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ceive it in a way, wherein these rules can be observed ; then they should be admitted, and that it will be a sin in those, who will not admit them upon these terms; or who will not propose such terms as these, unto them, when they desire admittance; or who, having an opportunity to invite them in their distress, do not inind these principles in admitting of them, to give them entertainment in their commonwealth. As for other considerations of future hopes, although I believe as much of them, as most men do; yet I can draw no argument from thence for any particular admittance of them, at this time, because I know that the cimes and seasons of their deliverance are in God's hand alone, and that we are very much inclined to mistake in conjectures of that nature. But the universal rules, which are grounded upon the main ends and duties of Christianity, must be observed by those that will trust unto God, for a blessing upon their endeavours. And when they have (to wards such ends, and according to such duties) done that which they think, is acceptable to God; then they ought to acquiesce, and leave the issue to Providence, which I am persuaded will be favourable to the state. And, in this assurance, I rest ever,

Sir,
Your most affectionate and
faithful Servant in Christ,

John DURI. Cassell, in Haste,

Jan. 8, 1656.

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POSTSCRIPT. Concerning the Jews, if I can, I will send you the abstract of the laws, by which they are received here. Our state doth wisely to go warily, and by degrees, in the business of receiving them. Menasseh Ben Israel's demands are great, and the use, which they make of great privileges, is not much to their commendation here, and elsewhere. They have ways, heyond all other men, to undermine a state, and to insinuate into those that are in offices, and prejudicate the trade of others; and therefore, if they be not wisely restrained, they will, in a short time, be oppressive, if they be such as are here in Germany. To call in the Caraits would fright away these, for they are irreconcileable enemies. Time must ripen these designs, and prudence may lead them on.

A NARRATIVE

OF THE LATE

PROCEEDINGS AT WHITEHALL,

CONCERNING THE JEWS :

Who had desired by Rabbi Manasses, an agent for them, that they

might return into Engiand, and worship the God of their fathers here in the synagogues, &c. Published for satisfaction to many in several parts of England, that are desirous and inquisitive to hear the truth thereof.

London, printed for L. Chapman, at the Crown in Pope's-bead Alley, 1656.

Quarto, containing sixteen pages.

To the Reader.

Because many good people in divers parts of this nation, who have often prayed heartily for the Jews conversion, have heard a rumour of a late debate at Whitehall, about the Jews having a liberty to return into England, and are very desirous to know the truth of things in those proceedings, and what is the issue of those debates ; and hence, from several parts, letters have been written up to their friends in l.ondon, desiriny more fully to be certified herein: For their satisfaction, and for help to others that would send the narrative to their christian friends, this collection thereof, by one that was present at all the debates, is yielded to be published.

BI
Y letters from Oliver, the lord protector, several doctors, and other

preachers, godly men, and some merchants and lawyers convened with him, and others of the council, [the fourth of December last, 1655, and so on two or three days weekly, to the eighteenth] to consider of proposals in behalf of the Jews, by Rabbi Manasses Ben Israel, an agent come to London in behalf of many of them, to live and trade here, and desiring to have free use of their synagogues, &c.

The things being spoken unto pro and contra, at several meetings, some inore private, and some more publick, at Whitehall, and elsewhere.

The most did fear, that if they should come, many would be seduced and cheated by them, and little good would be unto thein. Hence divers of the preachers judged, that though never such cautions to prevent those evils were prescribed, yet they would not be observed ; and therefore they could not consent to their coming.

2. The major part judged that there might be such pledges or sureties, &c. to keep due cautions [viz against their blaspheming Christ, and the christian religion, and against seducing, and cheating, &c.] as they may be observed, and then they may come.

