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According to the Report de Pharmacie, the formula for this preparation is as fol. lows:
Tamarind (pulp), 450; powd. Sugar, 40; powd. Sugar-of milk, 60; pure Glycerin, 50 (all parts). Mix and evaporate to the consistence of a soft extract, then add powd. Anise, 10; Ess. Lemon, 3; Tartaric Acid, 3 (all parts). Mix and divide into 100 boluses. Roll in the following mixture: Cream of Tartar, 5; White Su. gar, 35; Sugar-of-milk, 35; Tragacanth, 2; Tartaric Acid, 2; powd. Red Sandal, 25 (all parts). Dry and put up in tin foil. (American Druggist.)
Warner's Safe Kidney and Liver Cure.
In Germany each maker of patent medicines must furnish the government with the formula for the patent he makes. This is the one furnished by Warner for "Safe Kidney and Liver Cure." Each bottle contains:
Extr. Lycopus Virginiana
Extr. Hepatica (herb),
Water sufficient to make one pint. (Formulary and Druggists' Magazine.)
ãâ p. æq. (Hoffmann.)
THE TREATMENT OF POISONING.
The most energetic poisons are Hydrocyanic Acid, some reptile poisons, Strychnine and Nicotine. (See pages 67, 294, 389.) Those usually selected for criminal purposes are Arsenic, Colchicum, and Tartarized Antimony, the symptoms of which resemble those of natural disease.
General Principles of Treatment. Jeaunel's General Antidote.-R. Liq. Ferri Sulphatis (sp. gr. 1.45) 3ijss; Magnesia Calcinat. ij; Carbonis Animalis 3; Aquæ 3xx. The ingredients should be kept separate-the solution of the sulphate in one ves sel, the others together. When needed, the former should be added to the latter and violently agitated. Dose, jss to iij. This is a perfect antidote to Arsenic, Zinc, Digitaline, etc. It delays the action of salts of Copper, Morphine and Strychnine, and slightly influences compounds of Mercury. It is valueless for Cyanide of Mercury, Tartar Emetic, Hydrocyanic Acid, Phosphorus, or the caustic Alkalies.
BELLINI, of Florence, considers the Iodide of Starch a valuable antidote to alkaline Sulphides, earthy Sulphides, vegetable and caustic Alkalies, and Ammonia. In the first two cases he considers it superior to all other antidotes.
A fresh mixture of the Sulphide of Iron, Magnesia, and the Sulphide of Sodium, is a perfect antidote for salts of Copper, the Bichloride of Mercury (Corr. Sub.), and the Cyanide of Mercury.
If the nature of the poison is unknown, a harmless yet in most cases effectual antidote is: R. Magnesiæ, Carbonis Ligni, Ferri Oxidi Hydrati, äâ partes æquales; Aquæ q. s.
Give ad libitum.
Castile Soap, dissolved in 4 times its bulk of hot water, drunk by the cupful, is one of the best remedies in many cases, especially poisoning with metals, corrosive acids or corrosive vegetable substances. It is injurious in cases of alkali poisoning.
Albumen. White of egg, dissolved in water, is especially useful for metallic substances. Vinegar, for alkalies, and many narcotics. Coffee, made strong (black), in general antidoting narcotic poisons. Camphor, the principal antidote to all vegetable poisons, especially the corrosive. Milk, Oil, Mucilaginous Substances, for corrosive acids, and alkalies. Charcoal, for Arsenic, Corrosive Sublimate, etc.
Emetics.-Zinc Sulphate is the best (R.); gr. v-3 ss; is non-nauseating. Apomorphine, gr. hypodermically, when narcosis prevents administration by stomach. For children, Antim. Tart. gr. 2, in a little sweetened water. Use but little water in mixing
Antidote Bag, designed By Martindale, of London, contains the following-named articles, labeled with directions for use, viz.—
Spt. Ammoniæ Aromat.
