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ACIDUM ACETICUM, Acetic Acid,-is a liquid composed of 36 per cent. of absolute Acetic Acid, HC,H,O2, and 64 per cent. of water. It is a clear, colorless liquid, of a distinctly vinegar odor, a purely acid. taste, and a strongly acid reaction; sp. gr. 1.048 at 59° F.; miscible in all proportions with water and alcohol, and wholly volatilized by heat. It is prepared from wood by destructive distillation and purification. Acetic Acid is also official in two other degrees of concentration, viz.:—
Acidum Aceticum Glaciale, Glacial Acetic Acid, HC,H,O,,—is nearly or quite absolute Acetic Acid, solid below 59° F., above that temperature a colorless liquid of sp. gr. 1.056 to 1.058. Is strongly escharotic and only used locally.
Acidum Aceticum Dilutum, Diluted Acetic Acid,-consists of Acetic Acid 17, Distilled Water 83 parts, contains 6 per cent. of absolute Acetic Acid, and has a sp. gr. of 1.0083. Dose, j-ij.
Acetum, Vinegar (Unofficial).-is an impure diluted Acetic Acid, produced by the acetous fermentation of any liquid susceptible of the vinous fermentation.
Diluted Acetic Acid is used in the preparation of the four official Aceta (Vinegars).
Acetic Acid, like the other vegetable acids, in concentrated form is escharotic and produces gastro-enteritis if swallowed. In dilute form it acts as a refrigerant, diminishing thirst and allaying restlessness. It forms salts in the stomach, thus enters the blood, and is there oxidized, producing carbonic acid, and thereby increasing the acidity of the urine. It is also diuretic. Long used, it causes emaciation and poverty of the blood, producing a general scorbutic condition. It is hemostatic and anthelmintic, and the vapor inhaled causes reflex contraction of the vessels and raises the blood-pressure.
The glacial acid is used as a caustic in many skin affections, as warts, condylomata, etc., and to destroy the parasite in ringworm and pityriasis. It has been employed locally in carcinoma, with the view of dissolving the supposed cancer-cells. The dilute acid is used locally in superficial inflammations of the skin, and may be sponged over the body to check perspiration and reduce the surface temperature in fevers. It is often administered internally to reduce obesity, which it does by impairing digestion. Locally, it may be employed to arrest slight hemorrhages, as epistaxis; and is occasionally used by enema for the destruction of ascarides.
ACIDUM BORICUM, Boric or Boracic Acid, H2Bo,—is a weak acid occurring in transparent, colorless, six-sided plates, of unctuous touch, odorless, of a cooling and slightly bitter taste, soluble in 25 of water and in 15 of alcohol at 59° F., in 3 of boiling water and in 5 of boiling alcohol. It is produced from Borax by the action of Sulphuric Acid. Dose, gr. v-xx. There is only one official Borate, viz.:
SODII BORAS, Borate of Sodium, Borax, Na,B,O,, 10H2O,—colorless, transparent prisms, of cooling and sweetish, afterwards alkaline taste and alkaline reaction, soluble in 16 of water at 59° F., and in 0.5 of boiling water; insoluble in alcohol. Occurs native in ancient lake beds in various parts of the world. Dose, gr. v-xl.
Boro-glyceride,-is a solid chemical compound, prepared by heating together Boracic Acid and Glycerin. It is soluble in water, but is generally used in solution of equal parts of pure Glycerin and Boro-glyceride. It combines readily with Chrysarobin, Carbolic Acid, Atropine and Morphine, and is used as a local application in eye diseases and skin affections.
Boracic Ointment,-has of Boracic Acid 1, White Wax 1, Paraffin 2, Almond Oil 2, thoroughly mixed together.
Boracic Lotion,-is a saturated solution of the acid in water.
Boracic Lint,-prepared by steeping lint in a boiling saturated solution and drying. It contains nearly one-half its weight of the acid.
Magnesii Boro-citras, Borocitrate of Magnesium,-prepared extemporaneously thus,R. Magnesii Carbonatis 3j, Acidi Citrici 3ij, Sodii Biborat. 3 ij, Aquæ Bullientis 3 viij. A tablespoonful three or four times daily as a solvent of acid calculi.
Potassii Tartra-boras, Tartraborate of Potassium,-is a better solvent of uric acid calculi than the Magnesium salt, and is soluble in 2 parts of cold water. Prepared by heating together Boracic Acid 1, Potassii Bitartras 4, Water 10 parts. Dose, gr. xx, largely diluted with water, three or four times a day.
PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS.
BORACIC ACID is an efficient antiseptic, disinfectant and deodorant, arresting fermentation and putrefaction, and very destructive to low organisms. A solution of 1 in 133 arrests the activity of bacteria. It is feebly acid and but slightly irritant, and is used as a surgical dressing for its antiseptic and unirritating qualities. Its lotion and ointment have. been successfully employed in ulcers, eczema, burns and scalds, pruritus ani, fetid perspiration, wounds, tinea tonsurans, and tinea circinata.
