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First, That in the ministry of the new covenant of everlasting life and peace, which God hath graciously erected with mankind in Jesus Christ, and, according to the analogy of Christian faith, clearly taught, and the rules of Christian duties, expresly commanded in holy scripture; and, by the undoubted principles of sincere dealing, manifestly revealed in the conscience of every one, and useful for edification, and avoiding of offence in the communion of saints: I shall sincerely, really, and constantly, through the grace of God, endeavour to preserve every where, but more especially in the church of Scotland, and to advance towards perfection, in the church of England and Ireland, the reformed religion, in the free and publick profession and practice of the doctrine, worship, discipline, and government thereof, according to the word of God, and the example of the best reformed churches ; and shall, by the means aforesaid, furthermore endeavour, as I shall find opportunity, to bring the churches of God in the three kingdoms to the nearest conjunction and uniformity that may be evangelically obtained in religion, confession of faith, form of church-government, directory for worship and catechisings, that they, and their posterity. inay as brethren, live in unity of the spirit, through the bond of peace, in faith, and love amongst themselves, and correspond amiably with foreign protestants, that the God of peale, love, and unity, may delight to dwell in the midst of them.

That, by the means aforesaid, I' shall in like manner, without worldly respects, and respecting of persons, endeavour the rooting out of all plants, which the heavenly Father hath not planted, and more particularly that I shall labour to extirpate all human usurped power over the church of God, and the consciences of men, tending to lead them in a lordly, tyrannical way to depend upon the will of man, by a blind credulity, and forced obedience in matters of faith, and religious practice, whether it be called now popery or prelacy, by the titles of archbishops, bishops, their courts, chancellors, commissaries, deans, and chapters, archdeacons, and such like ecclesiastical officers depending upon that hierarchy, or by what name soever it may or shall be called hereafter. And that, in like manner, I shall labour to' extirpate all superstition, and all heresies condemned by the primitive general councils of the true ancient church; all schisin, chiefly amongst evangelical protestants, who have cast off the papal yoke; all propbaneness, and whatsoever shall be found contrary to svund doctrine, and the power of godliness, lest I partake of other men's sins, and be in danger io receive of their plagues, that the Lord may be one, and his name one, not only in the three kingdoms, but in all the kingdoms of the earth.

Thirdly, That I shall by the means aforesaid, in the same sincerity, reality, and constancy, according to my calling, endeavour, with my estate and life, to preserve the rights and privileges of the parliaments, and the liberties of the kingdoins, which are fundamental and necessary for the conservation of the publick state; and that I shall also preserve and defend, with my estate and life, the King's Majesty's person and authority, to which I am bound by the oath of allegiance, as to the head of the publick state, in the preservation and defence of the truz:

TOL. VI,

religion and liberties of the kingdoms, that the world may bear witness with my conscience of iny loyalty, and that I have no thoughts or intentions to diminish his Majesty's just power and greatness.

Fourthly, 'That I shall, with all faithfulness, endeavour the discovery of all such as have been, or shall be incendiaries, malignants, or evil instruments, by hindering the reformation of religion, dividing the King from his people, or one of the kingdoms from another, or making any factions or parties among the people, contrary to the tenor of the national league or covenant, that they may be drawn from the error of their ways, and brought to repentance, or otherwise to publick tryal, and receive condign punishment, as the degree of their offence shall require or deserve, or supreme judicatories of both kingdoms respectively, or others having power from them to that effect, shall judge convenient.

Fifthly, And whereas the happiness of a blessed peace and union between the kingdoms, denied in former times to our progenitors, is, by the good providence of God, granted to us, and hath been lately concluded and settled by both parliaments, I shall, according to my place and interest, endeavour that the kingdoms may remain conjoined in a firm peace and union to all posterity, and that justice may be done upon the wilful opposers thereof, in manner expressed in the precedent articles.

