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a long series of time; so that the interest of lawyers (in the height whicte now it is) comes from the same rout, as pride and idleness, i. e. from fulness of bread, or prosperity, the mother of strife. Not but that just and equal administrators of laws are very necessary in a commonwealth ; but when once that, which was at first but a title, comes to be framed into an interest, then it sets up itsell, and grows great upon the ruins of others, and through the corruption of the people.

I take this to be a main difference between lawful and corrupt interests. Just interests are the servants of all, and are of an humble spirit, as being content to have their light put out by the brightness of that glory which they are supplemental to. But corrupt interests fear a change, and use all wiles to establish themselves, that so their fall may be great, and their ruin as chargeable to the world as it can; for such interests care for none but themselves.

The readiest way to inform such men is, to do it within us, for most men have the common barretor within them, i. e. principles of contention and wrong; and thus the law becomes the engine of strile, the instrument of lust, the mother of debates, and lawyers are as make-bales, between a man and his neighbour.

When Sir Walter Raleigh was upon his tryal, the lawyers, that were of council for the King, were very violent against him; whereupon Sir Walter, turning to the jury, used these words: 'Gentlemen, I pray you consider, that these men, meaning the lawyers, do usually defend very bad causes every day in the courts, against men of their own profession, as able as themselves, what then will they not do against me,' &c.? Which speech of his may be too truly affirmed of many lawyers, who are any thing or nothing for gain, and, measuring causes by ibeir own interest, care not how long right be deferred, and suits prolonged. There was a suit in Gloucestershire, between two families, which lasted since the reign of Edward the Fourth, till of late composed, which certainly must be ascribed either to the ambiguity of the law, or the subtlety of the lawyers, neither of which are any great honour to the English nation.

How much better were it to spend the acuteness of the mind in the real and substantial ways of good, and benefit to ourselves and others? And nut to unbowel ourselves into a mere web, a frothy and contentious way of law, which the oppressed man stands in no more need of, than the tender-hearted Christian of Thomas Aquinas to resolve him in his doubts.

If there be such a thing as right in the world, let us have it sine fuco. Why is it delayed, or denied, or varnished over with guilty words! Why comes it not forth in its own dress? Why doth it not put off law, and put on reason, the mother of all just laws? Why is it not ashamed of its long and mercenary train? Why can we not ask it, and receive it ourselves, but must have it handed to us by others? In a word, why may not a man plead his own case? Or his friends and acquaintance, as formerly, plead for him?

Memorable is that passage in King James's speech in the Star-Cham

+ Camden Brit. in Gloucest.

ber, “ In countries, says he, where the formality of law hath no place, as in Denmark, all their state is governed only by a written law, there is no advocate or proctor admitted to plead, only the parties themselves plead their own cause, and then a man stands up, and pleads the law, and there is an end; for the very law-book itself is their only judge: happy were a!l kingdums, if they could be so; but here curious wits, various conceits, different actions, and variety of examples breed questions in law.” Thus far he. And if this kingdom doth resemble Denmark, in so many other customs, why may it not be assimilated to it in this also ? especially considering, that the world travels with freedom, and some real compensation is desired by the people, for all their sufferings, losses, and blood.

To clear the channel of the law, is an honourable work for a senate, who should be preservers of the people's rights.

NARRATIVE

Of the Proceedings of a

GREAT COUNCIL OF JEWS,

Assembled in the Plain of Ageda in Hungary, about thirty leagues dis

tant from Buda, to examine the Scriptures concerning Christ, on the twelfth of October, 1650. By Samuel Brest, there present.

Also, a relation of some other observations in his travels beyond the

seas; and particularly in Egypt, Macedonia, Dalmatia, Calabria, Apuleia, Sicily, Assyria, Sclavonia, France, Spain, and Portugal ; the Islands of Cyprus, Candia, Patmos, and Delphos; the cities of Carthage, Corinth, Troy, Constantinople, Venice, Naples, Leghorn, Florence, Milan, Rome, Bottonia, Mantua, Genoa, Paris,

&c. (From a Quarto edition, printed at London, for Richard Moon, at the Seven

Stars in St. Paul's Church-Yard, near the great North-Door, 1655.]

