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on promising to remunerate the copyist liberally; but although I asked for it afterwards repeatedly, it never was forthcoming.'-pp. 238, 239.
• Turning Turk. The native christians are not so well off as they were in the time of the Egyptians, but they are exposed to no extor. tions as during the ancien régime of Turkey. Having their separate quarter, the gates of which are locked an hour after sunset, they live in more security than the inhabitants of the town (Aleppo) itself, for many robberies took place within the walls during my stay. The christian rayahs are in all temporal matters subject to the Turkish jurisdiction ; but disputes among themselves are generally settled by the superior clergy, without the intervention of the civil authority. Several conversions to Islamism had taken place before
arrival. * Turning Turk,' as the old phrase goes, is in general a much rarer occurrence than formerly. One cause of this is the decline of the political fortunes of the Ottoman Empire. The independence of Greece, the pressure of Russia, and Mehemet Ali's system of promoting intelligent Christian rayahs wherever he could find them, tended to discourage proselytism. After his expulsion, the pride of the Moslems, and the abasement of the Christian population, produced a slight re-action; a few conversions took place in Syria, and these chiefly in Aleppo. Now and then, one of those amphibious European adventurers who roam through Turkey, ready at five minutes' notice to undertake the drill of a battalion, the service of the hospital, or the construction of a battery, turns Turk for a year or two, and then leaves the country; but this does not count. One of these worthies was, during my stay at Aleppo, discovered by the Arnaouts as having embraced Islamism somewhere in Turkey in Europe, and to save his life he was obliged to remain in hiding till they left the city. The welcome these individuals receive from their new co-religionists is by no means flattering. One day a newlyconverted Jew entered the mosque of Zachariah with the high turban of a sheikh. One of the Ulema, on perceiving him, knocked it off his head, and told him never to show himself in that guise again. The last conversion was that of an Armenian Catholic, which took place in public, at the Mehkemeh. When the renegade had made his attestation, one of the heads of the catholics said aloud, “The Moslems have not been increased, and the Christians have not been diminished in number.''Pp. 260, 262.
There is one other matter in his book which we feel reluctant to notice, but are unwilling to leave to the impression it is calculated to convey.
In Mount Lebanon, and at Beyrout, our author became acquainted with the American missionaries, and particularly with the Rev. Eli Smith, the companion of Dr. Robinson in the journeys of which an imperishable monument has been erected in the Biblical Researches in Palestine.'
Our author met with Mr. Smith at Dair-el-kamar. He says :
• I had scarcely delivered my first letters, and got over my first visits, when I found that an unusual ferment reigned in the town in consequence of the presence of several American missionaries who were engaged in teaching the Druses. The Rev. Eli Smith, the principal missionary, on hearing of my arrival, sent me a friendly message, placing at my disposal anything which his house afforded, or which could contribute to my comfort. On calling to thank this gentleman for his unexpected kindness, I found him to be a man of simple prepossessing demeanour, and, as subsequent interviews shewed, well versed in Arabic literature, and Syrian geography. His invaluable Biblical Researches, the result of fifteen years' local experience, have been edited and published by Professor Robinson ; but this latter gentleman having merely made a cursory tour, and in most instances noted the results previously attained by Mr. Smith, ought in justice to have kept his own name more in the back-ground. This is the opinion of impartial persons, acquainted with both parties. This is probably a fact, of which the donors of the geographical society's medal were not aware.'—PP. 67, 68.
The circumstances here noted are such as could only have been learned from the missionaries, and must therefore be taken as conveying their impression. The charge against Dr. Robinson is not so serious as might at first sight appear to those unacquainted with the work to which the statement refers. The disposition to put Mr. Smith's name in the background, is rather that of the public than of Dr. Robinson. The latter unites the name of Mr. Smith, with his own, in the titlepage and throughout the work; and in the preface, and in the appendices, carefully indicates the obligations which he owes to the collections and Arabic scholarship of his companion. But the public hates to have to repeat two names when one will serve, and therefore it has taken the first and principal namea name even previously of high repute in biblical literature, and cites the work as “Robinson's Biblical Researches ;' and under that name the work will ever henceforth be cited. No power on earth will ever persuade the public to refer to the work as the Biblical Researches in Palestine of E. Robinson, D.D. and the Rev. Eli Smith.' Dr. Robinson himself has yielded to this necessity, and, in his later works, has fairly thrown Mr. Smith overboard, and cites the work, without circumlocution, as ‘Robinson's Palestine.'
Partnerships of this kind are seldom fortunate; and we are grieved to find that the present instance is not an exception. A work, the new matter in which is so much built upon names, it is probable that Dr. Robinson could not have rendered so complete as it now is without Mr. Smith's collections of Arabic names and his local knowledge of the country: but, on the other hand, it is not merely probable, but quite certain, that Mr. Smith could not have produced any thing like this work
without Dr. Robinson. The volumes are full of various lore, and of comparative accounts, formed upon immense reading and untiring research, which we know to have been impossible to Mr. Smith, while the whole is quite after the manner of the very able papers on scripture geography, with which the professor had, in former years, enriched the pages of the Biblical Repository. Besides, if Mr. Smith were really able to produce such a work by himself, why did he not do so during the fifteen years in which it is said that his attention has been turned to the subject, and during which he has not lacked time to. write largely on other matters? No: Mr. Smith, whose real and solid merits we appreciate highly, is a good man, and a very useful and laborious missionary: but his friends should know that it is one thing to collect materials, and another to construct a temple or a palace with them: and we may venture to hint to them that he has obtained more honour by the association of his name with that of Dr. Robinson in his magnificent labour, than he could ever have acquired by any separate labour of his own. We are bound to declare our opinion, that Mr. Smith by no means shares in the feeling which the author of the Modern Syrians ascribes to his friends : for, as is doubtless known to most of our readers, he has, since the appearance of the Biblical Researches, in which he is said to have been so much aggrieved, been in active and cordial correspondence with Dr. Robinson, imparting to him further materials and new information on the subjects which that work embraces.