Sixthly, I shall, also, according to my place and calling, in the common cause of religion, liberty, and peace of the kingdoms, assist and defend all those that enter into the national league and covenant, in the maintaining and pursuing thereof, and shall not suffer myself, directly or indirectly, by whatsoever combination, persuasion, or terror, to be withdrawn and divided from this blessed union and conjunction, whether to make defection to the cortrary part, or to give myseit to a detestable indifferency, or neutrality, in this cause, which so much concerns the glory of God the good of the kingdoms, the bonour of the King, and the welfare of all evangelical churches, wbich I shall labour to bring to a good correspondency, and brotherly affection with the churches of the kingdoms, and one with another; and so, all the days of my life, shall zealvusly and constantly continue, against all opposition, in this endeavour of publick edification, peace, and reconcilement of protestants, not leaving off to promote inore particularly the national cause according to my power, against all lets and impediments whatsoever; and what I am not able to suppress or overcome by inyself, I shall reveal and make known, that it may be timely prevented or removed. All which I shall do as in the sight of God.

Seventhly, And, lest, in the use of the fur said means for the prosecuting of these endeavours, as well towards those of my nation, as towards other evangelical churches, I might either unadvisedly give, or others might colourably take offence and scandals at me, from whence inconvenicncies in this work, as tares in a good field, may grow up, and choak the fruits thereof, for want of circumspection and care, to determine the way and manner of proceeding, by necessary rules tending to edification; therefore, I shall faithfully endeavour to shape my Gourse in all things conformable to the life of Jesus Christ, the captain

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of this warfare, whose footsteps I am bound to follow, and whose life is the rule of righteousness; and, to speak more particularly of this, I shall order the ways of my proceedings by these rules:

I. I shall walk in the light, doing all things openly; and being desirous to come to the light, and approve my ways to the conscience of every one, I shall reject all hidden things of darkness, and the tricks of worldly wisdom.

II. I shall not meddle out of my spiritual calling, with matters of staté, nor suffer my ministerial gifts to serve politicians for worldly ends.

III. My way shall he wholly evangelical, that is to say, fitted to prepare the minds of men to entertain the glad tidings of the gospel. And, to this effect,

I shall seek out and propose the counsels and means of peace by the truth, bearing witness thereunto, as it shall be revealed to me, and exhorting and persuading indifferently all to receive it.

I shall not strive, nor cry, nor lift up my voice in the streets: that is to say, I shall not entertain the contentious custom of bitter railings, and confused disputings, by odious censuring and conde:nning of others, to lay open their faults; but rather study by loving admonitions to redress them.

I shall not break the bruised reed, nor quench the smoaking flax; that is to say, I shall bear with the weak and support the feeble, not pleasing myself, but, condescending to things of low degree, befitting the capacity of the simple and ignorant, I will labour to heal the breaches of their spirit, and carry their burthens, till God send forth judgment unto victory.

If I be wronged, I shall not intend revenge, or requite evil for evil, or give way to evil surmises, or make sinister reports of my evil will kuown, but rather shall cover their faults, so far as may be without detriment to the publick cause, and the necessary clearing of

my own innocency

In a word, I shall do nothing to another, which I would not have done, in the like case, unto myself; and what I would have done by others to myself, I shall first do it unto them.

Lastly, I shall always be ready to go without the camp, to bear the reproach, and partake of the cross of Jesus Christ.

ond, because, not only the kingdonis, but all protestant churches and evangelical states, and every one that liveth therein, are guilty of many sins and provocations against God and his son Jesus Christ, as is too manifest by the present distresses and dangers, the fruits thereof befalling to all, as well at home as abroad; therefore, I propose and declare before God my unfeigned desire to be humbled for my sins, and for the sins of my brethren in these kingdoms, and in the churches at home and abroad; especially that we have not all valued, as we ought, the inestimable benefit of the gospel; that we have not laboured for the purity and power thereof, and that we have not endeavoured to receive Christ in our hearts, nor to walk worthy of him in our lives, which are the cause of other sins and transgressions so much abounding among all. And my true and unteigned purpose, desire, and endeavour, is for myself, and for all others under my power and charge, both in publick and in private, in all duties I owe to God and man, to amend my life and theirs, and to go before others in the example of a real reformation, that the Lord may turn away his wrath and heavy indignation from all his people, and establish the churches and the kingdoms in truth and peace.