Also a Hypodermic Syringe and Solutions therefor of
Acids. Alkalies, for those least irritating. Magnesium Oxide, Slaked Lime, chalk, or magnesia; plaster from wall, with water, milk, oil, white of egg. Bland mucilaginous and oily fluids, and poultices (R.). ACETIC.-Magnesia, or its carbonates. ARSENIOUS; see Arsenic. CARBOLIC.-Stomach-pump; a strong solution of the official Syrup of I ime. Magnesium or Sodium Sulphate, up to 3 iij, to form a sulpho-carbolate, is a very efficient antidote. Atropine is a good physiological antagonist (B.). Characteristic symptoms, very dark, black urine. When used locally to excess, apply a strong solution of Sodium Carbonate; also as a wash for the mouth, if necessary. CARBONIC; see Gas. HYDROCYANIC (Dilute).-mxl have killed. Ammonia, in any form; cold douche; Calcium or Sodium Chloride, gtt. xxx-xl, in water; Aqua Chlori is the antidote. Inhalations of Chlorine or Ammonia; artificial respiration. MURIATIC, NITRIC, or SULPHURIC.-Albumen, Carbonate of Magnesium, Calcium, Potassium, or Sodium, Chalk, Soap, or whiting, in milk; Oil. No water in Sulphuric cases. OXALIC.-Calcium Carbonate the antidote
(R.); Magnesium Oxide (R.). Prepared Chalk, plaster from ceiling, or common whiting, made into a creamy paste with a little water. Bland mucilaginous drinks, and poultices to the abdomen. Avoid potash or soda, and all alkaline carbonates. "Salts of Lemon," or of "Sorrel," is Potassium Oxalate, used for removing ink stains; it should be treated as Oxalic Acid.
Aconite (compare Belladonna).' Stimulants, emetics, Castor-oil or other purgatives; powdered animal Charcoal, in water; coffee. Bland fluids, and poultices, for abdominal irritation. Digitalis, to restore heart's action (Fothergill).
Alcohol. [Compare ALCOHOLISM and DELIRIUM TREMENS in Part III.] Cold water smartly sprinkled over face, or cold douche from a height on the head (K.). Stomachpump; warmth to cardiac and gastric regions, and extremities. Artificial respiration.
Alkaloids. Tannic Acid, holds a high place (P.).
Alkalies. Dilute Acids, especially Vegetable Acids; fixed oils (R.). Vinegar unites with them, producing innocuous acetates (L.).
Alum. Ammonium, or Potassium Carbonates, etc.
Ammonium. (Common Sources of Danger, Spt. of Hartshorn, Smelling Salts, Liquor Ammonia kept for cleaning purposes by housekeepers.) Vinegar, Lemon-juice, Orange-juice, followed by demulcents. If vapor has been inspired, inhale Acetic or Hydrochloric Acid.
Antimony. Alkalies, Tannin, or strong tea and coffee (R.). Astringent infusions; Magnesium and Sodium Carbonates; milk; large draughts of warm water; emesis by tickling; Magnesia in milk, especially for Chloride of Antimony. Tannic Acid especially valuable(P.).
Arsenic (Arsenious Acid). Gr. ij have been fatal. Magnesium Bicarbonate, or other alkalies (R.). Charcoal 3 ss, or more (R.). Magnesium Oxide (R.). Emesis by Zinc Sulphate 3 (avoid tartar emetic), or by feather tickling. Albumen. Oil and Lime-water mixed (Taylor), before and after emesis. Milk or other bland fluids to aid emesis in washing stomach. Castor-oil after emesis. Linseed tea and Magnesia. Dialysed Iron is a good antidote, especially for chronic poisoning. After free emesis, the Ferri Oxidum Hydratum (add Liq. Ammon, to Tinct. of Iron); Ferri Subcarbonate just as good; 30 followed by Ol. Ricini (Leale); or Hydrated Magnesia; or Magnesia and sugar (Carl), as antidotes. Poultices and fomentations over abdomen. Common sources of danger are arsenical wall papers, arsenic mistaken for “salts" or "magnesia," or adulterated confectionery; Paris Green (Aceto-Arsenite of Copper) taken with suicidal intent.
