever matter be, I think I have fufficiently proved that mind is nothing more than a modification of it.

Again, that man is wholly material is eminently fubfervient to the doctrine of the proper, or mere humanity of Chrift. For, if no man has a foul diftinct from his body, Chrift, who, in all other refpects, appeared as a man, could not have had a foul which had existed before the body; and the whole


whole doctrine of the pre-existence of fouls (of which the opinion of the pre-existence of Chrift was a branch) will be effectually overturned. But I apprehend that, fhould I have failed in the proof of the materiality of man, arguments enough remain, independent of this, to prove the non pre-existence of Chrift, and of this doctrine hav ing been introduced into christianity from the syse tem of Oriental philofophy.

Lastly, the doctrine of neceffity, maintained in the Appendix, is the immediate refult of the doctrine of the materiality of man; for mechanifm is the undoubted confequence of materialifin. But whether man be wholly material or not, I apprehend that proof enough is advanced that every human volition is fubject to certain fixed laws, and that the pretended felf-determining power is altoge ther imaginary and impoffible.

In fhort, it is my firm perfuafion, that the three doctrines of materialifm, of that which is commonly called Socinianifm, and of philofophical neceffity, are equally parts of one fyftem, being equally founded on juft obfervations of nature, and fair deductions from the fcriptures; and that whoever fhall duly confider their connexion, and dependence on one another, will find no fufficient confiftency in any general fcheme of principles, that does not comprehend them all. At the fame time each of thefe doctrines ftands on its own independent foundation, and is capable of fuch separate demonstration, as fubjects of a moral nature require; or admit.

I have advanced what has occurred to me in fupport of all the three parts of this fyftem, confident that, in due time, the truth will bear down before it every oppofing prejudice, how inveterate foever, and gain a firm eftablishment in the minds of all men



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A CATALOGUE of BOOKS written by



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HE HISTORY and PRESENT STATE of ELECTRICITY, with original Experiments, illuftrated with Copper-Plates. 4th Edition, corrected and enlarged, 4to. il. is. Another Edition, 2 vols. 8vo. 12s.

2. A Familiar INTRODUCTION to the STUDY of ELECTRICITY, 4th Edition, 8vo. 2s. 6d.

3. The HISTORY and PRESENT STATE of DISCOVERIES relating to VISION, LIGHT, and COLOURS, 2 vols. 4to, illuftrated with a great Number of Copper-Plates, il. 11s. 6d. 6d. in Boards.

4. A COURSE of LECTURES on ORATORY and CRITICISM, 4to. 10s. 6d. in Boards.

5. A Familiar INTRODUCTION to the THEORY and PRACTICE of PERSPECTIVE,, with Copper-Plates, 5s. in Boards.

6. DIRECTIONS for impregnating Water with FIXED AIR, in order to communicate to it the peculiar Spirit and Virtues of PYRMONT WATER, and other Mineral Waters of a fimilar Nature, Is.

7. Experiments and Obfervations on different Kinds of Air, with Copper-Plates. 3 vol. 18s. in Boards.

8. PHILOSOPHICAL EMPIRICISM: Containing Remarks on a Charge of Plagiarifm refpecting Dr. Hs, interfperfed with various Obfervations relating to different Kinds of Air, 1s. 6d.

9. A New CHART of HISTORY, containing a View of the principal Revolutions of Empire that have taken Place in the World; with a Book defcribing it, containing an Epitome of Univerfal Hiftory. 4th Edition, 10s. 6d.

10. A. CHART of BIOGRAPHY, with a Book, containing an Explanation of it, and a Catalogue of all the Names inferted in it. 6th Edition, very much improved, 10s.


11. An Effay on a Courfe of liberal Education for Civil and Active Life, with Plans of Lectures on, 1. The Study of Hif tory and general Policy. 2. The Hiftory of England. 3. The Conftitution and Laws of England, 1s. 6d. fewed.

12. AN EXAMINATION of Dr. REID's Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Senfe, Dr. BEATTIE'S Effay on the Nature and Immutability of Truth, and Dr. OSWALD's Appeal to Common Senfe in Behalf of Religion, 2d Edition, 5s. fewed.

