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submit to and abide by the decisions of their church or clergy, are still appealing to our private judgment. We have never been able to perceive the force or truth of this doctrine; it has always appeared to us rather an ingenious controversial weapon than a solid argument—more adapted for popular effect tħan philosophical conviction. Two distinct things are mixed up

in it : our judgment, and our judgment in opposition to the judgment of the church. These are widely different: every one who asks a man to believe a doctrine or a fact, requires the exercise of his own powers; but it does not follow that he recognizes his right to form any but one opinion. The Church of Rome demands the exercise of our minds, but only in the reception of her traditions: it concedes no right of forming a private opinion in opposition to the catholic' one. The private' judgment it condemns is not the individual, but the anti-church one; it asks for our faith, but only in the truth as it delivers it; it allows us to think, but only what it thinks. General arguments, to prove that we were made to think, that we are able to think, that we are responsible for our thoughts, and such like, however forcible they may be against the doctrine of persecution, have none against that of catholic consent.' What is wanted, and the only thing that possesses any importance, is the proof that 'individuals' have the right to judge' in a manner different from the church: no one denies the doctrine of 'private judgment' in any other sense.

Mr. Madge dwells largely upon the distinction between right and power. It is not easy to keep this distinction too prominently before the mind; no point in the whole controversy is more frequently lost sight of. Protestant doctrines have suffered from the zeal of their advocates in pushing them to every length without marking the conditions necessary to their application. They would often be more favourably received if more wisely stated. It is a common mistake of polemics to think that they honour their principles rather by the extent to which they carry them than by the accuracy with which they express them, forgetting that good may become evil, and truth error, by a change of circumstances. 'Parties,' says Hallam, 'will always contend for extremes ; for the rights of bigots to think for others, and the rights of fools to think for themselves. We are glad to meet with the healthy sentiments contained in the following passage :

' Right, and competency properly to use the right, must not be confounded with one another. The one is not necessarily the accompaniment of the other. A man may have a right to do what he is ill qualified for doing wisely and beneficially. You have the right to choose your physician, your lawyer, your engineer, and it is important that you should choose well; and yet, from the circumstances in which you are placed, you may not be very competent to make a good choice. In such a case we cannot say it does not belong to you to determine the matter; that is left to another, who will do this for you, and to his decisions you must unhesitatingly bow. We could not address to any one language like this; but we might reasonably and becomingly say to him, before you come to a decision upon a matter of such great importance, take care that you have qualified yourself to judge rightly. · Avail yourself of the knowledge and experience of others. Learn from them the facts which will give you the means of coming to a sound and satistory conclusion. The power, the right of deciding, is unquestionably yours: that we do not deny. You may choose whom you please; all we say is, see to it that you render yourself competent and qualified to choose well. Such advice-such recommendation as this, would be reasonable and proper. And if this were all that is meant by questioning the right of private judgment on the subject of religion,-if it were only intended to check presumption, to curb rashness, to prevent haste, to make men cautious and careful in their inquiries, willing to receive instruction, and anxious to avail themselves of all the light which the labours and learning of others might throw upon the subject of their meditation, if no more than this were intended by the advocates of 'church principles,' there could be little or nothing to object to. On the contrary, as has been judiciously observed in a discourse on this subject by Dr. Hawkins, Provost of Oriel College, Oxford, there is a duty as well as a right involved in the exercise of this privilege of judging for ourselves. In contending for the right, we are too apt to overlook and forget the duty.'--pp. 223—225.

The seventh lecture would supply us with matter of controversy with our author, if we were disposed, and had space, to enter upon it. In describing the essential principles of a christian catholic church, he maintains that the admission of the Messiahship of Christ, and his resurrection from the dead, is the only one necessary to christian communion. This opens up the whole question as to what is necessary to christianity. He is catholic in his own esteem who excludes not christians from his fellowship. The Romanist takes in all whom he thinks have any right to be admitted: the Unitarian does no more. The dispute then turns on who have the right. The mere recognition of Christ's Messiahship, apart from its design; the acknowledgment of Him as Teacher and Redeemer,' apart from what He teaches, and how He redeems, appears to us a matter of very small importance. And if infidels are allowed—as many Unitarians allow them—to possess sometimes equal moral excellence with christians, and to partake of the salvation of the gospel, we think that they have good reasons for denying the

catholicity, in every thing but the mere name, of even Mr. Madge's christian church, and may reasonably quote to him the lines which he quotes from Crabbe :

• What is a church? Let truth and reason speak,

And they will say, the faithful, pure, and meek,
From every fold, the one selected race,

Of all communions, and in every place.” Mr. Madge, of course, maintains that his terms of communion are apostolic. There we must leave him, with the expressions of our dissent from his opinions, and of our regret that the bigotry and exclusiveness which have often been allied to what we deem most important scriptural doctrines should give to those who hold his principles an advantage in respect of liberality which we do not believe they can fairly claim.

In conclusion, we repeat our favourable judgment of the work. Apart from its advocacy of Unitarian sentiments, it has our entire approval. As a popular discussion of high-church principles, few modern productions are superior to it in clearness, judiciousness, and strength.