Barium. Fixed oils; Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, or Sodium Sulphates.
Belladonna, or Atropine. (Compare Aconite). Opium a direct antidote, gtt. iij-v or more. Brandy, astringent infusions, Coffee. Cold to head, electricity, flagellation, pepper. Alkalies, especially Magnesium Bicarbonate, in poisoning by alkaloids (R.). Ammonia, breathed into air passages (R.). Charcoal, 3ss or more necessary (R.). Physostigma possibly (R.).
Bees and Insects. Aquæ Ammonia, solution of Sodium Bicarb., or Chloride, or Carbolic Acid, applied to the wound; or mxv of a 2 per cent, solu'ion hypodermically, Liq. Ammon. Acetatis internally. [Compare STINGS, in main Index, Part III.]
Cannabis Indica. Stimulation by Brandy, evacuation of stomach, Strychnine and Faradic Electricity are antagonistic, also Lemon-juice freely.
Camphor. Stimulants, as wine, and Opium.
Cantharis. Emesis. No oils, but cleaginous injections into bladder. Warm bath, Camphor, Milk copiously, Broths, Enemata of demulcents, Opium.
Chloral. Strychnine, the antidote (R.). Hot bath, or pack, frictions, stimulants, artificial respiration. Coffee, fresh air, warmth over cardiac region. In fact, the treatment of narcotism.
Chlorine. After emesis with warm water, give milk, white of egg, flour and water, or Lime-water; Aqua Ammoniæ.
Chloroform, or Ether. Fresh air, cold effusions, flagellation, coffee, electricity, artificial respiration. Amyl Nitrite, as antidote (Schüller). Atropine, hypodermically as antagonist to Ether (Amidon in N. Y. Med. Record, May 2d, 1885); is equally efficient in chloroform narcosis, as I have found by experience (Potter). Invert patient, draw tongue well forward with forceps, then compress and relax chest; the position to be maintained
until breath and pulse are good (Nélaton). Ice in rectum. Faradization of respiratory muscles. If swallowed, use stomach-pump, then Ammonia and warmth. Liq. Ammon. injected (mx-xl aq.) into veins,-Bartholow says unsuccessfully.
Colchicum. Treatment same as for Aconite.
Conium. Alcohol, etc.; external warmth after evacuation from stomach.
Copper. Albumen, gluten, milk, sugar, Po'assium Ferrocyanide. No vinegar. In absence of eggs, give a thin paste of flour and water.
Creasote. Mucilage, Oil, are antidotes. Ammonia when great depression.
Digitalis. The treatment is similar to that for Aconite. Emetics, brandy, horizontal position; galvanism, in bad cases.
Fish. Capsicum, Chloroform, Potassium Chlorate freely; Liq. Ammon. Acet., Opium. Gamboge. Potassium or Sodium Carbonate, or Magnesium in milk; mucilaginous drinks. Opium.
Gases. CARBONIC ACID.-Galvanism, Oxygen inhaled; artificial respiration indispensable. Ammonia inhalations. Sponge with brandy or alcohol and water. Open air, horizontal position, clothing removed, cold douche, hot water to feet, stimulants, frictions. Subsequently, warm bed, open windows; Condy's fluid about room; stimulants sparingly; cold acid drinks ad libitum. SULPHURETTED HYDROGEN.-Chlorine Gas, well diluted with common air.
Gelsemium. Galvanic current, stimulants, Brandy and Cayenne Pepper, warm baths, frictions, hot bricks to feet.
Glass, coarse or in powder.-Much bread in crumbs to envelope it, then emetics. Gold. Ferric Sulphate, Mucilage.
Hyoscyamus. See Belladonna.
Iodine. Starch or flour given in tepid water; white of egg and milk; free emesis, so long as liquid rejected tinges blue a solution of starch. Sodium Bicarbonate.