13. HARTLEY'S THEORY of the HUMAN MIND on the Principle of the Affociation of Ideas, with Effays relating to the Subject of it, 8vo. 5s. fewed.

14. The RUDIMENTS of ENGLISH GRAMMAR, adapted to the Ufe of Schools, 1s. 6d.

15. The above GRAMMAR with Notes and Obfervations, for the Ufe of thofe who have made fome Proficiency in the Language. 4th Edition, 3s.

16. An ESSAY on the FIRST PRINCIPLES of GOVERNMENT, and on the Nature of POLITICAL, CIVIL, and RELIGIOUS LIBERTY. 3d Edition, much enlarged, 35. fewed.

17. INSTITUTES of NATURAL and REVEALED RELIGION, Vol. I. containing the Elements of Natural Religion; to which is prefixed, An Effay on the beft Method of communicating religious Knowledge to the Members of Chriftian Societies, 2s. 6d. Vol. II. containing the Evidences of the Jewish and Chriftian Revelations, 3s, fewed.-Vol. III. containing the Doctrines of Revelation, zs. 6d. fewed.-The Fourth and laft Part of this Work will contain an Hiftorical Account of the Corruptions of Christianity.

18. A HARMONY of the EVANGELISTS, in Greek: To which are prefixed, CRITICAL DISSERTATIONS, in English, 4to. 14s. in Boards.

19. A FREE ADDRESS to PROTESTANT DISSENTERS, on the Subject of the Lord's Supper. 3d Edition, with Additions, 25.

20. The Additions to the above may be had alone, Is.

21. An ADDRESS to PROTESTANT DISSENTERS on the Subject of giving the Lord's Supper to Children, 18.

22. CONSIDERATIONS on DIFFERENCES of OPINION among Christians; with a Letter to the Rev. Mr. VENN, in Answer to his Examination of the Addrefs to Proteftant Diffenters, is. 6d.

23 A CA

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Books written by JOSEPH PRIESTLEY, LL. D.

23. A CATECHISM for Children for Young Perfons. zd Edition, 3d.

24. A SCRIPTURE CATECHISM, confifting of a Series of Queftions, with References to the Scriptures, inftead of Anfwers, 3d.

25. A SERIOUS ADDRESS to MASTERS of Families, with Forms of Family Prayer. 2d Edition, 6d.

26. A View of the PRINCIPLES and CONDUCT of the PROTESTANT DISSENTERS, with respect to the Civil and Ecclefiaftical Conftitution of England. zd Edition, 1s. 6d.

27. A FREE ADDRESS to PROTESTANT DISSENTERS, on the Subject of CHURCH DISCIPLINE; with a Preliminary Difcourfe concerning the Spirit of Chriftianity, and the Corruption of it by falfe Notions of Religion, 2s. 6d.

28. A SERMON preached before the Congregation of PROTESTANT DISSENTERS, at Mill Hill Chapel, in Leeds, May 16, 1773, on Occafion of his refigning his Paftoral Office among them, Is.

29. A Free ADDRESS to PROTESTANT DISSENTERS, as fuch. By a Diffenter. A new Edition, enlarged and corrected, 1s. 6 —An Allowance is made to those who buy this Pamphlet to give away.

30. Letters to the Author of Remarks on several late Publications relative to the Diffenters, in a Letter to Dr. Priestley, 1s.

31. An APPEAL to the ferious and candid Profeffors of Christianity, on the following Subjects, viz. 1. The Ufe of Reason in Matters of Religion. 2. The Power of Man to do the Will of God. 3. Original Sin. 4. Election and Reprobation. 5. The Divinity of Chrift; and, 6. Atonement for Sin by the Death of Chrift. 5th Edition, id.

32. A FAMILIAR ILLUSTRATION of certain Paffages of Scripture relating to the fame Subject, 4d. or 3s. 6d. per Dozen,

33. The TRIUMPH of TRUTH; being an Account of the Trial of Mr. Elwall for Herefy and Blafphemy, at Stafford Affizes, before Judge Denton. 2d Edition, id."

34. CONSIDERATIONS for the USE of YOUNG MEN, and the Parents of YOUNG MEN. 2d Edition, 2d.


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