Art. VI. Lectures on certain High-Church Principles, commonly designated by the term Puseyism. By Thomas Madge. pp. 312. Long
1844. It must be something peculiar that constrains a unitarian minister to preach and publish on an ecclesiastical controversy prevailing in another church than his own, and to consider as serious the progress of the principles by which it has been occasioned. With his easy faith respecting opinions, his wide theological separation from all other churches, and his habit of reliance on the future to compensate for the failures of the present, it is not a common state of things, at least in his view of it, that can excite his deep interest in Puseyism. The ap. pearance of Mr. Madge's Lectures may be regarded, therefore, as a fresh indication of the seriousness of our position as disciples and advocates of the faith once delivered to the saints.
We have never been able to regard Tractarianism with levity. That in many of its features and principles it is ridiculous, so ridiculous that nothing in the moral history of our race surpasses it in absurdity; that its vehement enmity to reason is, according to Hobbes's rule, the sign and result of reason's diametrical opposition to it; this we readily admit. But we have not so observed the human mind, or read its developments, especially as they are wont to be made in connexion with religion, as to discern any necessary incompatibility between the silliness and the success of sentiments, or to doubt that there was much plausibility in poor Steele's proposition that, wisdom being with the few, things should be settled by the minority. Without giving ourselves up to fear, which is a bad counsellor, and acknowledging the great advantages which the spread of knowledge and the activity of intellect in recent times must give to all that is manly in sentiment and liberal in spirit, we dare not pretend that our prospect is as clear as that of some who, in the circumstances of the coming contest, discern little more than a healthy exercise. That truth will triumph ultimately is not matter of doubt, but this fact does not help to any judgment on the immediate issue of any particular conflict of opinions. That truth has triumphed is not disputed; but no argument can thence be drawn in reference to the perpetuity of its local possessions. The history of the world is not a smooth and regular river, but subject to disturbance from many and mighty forces; the progress of truth has often been in cycles; and those who smile at the possibility of the revival of opinions once generally renounced can be likened, as Hallam well remarks, to none better than to those women who believe the fashion of last year in dress to be wholly ridiculous, and incapable of being ever again adopted by any one solicitous about her beauty.'
At the same time, whatever difference of opinion may obtain as to the future, none can exist as to the present. That the Tractarians are zealous, as all men vhose faith is novel are zealous, none can doubt, and zeal must be met with zeal in order to a good result. The course to be adopted by the faithful is plain. There is but one. It is fidelity. Whether there is little or much to fear in spreading error, it can only be destroyed or qualified by the friends of truth. They must be alive and alert. To sit still is not their strength. We are glad that it is not their plan. Not that all, who should be lifting up the standard are active, or those even on whom especially devolves, if their own pretensions be allowed, the defence of pure and undefiled religion. With few exceptions, the clergy of the church of England who hold protestant principles have not been wise to discern, or courageous to assail, the rising evil. Three years ago we heard one who should be an interpreter of times, and a defender of the faith, speak of Puseyism as 'a cloud passing away: so simple was his view of its character and grounds. And many more require his faith to vindicate their repose. The opinion expressed in this journal long ago, that the maintenance of protestantism will fall upon protestant dissenters is being realized before the time we contemplated. The best efforts towards it as yet are ours. In drawing attention to the most recent one, we hope our readers will remember that if it is an old subject, it is a new controversy.
Mr. Madge's Lectures are a highly respectable exposition and defence of several important protestant principles in opposition to the assertions and bigotry of the Oxford school. He does not pretend to discuss all the points in dispute, but those which he has selected are at the very root of the controversy. We do not of course acquiesce in all his statements and reasonings. It was not likely that he would lose the opportunity of introducing his own theological views, though he has not done this more than might be naturally expected. The occasion was too tempting not to be made use of. For among the various evils arising from Puseyism, not the least is the disesteem with which they treat the scriptural evidence for its chief articles. When we find them speaking of the Trinity, the atonement, original sin, with other doctrines, as indebted rather to tradition than to the Bible for support, we see a new reason for suspicion and dread, both in the opinion thus expressed, and in the sanction thus given to what we believe to be error. But while Mr. Madge has taken occasion to commend his own belief, he has written in a temper which must be commended by all. Indeed his soberness on many subjects has been quite refreshing to us after the wild and mystic sentiments, going to the very denial of all truth, that have of late proceeded from some of his school. To hear a unitarian speak as if all opinions were not exactly alike, refer with respect to scripture as possessing some authority, and as boldly enforce the duty of thinking wisely as maintain the right of thinking independently, is no small treat after that to which we have been used as the teaching of not a few of his most gifted brethren. Mr. Madge, however, is not ashamed of these old fashioned ideas, and he clothes them in language clear, correct, elegant, and well adapted both to express and to commend them.
The lectures are eight in number. The first is occupied with a view of the principles, spirit, and tendency of Anglo-catholocism. In the conclusion of this lecture, he calls attention to a part of the subject which we think has not been made sufficiently prominent--viz., the bearing of Puseyism on the practice