Iron. Carbonates of Ammonium and Sodium; Magnesia; Mucilaginous drinks.
Lead. Albumen, milk; alkalies especially Magnesium Bicarbonate (R.). Lukewarm drinks, or Sulphates of Sodium or Magnesium, or freshly precipitated Ferric Sulphate (R.). Promote vomiting; stomach-pump (R.). Sulphuric Acid and Magnesium Sulphate, for the constipation. The cachexia is much relieved by a combination of Sulphate of Quinine, Sulphate of Iron, and dilute Sulphuric Acid (B.). Potassium Iodide, gr. xv-xx 3 or 4 times each day (B.); as after eliminative, in chronic cases (R.). When great pain at defecation give Extr. Belladon., gr. %, Rhei, gr. ij, in pill twice daily (Da Costa). Alum, the most effective agent for the colic. [See COLIC for formula.] Or to a pint of boiling milk add 90 grs. of alum, powdered; separate the curd, and sweeten with sugar. Sig.A wineglassful every hour or two (B.). Electricity, in the paralysis (dropped wrist), a slowly interrupted current until it causes reaction. Cure to be completed by the faradic current (B.). Strychnine, in paralysis, gives good results (B.). Sulphides, as baths, in chronic form (R.).
Marked Diagnostic Signs.-Drop-wrist (paralysis of extensor muscles); dark-blue line around edges of gums.
Albumen, mucilaginous drinks, oils, milk, flour, and
Mercury. Gr. iij of Corrosive Sublimate have proved fatal. Albumen, Yolk of egg, vegetable astringents, gluten, flour, milk; Potassium Iodide, as after-treatment. The Hydrated Protosulphide of Iron, if given within twenty minutes, is said to be a chemical antidote. Potassium Iodide, converts the metal into soluble combinations (B.). Bismuth, locally in salivation (B.). Sodium Sulphite, locally 3j-3j aquæ (B.). Tannic Acid, locally, as gargle in salivation. R. Acidi Tannici, 3j, Mel. Rosa 3ij, Aquæ 3 vj. M. Gargle (B.). Belladonna, to diminish secretion in ptyalism, v-x drops of tincture every 4 to 6 hours (B.). Hyoscyamine, for tremor, gr. gradually to (Oulmont). Alkalies, Bicarb. of Magnesium best (R.). Baths, simple or sulphurous (R.). Charcoal, 3ss or more necessary in poisoning by Corrosive Sublimate (R.). Cod-liver Oil, in chronic cases (B.). Nitric Acid, gtt. ij of the dilute acid in water ter die; also gargles of lukewarm water, acidulated with same (R.). Sulphurous Acid, int, and as gargle (R.).
Lime. Calcium Chloride.
Mezereum. Albuminous and mucilaginous drinks; milk, oils, and fats; albuminous enemata; cool poultices to abdomen; Opium.
Mushrooms. Emetics, if soon after; Purgatives, if some time has elapsed. After general treatment, Stimulants, unless infla nmatory symptoms present themselves. Poultices to abdomen. Tannic Acid has been recommended.
Opium or Morphine. Common Sources of Danger.-Soothing Syrups for quieting of children. (The American Journal of Pharmacy estimates the loss from this cause at 150,000 every year.) Paregoric. Overdosing with Cough mixtures.