3. Some judged, that due cautions warranted by holy scriptures being observed, it is a duty to yield to their request of coming hither; considering,

1. It is God's will there be dealing courteously with strangers, and persons in affliction, Exod. xxiii. 8.

2. Especially respect is to be had to the Jews, Isa. xiv. 3, 4.

1st. Because, their debtors we are, Rom. xv. 27. as the Gentiles, Macedonians, and other Gentiles, were in the apostle's days (which was not, because those believing Jews at Jerusalem administered spiritual things to those believing Gentiles, which they did not) but because partake of the Messias, and promises, and salvation, that was to the Jews, as natural branches of the olive-tree, Roin. ix. 4, 5. Eph. jii. 8. Rom. xi. 17, 24.

2dly, Because their brethren we are; of the same father Abraham; they naturally after the flesh, we believers after the spirit.

3dly, Because we believe those natural branches shall return; and it shall be great riches and glory to the Gentiles, especially to such where they are, and whu deal kindly with them, Rom. xi. 12, 18, 25, 26. anit we hope the time is near.

Because many Jews are now in very great streights in many places; multitudes in Poland, Lithuania, and Prussia, by the late wars by the Swedes, Cossacks, and others, being driven away from thence: Hence their yearly alms to the poor Jews, of the German synagogue, at Jeru. salem hath ceased; and of seven hundred widows, and poor Jews there, about four-hundred have been famished, as a letter from Jerusalem to their friends relates.

Also, the Jews in France, Spain, Portugal, and in the Indies, under the Spanish, &c. if they are professed Jews, must wear a badge of it, and are exposed to many viulences, mocks, and crucities; which, to avoid, many

dissemble themselves to be Roman Catholicks; and then, if in any thing they appear Jewish, they forfiit goods, if not lite also. Now some of these intreared Rabbi Manasses to be their agent, to intreat this favour for their coming to England, to live and trade here, &c.

And it seems to some, that it would be very acceptable to the Lord, if favour be shewed them, so far as is lawful herein.

As it was very displeasing to the Lord, when for their sin he cast them out of Canaan, that others added to, or heaped on their affliction, Zach. i. 15, 16.

And that Edom looked on, and was as one of their enemies, Obad. ver. 12, 14. and did not hide, and entertain his outcasts, as he charged Moab to do, Isaiah xvi. 3, 4. Now England hath as much cause ös any nation, if not more, to favour and relieve the Jews in this their suit; considering,

1. The Jews that dwelled in England under Richard the First, and King John, Henry the Third, and Edward the First, suffered very great injuries, cruelties, and murders, by kings, by the barons, by Londoners,

Yorkers, people of Norwich, Stamford, &c. as our own chronicles shew,
especially Stow's Survey of London, and Annals.
And if, after Saul's death, the Lord plagued Israel

year
after

year, till some satisfaction was given to the surviving Gibeonites, for Saul's slaying many Gibeonites in his zeal for God; it is feared, it may offend the Lord, if we yield not to the Jews this courtesy which they desire; and it may be accuunted some kind of satisfaction to them.

2. In no nation, there have been more faithful, frequent, and fervent prayers for the Jews, than in England.

3. None are more likely to convince them by Scripture, and by holy life, than many in England: And Gentiles, being called a foolish nation, must provoke Jews to jealousy, or emulation ; and happy is England, if it be instrumental in so blessed a work.

The person, that spoke to that effect, had written thus :

Many of the Jews in Jerusalem being now very cruelly dealt withal, and persecuted by the Turks (as their letters thence, desiring relief from other Jews in Germany, Holland, &c. sent thither by the hand of rabbi Nathan Stephira, their messenger, do manifest :) Other Jews in several nations persecuted by papists, unless they will turn papists: Many of these desiring by their letters to rabbi Manasses Ben Israel, as he said he had shewed to the lord protector, that he would intreat favour of our state,

1. That Jews might have leave to come into England, to live and trade here: And,

2. That here they might have their synagogues, &c. provided that due care be had in respect of these, as much as is, or ought to be, in respect of our own, and other nations, to prevent

Blaspheming the Lord Jesus Christ;
Adoring the law; seducing others;

All unrighteousness, &c.
Some of us do thus believe upon Scripture grounds:

1. That it is not sinful or unlawful to suffer their coming hither, their living and trading here, and worshiping the true God here, and hearing his holy law, and his prophets read unto them every week, publickly.