THE BORATE OF SODIUM is antiseptic and disinfectant, as it also destroys low vegetable organisms. It removes the epidermis when locally applied, has power to increase uterine contraction, and aids the solution of Benzoic Acid. It is employed as a wash to remove the epidermis from the skin, and as a lotion in acne, freckles, chloasma, leucorrhoea, aphthæ, etc., and to allay itching in urticaria, psoriasis, impetigo, and in pruritus pudendi, scroti et ani. It has been used internally in amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhea, puerperal fever and puerperal convulsions, for its supposed specific action on the uterus.
BORO-GLYCERIDE in solution (1 to 40) is also a powerful antiseptic, and is used as a lotion in purulent ophthalmia and in the treatment of wounds, also as a local application to diphtheritic membranes. It is an efficient preservative of milk and food against putrefactive changes, and is entirely harmless.
An elegant cosmetic cream may be made by dissolving Boracic Acid in Glycerin, and then incorporating it with White Wax and Almond Oil.
ACIDUM CARBOLICUM, Carbolic Acid, Oxy-benzene, Phenic Acid, Phenylic Alcohol, Phenol, CH,HO,-is an alcoholic. product of the distillation of coal-tar between the temperature of 356° and 374° F. It occurs in needle-shaped crystals of tarry odor and burning taste, is liquefied by about 5 per cent. of water, soluble in 20 of water at 59° F., and very soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, glycerin, oils, etc.
Peculiarities about Carbolic Acid are that about 5 per cent. of water liquefies it, a further addition of water renders it turbid, until 2000 parts of water to 100 of the acid have been added, when a stable and clear solution is formed. One volume of liquefied Carbolic Acid containing 5 per cent. of water forms with one volume of Glycerin a clear mixture which is not rendered turbid by the addition of three volumes of water (absence of Creasote and Cresylic Acid). It does not redden blue litmus paper, but combines freely with alkalies and other salifiable bases, the products having an alkaline reaction and being decomposed by the feeblest acids (carbonic, etc.) Dose, gr. 4-j.
ACIDUM CARBOLICUM CRUDUM, Impure Carbolic Acid,-is obtained as above stated, but at a lower heat (338° to 374°), and contains Carbolic, Xylic and Cresylic Acids in varying proportions, together with other impurities. It is used as a disinfectant.
Unguentum Acidi Carbolici,-strength 10 per cent., Ointment 90.
Aqua Acidi Carbolici (Unofficial),-has of the Glycerite 3 x to Aqua Oj. Dose 3 j-3 ss. Carbolic Acid Gauze (Unofficial),-medicated with Ac. Carbol. 1, Resin 5, Paraffin 7. Carbolic Acid Plaster (Unofficial),-has of Carbolic Acid 25, Shellac 75, coated with Gutta Percha dissolved in Carbon Disulphide.
Carbolic Acid Solutions, for antiseptic surgery, are :
5 per cent. in Water, as a spray or wash.
21⁄2 per cent. in Water, for sponges, hands, or as a lotion.
5 per cent. or less in Olive Oil, as a special dressing.
Phenol Sodique is composed of Carbolic Acid gr. 188, Caustic Soda gr. 31, Distilled Water 3iv.
Official Derivative Salts.
Sodii Sulpho-Carbolas, Sulpho-Carbolate of Sodium, NaC, HSO4.2H,O,-prepared by dissolving Carbolic Acid 1, in strong Sulphuric Acid 1, thus forming a Sulpho-carbolic Acid, which is then neutralized with Carbonate of Sodium. Transparent, rhombic prisms, soluble in 5 of water at 59° F., less freely in alcohol and glycerin. Dose, gr. x-xxx.
Creasotum, Creasote,—is a similar product, obtained from wood-tar, but by the action of Nitric Acid it is converted into Oxalic Acid chiefly, while by the same reagent Car bolic is converted into Picric Acid. Creasote does not coagulate albumen (?) or collodion, Carbolic Acid does. Creasote is described under its own title.
Resorcin (Unofficial), CHO2,-is also a phenol, obtained from certain resins by the action of fusing alkalies. [Described under its own title.]
CARBOLIC ACID is a powerful antiseptic and antiferment, being destructive to all low forms of life. It is a local anesthetic and a superficial escharotic, coagulating albumen and also the blood when out of the body. Taken internally undiluted it produces violent gastritis, m vj of the pure acid having caused dangerous symptoms. It stimulates the cardiac inhibi
tion, first slowing, then depressing, and finally paralyzing the heart. Respiration, at first increased, is soon depressed, the pupils are contracted, and both brain and spinal cord are directly affected; stupor, coma, suspended reflexes, impaired motility and sensibility being produced. It is rapidly absorbed and diffused, many fatal cases having occurred from its external It is partly oxidized in the blood, and partly eliminated by the lungs and kidneys, imparting to the urine a peculiar olive-green or smoky color.
Locally applied Carbolic Acid produces on the skin or mucous membrane a white superficial eschar which succeeds to burning pain of short duration.