And this covenant and vow I make in the presence of Almighty God, the searcher of all hearts, with a true intention to perform the same unblameably, as I shall answer at the great day, when the secrets of all hearts shall be disclosed. Most humbly beseeching the Lord to strengthen me and all those that enter into the like resolution by his Holy Spirit for this end, and to bless all our desires and proceedings of this kind, with such success as may be deliverance and safety to his people, and encouragement to other Christian churches, groaning under, or in danger of the yoke of Antichristian tyranny, to join in the same or like association and covenant, to the glory of God, the enlargement of the kingdom of Jesus Christ, and the peace and tranquillity of all Christian kingdoms and commonwealths. Amen. I have said and subscribe myself,

J. D.

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1. The standard, or measure of all just laws; which is threefold.

1. Their original and rise, viz. The free choice, or election of the people. 2. Their rule and square, viz. Principle; of justice, righteousness, and truth. 3. Their use and end, viz. The liberty and safety of the people.

II. The laws of England weighed in this three-fold balance, and found

too light. 1. In their original, force, power, conquest, or constraint. 2. Io their rule, corrupt will, or principles of unrighteousness and wrong. 3. In their end, the grievance, trouble, and bondage of the people. TII. The necessity of the reformation of the laws of England; together

with the excellency (and yet difficulty) of this work. IV. The corrupt interest of lawyers in this commonwealth.

BY JOHN WARR. Leges Anglice plenæ sunt tricarum, ambiguitatum, sibique contrariæ ; fuerunt siquidem excogitatæ, atque sancitæ à Normannis, quibus nulla gens magis litigiosa, atque in controversiis machinandis ac proferendis fallacior reperiri potest.

PHILIP. HONOR. Englished thus: The laws of England are full of tricks, doubts, and

contrary to themselves ; for they were invented and established by the Normans, which were of all nations the most quarrelsome, and most fallacious in contriving of controversies and suits.

London, printed for Giles Calvert, at the Black Spread Eagle, at the West End

of St. Paul's. 1649. Quarto, containing eighteen pages.

CHAP 1.

THOS

Containing the just measure of all good laws, in their original, rule, and

end: together with a reflexion (by way of Antithesis) upon unjust laws. *HOSE laws, which do carry any thing of freedom in their bowels,

do owe their original to the people's choice: and have been wrested from the rulers and princes of the world, by importunity of intreaty, or by force of arms; for the great men of the world, being invested with the power thereof, cannot be imagined to eclipse themselves or their own pomp, unless by the violent interposition of the people's spirits, who are most sensible of their own burdens, and most forward in secking relief. So that exorbitancy and injustice, on the part of rulers, was the rise of laws in behalf of the people; which consideration will afford us this general maxim, That the pure and genuine intent of laws was to bridle princes, not the people, and to keep rulers within the bounds of just and righteous government; from whence, as from a fountain, the rivulet of subjection and obedience, on the people's part, did reciprocally Now forth, partly to gratify, and partly to encourage good and virtuous governors: so that laws have but a secondary refexion on the people, glancing only at them, but looking with a full eye upon princes. Agreeable to this is that of Cicero, Lib. ij. de Offic. whose words are to this effect : “ Cum premeretur olim multitudo ab iis qui majores opes habebant, statim confugiebat ad unum aliquem virtute prastantem, &c. Jus enim semper quæsitum est æquabile, neq; enim aliter esset jus; id si ab uno bono & justo viro consequebantur, eo erant contenti ; cùm id minùs contingeret, leges sunt inventæ," 8c. (i. e.) When the people did obtain redress of their wrongs from some just and good man, they were satisfied therewith; but, when they failed thereof, they found out laws, &c, &c.

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