Treatment.-Vegetable astringents; strongest, hot black Coffee. Cold douche, flagellation, artificial respiration, persevered in for hours. Belladonna, Hyoscyamus or Stramonium. Faradism of phrenic nerves; Stimulants. Comp. Tinct. Iodine. Emetics by mouth are usually useless, may be given as enemata; or Apomorphine, gr. to % as emetic (hypoder. ), must be administered before narcosis has set in (B.). Stomachpump probably best, after which Vegetable Acids, to contract the narcotism. Cream of Tartar and water, Vinegar and water, Lemon-juice, etc., every ten minutes (R.). Atropine; gr. 4-1⁄2 hypodermically (R.); gr. To every 15 minutes up to three doses (B.); in large amounts till pupil dilates, a successful antagonist (R.). No one is warranted in omitting Belladonna (P.). Amyl Nitrite, inhaled, has proved eminently successful in a case in which Belladonna or its alkaloid proved useless to restore the patient. Ammonia, as intravenous injection for failure of heart's action from Opium and Chloroform narcosis, etc. (B.); breathed into air-passages (R.). Potassium Bromide, controls the disagreeable cerebral effects and vertigo resulting from Opium (R., B.). Water, hot water and ice alternately to nape of neck, in stupor of Opium narcosis (B.). Copper Sulphate, as emetic, prompt and effective (B.). Zinc Sulphate, gr. vj as emetic, well diluted with water (B.). Effervescent Emetics, effective but dangerous (B.). Caffeine, hypodermat. (B., P.). Heat, alternately with cold (B.). Charcoal, 3ss or more (R.).
Phosphorus. Emesis by Cupric Sulphate; Magnesia in Linseed-tea; Carbo Animalis; mucilaginous drinks; Liquor Calcis. Avoid all oleaginous mixtures. Poultices to epigastrium. Sulphate of Copper, the best emetic, combining to form the less active phosphide (B.). Turpentine emulsion with hydrated Magnesia, freely (B., R.); mxxx in mucilage, every 4 hour, excellent (P.). Transfusion, has been employed to repair blood (B.).
Physostigma. Minimum fatal dose, grain 1. Chloral, the antidote (R.), if administered very early. Belladonna, gr. to Atropinæ, hypodermically repeated until effects are evident. The nine-thousandth of a grain of Atropine, injected five minutes before giving a minimum fatal dose of physostigma, prevents its fatal effects (R.).
Picrotoxine, or Cocculus Indicus. Chloral, the antidote (B.).
Potassium Salts. POTASSIUM BROMIDE. Nervous Stimulants-Brandy, Opium. POTASSIUM NITRAS (Saltpetre),-No chemical antidote. Emetics and stomach-pump, demulcent drinks, Opium, milk, aromatics, emollient enemata.
Quinine. Emetics and cathartics, Opium, Coffee, Brandy, or wine, diuretics and sudorifics as after-eliminatives.
Reptiles. (Compare Stings.) Ligate limb above wound; cleanse thoroughly, and cauterize with mineral acids or strong Carbolic. The wound should be forcibly sucked by a person with perfect mucous surface. Internally, Arsenic, when rapid prostration (R.); Ammonium, diaphoretics, Sodium Bisulphate, Whiskey, largely. Agave Ameri R. Potass. Iodidi gr. iv, Hydrarg. Chlor. Corr. gr. ij, Bromi 3 v, Aquæ 3j; gtt. x in 34 of Brandy; repeat if necessary (Hammond). Ammonia, by intra-venous injection, is shown to be unavailing by Brunton and Fayrer (B.).
Rhus (Poison Oak or Ivy),-Carbolic Acid, locally, a 5 per cent. sol. Sulphide of Potassium, baths, 3j to C xx. Lobelia, as infusion, 3j ad Oj, a good application locally. Grindelia, the fluid extract, I part to 10 of water, as lotion; may be used undiluted. Cocaine, a 10 per cent. oleate, or a 5 per cent solution in water, as a local application, promptly relieves the symptoms. Acetate of Lead, 3 ij, Ammonit Chloridi (crude) 3ss, Aquæ viij, as lotion on cloths constantly wetted therewith, used with uniform success (Burns). Soapsuds and water, hot, frequent washing with this the surest, speediest, and best treatment (Couch). Aristol, freely dusted over the part, gives magical relief (Levick).
Silver Nitrate. Alkalies, especially the Magnesium Bicarbonate (R.). Sodium Chloride, largely diluted, effects a double decomposition, precipitating the silver as the harmless insoluble chloride (R.). The resulting irritation may be allayed by milk, which should serve as food until the stomach is restored.
Silver, Metallic. Albumen, Milk.