First reason, because this is against no law, neither of the land [as the lawyers here affirmed], nor of God, as not being forbidden in the Old or New Testament.

And, therefore, it is no sin nor transgression: For where there is no law, there is no transgression, Rom. iv. 15.

Second, That it is so far from being a sin, that it is a duty, in such case, to receive and harbour them.

This may appear

thus : First reason. It is a duty commanded, and commended of God, in general, to be kind to strangers,harbouring them, &c. Exod. xxii. 21.and xxiii, 8. Levit. xix. 34. Deut. x. 19. Gen. xviii. 1, 2, 3. xix. 1, 2, 3. i Tim. v. 10. Heb. xiii. 2. Such favour we permit and grant to other strangers.

Second. The Lord requires this duty, as well, or more, towards Jews, even when for their sins the Lord had cast them out, as to any other

a

strangers; for, concerning these, he thus gives a charge in Isaiah xvi. 3, 4. Hide my banished ones, bewray noi him that wandereth. Let my outcasts dwell, (or sojourn) with thee Muab: be thou a covert to them from the face of the spoiler.

Third. Yea, even after their rejecting Jesus Christ, and the Lori's rejecting them, yet the apostle saith of them that they are beloved for their fathers sakes, Rom. xi. 28. And for the Lords covenant sake with their fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, alter this sin and scaliering, the Lord will restore them, as he saith, Levit. xxvi. 41, 44, 45. Micah vii. 19, 20.

Fourth. When for their sins the Lord was displeased with the Jews, yet he hath a special eye to them; observing all the unkind carriage of others towards ihem, and is sure displeased against all such as help on their affliction, Zach. i. 15. By speaking proudly against them, or looking on as one of the afflicters, or that deliver them up to such, &c. Obad. ver. 11, 12, 14.

3. That the Lord may require and expect this kindness towards dis. tressed Jews, as much of this nation, as, or more than, of any other nation.

Considering, Ist, That the Lord hath exalted England in spiritual and in temporal mercies and deliverances, as much as, or more than, any other nation under heaven: And all this only for the sake of our Lord Jesus, who, concerning the Aesh, came of the Jews, Rom. ix. 5. and by whom the covenants and promises made to the Jews, are made over to us that are faithful, Rom. xi. 16, 18, 24. Eph. iii. 6. Eph. ii. 12, 13, 19.

2d, In our nation, the good people generally have more believed the promises touching the calling of the Jews, and the great riches and glory that shall follow to Jews, and us Gentiles; and have, and do still, more often, and earnestly pray for it, than any other nation that we have heard of.

3d, Many of the good people here, being persecuted in queen Mary's days, and under the prelates since, have been kindly harboured as strangers in other lands; and, therefore, should the more pity and harbour persecuted strangers, especially persecuted Jews, Exod. xxiii. 8.

4th, Many cruel and inbuman injuries have formerly been done in our nation against the Jews that intruded not England, but had been called, and invited to come and dwell here:) Crueltics by several kings, by lords, and by occasion of the merchants urging their banishment, multitudes of them were drowned in the Thames, or in the sea.

Cruelties by Londoners, especially at Richard the First's coronation; and soon after by Yorkers, by people of Norwich, Stamford, &c. as Stow's Survey ot London, and his Annals, and Hollingshead, and other English Chronicles fully shew.

For such gross injuries, the Lord may be very sore displeased with England, as sometimes he was with Israel in general, for the injuries that had formerly been done by Saul their king, in his zeal against the Gibeonites ; until such satisfaction was maje, as the surviving Gibeonites desired of David, 2 Sam. xxi. 1, 2 And then (and not all then) the Lord was intreated for the land, ver. 140

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