Art. VII.-A Journey from Naples to Jerusalem, by way of Athens,

Egypt, and the Peninsula of Sinai; including a Trip to the Valley of Fayoum : together with a Translation of Mr. Linant de Bellefond's Mémoire sur le lac Mæris.' By Dawson Borrer, Esq. J. Madden

and Co., Leadenhall Street. 1845. The fanatical jealousy of the Mahommedan religion, combined with a continually distracted state of Government, and a national character naturally barbarous, and perhaps worse than uncivilised, has proved, until of late years, a great bar to the investigation, by our energetic countrymen, of those renowned regions, towards which the work before us chiefly directs our attention. The present ruler, however, of the highly interesting land, laved by the waters of the Mediterranean, has, in great measure, smoothed the rugged path through his territories, and so far reopened the ancient gate of India, as to allow a free pas. sage for scientific and literary travellers, and the treasures gathered by them, from the rich fields of his extensive dominions. M. Borrer has availed himself of this opportunity to enter the lists of travelling authors, and we are happy to say, has done so to our satisfaction. Volume after volume, upon the same subject, has of late been offered to our notice in rapid succession; but few of them better deserve the patronage of the public, than the one we are now reviewing. Learned men will find, in it, means of adding to their stock of information, and those who read merely to while away their time cannot choose a more entertaining tourist.

The author tells us, in a modest and original preface, that he is a young man, and claims indulgence, as he can neither boast that extensive erudition which alone renders travellers' notes worthy of a place, amidst the archives of literature, nor that flow of language and elegance of style which it behoves the aspirant to literary fame to command.' We could not, after reading this sentence, but be disposed to grant the boon thus asked from us; we had, however, no occasion for the display of our generosity.

Though young, Mr. Borrer is evidently a man of considerable erudition, and an acute observer; and his pen does not appear so unpractised as he would make us believe. His style is that of a writer who cares not so much about the artificial arrangement of words, and the witticism now so much in fashion, as about faithfully representing the objects of his observations, the impression they make upon his mind, and the historical or scientific facts which are connected with them. Judicious in his reflexions, honest in the expression of his sentiments and opinions, he has, besides, a liveliness, with an apparent carelessness of effects, which attaches, interests and amuses the reader. In our opinion, M. Borrer is something better than a skilful writer, he is a natural, a forcible, and a pleasing writer.

The three chapters devoted to Athens and the neighbourhood are highly instructive and interesting. The descriptions of the author are quite graphic, and his reflexions always appropriate and impressive. Thus he concludes his observations on the hill of the Areopagus by saying »

• It was from this rostrum of naked rock, canopied by the heavens alone, that the zealous apostle • stirred up in spirit, when he saw the city wholly given to idolatry’ poured forth, with divinely inspired eloquence, his declaration of the unknown God.' Gazing forth upon the innumerable temples and altars around him, rendered rich and surpassingly splendid, by the lavish hand of art, to the glory of their gods, he declared to them that, “God that made the world and all things therein, seeing that he is Lord of heaven and earth, dwelleth not in temples made with hands;' and, ' Forasmuch then as we are the offspring of God, we ought not to think that the Godhead is like unto gold, or silver, or stone, graven by art and man's device.' Thus then did the champion of the one true God stand forth, in the midst of Mars' Hill,' and boldly upbraid the men of Athens, crowding with their thousands, in the wide space of the Agora before him ; and thus did he publicly and forcibly express his contempt for their holy mysteries, their temples, and their altars; blaspheming their gods, daring the wrath of the people and the senate, setting forth strange gods,'preaching unto them Jesus and the resurrection, from the very Areopagus itself!''-p. 48.

From Athens our author sails for Alexandria, where, after a stormy voyage, he arrives :

"We landed as soon as possible. Curious costumes, foreign physiognomies, tongues harsh, as unknown to our ear, reminded us how distant lay the shore we now passed, from our own native land.

But what is there in the aspect of the modern Iskendereeyeh to renuind us of the ancient magnificence of that city, which, three hundred and thirty-two years before the christian era, sprung up beneath the hand of the mighty Macedonian, to become the capital of bis unlimited dominions—a city second only to Rome-a mart, into wbich Howed the riches of the farthest East, ivory, spices, and precious stones, from the very banks of the Ganges itself; whilst thousands of heavy-freighted ships were gliding from her capacious harbours, bearing the tide of riches onward, to the most remote shores of the 'great sea,' like the waters of the Nile, which, laden with fertility, burst from their channel, flooding with their fatness the wide plains of Egypt. Idleness was a crime as unknown within the gates of Alexandria, as within those of Athens, when the venerable council of Areopagus sat in authority.'--p. 85.

Thence he repairs to Cairo, and there resolves upon an interesting excursion through the little explored regions of Fayoum, the ancient Valley of Arsinoe.' On his way, his eyes met those gigantic monuments, the wonderful and mysterious Pyramids of Djiza and Saccara, setting alike at defiance the efforts of time and those of our intelligence. Our daring traveller seems to have explored them with undaunted energy. Let us, for a moment, sit with him on the top of the highestthat of Cheops,' and listen to his remarks:-

• The platform, on the summit, is a square of thirty feet on each side, and here we sat some time, to rest ourselves, and look forth upon the peculiar country stretched out beneath us. Away to the south were ranged the lesser pyramids, the Via Appia of Memphis, marking the boundary of the Libyan desert, frowning on the verdure of the narrow valley of the Nile. The pen of many a traveller has delineated the prospect enjoyed from thence; and who can behold it without lively emotion and astonishment ? who can behold the ancient 'granary of the world,' once a mighty space of inconceivable fertility, now a narrow strip of cultivation, of but a few short miles in breadth, and not cry, with the prophet Ezekiel : Howl ye, howl ye, woe worth the day! For Egypt is fallen, and the pride of her power is come down : she is desolate, in the midst of cities

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