The contents of this pamphlet are very extraordinary; some of them of

the last importance to the Christian commonweal, and all of them matter of great curiosity, and scarce to be met with in any other English historian. As for the author, take his own account of himself as follows: YOL. VI.

P

There was nothing I more desired, than to travel beyond the seas, and

to know the various manners of the nations of the world; for which, through God's providence, I had an opportunity offered me, to my great satisfaction, being chirurgeon of an English ship in the Streights, where, for a cure that I did for Orlando de Spina, of Gallipoli, an eminent man in those parts, I was by him preferred to be captain of a ship of Malta, which was set out by the said Orlando, and committed to my command against the Turks in the Arches, in assistance to the Venetians; in the which service I spent about nine months, till the tempestuous season of the year forced me to return into harbour again. "And, in this time of employment, I made five fights at sea, and two at land; being chosen, by lot, to invade the Turk's country, with a certain company of soldiers collected out of our fleet, to do some execution upon the borders of the enemy, and to get some provision for our relief; in all which fights, tho' very perilous, God gave me the victory. The whole time I spent beyond the seas, before and after this employment, was almost four years, not staying long in any one place. But first I travelled to all the sea-towns of note for merchandising, to know the trade of the places, and the conveniency of their harbours, that I might be able to do some profitable service in merchant affairs. Also I travelled into several countries, and the most eminent cities and towns therein, viz. Egypt, Macedonia, Dalmatia, Calabria, Apuleia, Sicily, Assyria, Sclavonia, and some parts of Spain and Portugal; to the Islands of Cyprus, Candia, Patmos, and Delphos; to Carthage, Corinth, Troy, and Constantinople; besides many other towns and places ; but my longest abode was in Italy, and therein at Venice, Naples, Leghorn, Florence, Milan, Rome, Bottonia, Mautua, Genoa, &c. And at last, looking homeward, I came into France, taking a brief view of many eminent places in that kingdom. And at Paris I found many of my countrymen, of which, though some be persons of great quality, yet, God knoweth, they are in a low condition. And, now, I shall give a brief account of some of iny observations, during the time of iny abode beyond the scas.

AT T Paris, our countrymen live peaceably, and enjoy our religion

without disturbance. There is a place allowed them, with neces. sary accommodations for the exercise of religion. Dr. Steward did often preach to them; and, for their form of worship, it is the same that was formerly in England, with the Book of Common-Prayer, and the rites therein used; and also they continue the innovations that were practised by many of our clergy; as, bowing at the name of Jesus towards the altar, &c. which, I know, giveth offence to the good French protestants, who, to me, did often condemn those innovations for Romish superstitions; doubtless, they would do our church and our religion more credit there, if they did use less ceremony. As for the Frnch papists, truly they are more civil to them than was expected; fothe opinion of the world, where I have been, is but mean of that nation. And, I believe, the Italians may be their Cousin-Germans, for both of them are false and faithless enough. And this consideration (God having taken away Orlando, my noble friend, who did always much countenance me) did lessen my affection to continue in that service; for my soldiers were all Italians, except a few Greeks; and I never saw much cause to be confident in their fidelity; but it was chiefly for fear of him, that they were so tractable to mc.

As for religion, in most parts where I have been, it is generally the same with the church of Rome; but for the Grecians, for amongst them I was, they are neither pure protestants nor pure papists; I mean, neither only protestants, nor only papists, but their religion is a mixture of both; for, though they hold sonic fundamentals with us, yet they follow many of the Romish superstitions; and, according to my observation, they follow more the religion of Rome, than the protestant church, and they are much poisoned with heresies.

But of all nations, according to my observation, none are more zcalous for the religion of Rome than the Spaniards; who, I think, for this, are more Romanists than the Romans themselves; for, with them, there is an Inquisition, and in Rome I never heard of the same dangerous snare*; there I had as much freedom, as I could desire; and more courtesy than I could expect, without any temptatiou to apostatise from my religion.