Antidotes and Antagonists.
Liquor Calcis Saccharatus, or the official Syrupus Calcis, given freely; or Sulphate of Sodium or Magnesium to form a Sulpho-carbolate, or the chemical antidotes. Vegetable demulcents (but no oils or glycerin) to protect the mucous surfaces. Atropine is a very complete physiological antagonist to the systemic symptoms, maintaining the heart and respiration until elimination occurs. Of Magnesium Sulphate nearly 3 ozs. were used in a case where 1⁄2 oz. of 95 per cent. acid had been taken, resulting in full recovery from an apparently hopeless condition. Cider Vinegar may prove to be an antidote, as it removes the effects of the local application of the strong acid. Soap, in strong watery mixture (suds), is said to be almost a perfect antidote.
CARBOLIC ACID owes its prominence to its having been the principal agent used in the antiseptic method of treating wounds; but lately its employment in that connection has become much restricted, and many of the most prominent surgeons have abandoned it altogether in favor of other germicides. For nausea and vomiting it is an excellent remedy in 4-grain doses, and in many chronic pulmonary affections it is used with benefit by spray. It may be employed locally in acute and chronic catarrhs, parasitic skin diseases, uterine and other ulcers, abscesses, boils, and carbuncles, endo-metritis, and perhaps in pulmonary phthisis. It has proven of temporary benefit in diabetes of hepatic origin. It has been injected parenchymatously (2 per cent. solution) in erysipelas, pleuropneumonia, intermittents, synovitis, lupus, chancroid, hydrocele, etc.
The Sulpho-carbolates of Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium have been employed advantageously in the septic diseases (as the exanthemata, diphtheria, puerperal fever), the object being to obtain the antiseptic and antipyretic actions of Carbolic Acid without its dangers. They may be used locally with good results in aphthæ, tonsillitis, otorrhoea, gonorrhoea, and inflamed mucous membranes generally.
ACIDUM CHROMICUM, Chromic Acid, CrO,,-is obtained by the action of Sulphuric Acid upon Potassium Chromate, and occurs in small crimson needle-shaped crystals, deliquescent and very soluble in water. Brought in contact with alcohol mutual decomposition takes place. A similar result and perhaps sudden combustion results when it is placed
in contact with other easily oxidizable substances, such as Glycerin, Spirit of Nitrous Ether, etc. It is not used internally.
Potassii Bichromas, Bichromate of Potassium, K, Cr2O,,-large, orange-red prisms of disagreeable, metallic taste and acid reaction, soluble in 10 of water at 59° F., and in 11⁄2 of boiling water, insoluble in alcohol. Used locally in aqueous solution (gr. v-3j to the 3), and internally in doses of gr. -ij in trituration.
PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS.
CHROMIC ACID is a powerful escharotic, penetrating deeply, but slow of action and not very painful. It coagulates albumen and parts readily with its oxygen, oxidizing organic matter and decomposing ammonia and sulphuretted hydrogen. It is therefore an energetic disinfectant and deodorizer. When used as a caustic it is mixed with sufficient water to make a paste, which may be employed for the destruction of warts, hemorrhoids and other superficial growths, the neighboring parts being protected by cotton soaked in a strong alkaline solution. For syphilitic warts and condylomata, lupus, tinea tonsurans, etc., a solution of 100 grains to the 3 of distilled water is generally used. A solution of 1 in 40 is an excellent and inexpensive antiseptic lotion for putrid sores and wounds, syphilitic affections of the tongue, mouth and throat, ozæna, leucorrhoea, and gonorrhoea. In uterine catarrh and hemorrhages a solution of 120 grains to the 3 has been injected into the uterine cavity with good results.
BICHROMATE OF POTASSIUM is a good antiseptic and an escharotic of milder action than the acid. In doses of zij-iv it has proved fatal to life in adults, with symptoms of gastro-enteritis, suppression of urine, and cardiac paralysis. It is chiefly employed as a local application in saturated solution to warts and venereal condylomata; and in dilute solution (gr j-x to the 3) for catarrhal conditions of the nasal, buccal or vaginal mucous membrane. Internally it has been employed with benefit in locomotor ataxia and in dyspepsia simulating gastric cancer; also in chronic gastric catarrh, the tongue having a thick yellow coat, in chronic diarrhoea. from intestinal ulceration, and in chronic ulcers of the pharynx and mouth. It is a good remedy in syphilitic sore throat, local rheumatism of the fibrous tissues, periosteal and syphilitic rheumatism, and acute catarrh and influenza, chronic nasal catarrh, chronic laryngitis, and chronic catarrhal affections of the bronchial mucous membrane, especially when the expectoration is tough and stringy. It has also been used with some success in membranous croup and diphtheria. In pharmacy it is employed in the preparation of Chromic Acid and Valerianic Acid, and as a test solution. Most of the medical galvanic and faradic batteries are run by a mixture of this salt with Sulphuric Acid. Poisoning by it should be treated as directed for that by mineral acids.