As for the occurrences that I met with, they were many, but these four were the most considerable:

First, The strangling of the great Turk, by the Janizaries, at which time there was great fear and trouble in Constantinople; but they inthroned bis son, and this brought about a peaceable seitlement; and with him there were cut off divers basba's heads; all whose heads, excepting the great Turk's, lay three days in chargers before the palacegate for the publick view of the people, which, they say, is the custom for the noblemen that are beheaded.

The next thing is, the flowing of the river Nile in Egypt, the manner whereof is this: it beginneth to flow about the fifteenth of June, every year; the people know the time thereof, and expect it accord ingly; and this is after their harvest, s hich is usually ended about the beginning of May. As for rain, there seldom falleth any in Egypt. During the time the river is up, all the country appeareth like islands. Their towns are seated upon hills, and their lower grounds are all covered with waters; and the inhabitants use small boats to pass from place to place about their affairs; and, because they know the yearly ficwing of the Nile, they provide for the safety of their cattle till the waters are wasted away again. There are also certain pillars of stone set up, with divers marks upon them, by which they know the degrees of the rising, and the usual heighth that the waters do ascend unto; and, if the waters do ascend above the highest mark, they do expect some strange consequence thereof. But the greatest wonder, is the present cessation of the plague upon the flowing of this river. There died, some thousands of the plague, the day before the flowing of the Nile, • There is an Inquisition at Rome, but not so rigorous.

a

in Grand Cairo, as they certified me; and, a day or two after, not one person died of the infection. This I observed, that the land is full of unhealthy fogs, mists, and vapours, which cause the disease; and it seems the waters of the Nile do purify it again.

In the kingdom of Grand Cairo, alias, Pharaoh's town, is the city, and it is greater than any elsewhere I did behold; but Memphis is the nearer city; and being there, I went to see the land of Goshen, where the Israelites did inhabit: this is a very pleasant and fruitful land for pasture, such as I have no where seen the like. At this time also, I had an opportunity to see the Red-Sea, and the place where (as they informed me) the Israelites did enter their journey through the saine; there also they shewed me the great mountains that inclosed them, when Pharaoh pursued them with his great army; and the hills where the two armies lay in sight of one another; and there I found the true reason why it is called the Red-Sea; not because the water is red daturally, but because the sand is red; and this was clear to me, by plain deinonstration; for I put some of the water into a clean vessel, and there I did see it had the same colour of other water; but the sand is reddish, and giveth the same colour to the water.

I shall omit many other things concerning Egypt; only this, it is under the Turk's dominion, and the natives are his miserable slaves.

Thirdly, you may expect some news from Rome, where also I was, and did behold their great solemnity, it being then the Anno Sancto, as they there call it, that is, the Year of Jubilee.

There I beheld the Pope in his glory, and how in great state he was carried about the city; the streets were thronged with the people; and, as he passed by, they made them even to ring with acclamations and rejoicings; he was carried by some eminent men, having a rich canopy over him. He made his crosses in the air with his fingers, and threw his blessings amongst them. And truly these delusions were so prevailing with the people, that (poor souls) they seemed to me to rejoice, as if Christ himself had been come to Rome, and brought them down the felicities of heaven.

At one time I beheld, in Naples (perhaps it will seem strange, but it

true) about right-thousand pilgrims going to Rome, for their absolution; all which the Vice-Roy of Naples maintained three days at his own charge; and, on the fourth day, they did present themselves before him at his palace in pilgrim weeds, viz. with leaden pictures of saints in their hats, and leather collars about their necks, which fell down half way over their arms, and their staves in their hands; and thus they marched away from Naples, in the posture of an army to wards Rome, and so farewel Rome: Vidi, satis est vidisse ; i. e. I have seen it, and that is enough.

I omit to recite many other occurrences, which by conference I shall willingly communicate to my friends; they being too many to commit to writing: only now

The fourth remarkable thing remaineth to present you withal; and that is,

The proceedings of a great council of Jews assembled in the plain of

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