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Tinctura Opii Camphorata, .
Tinctura Rhei Aromatica, 161⁄2.
Vinum Album, 10-12.
Vinum Album Fortius, 20-25.
Vina, Wines,—when medicated are practically the same as Tinctures, White Wine, brought to a definite alcoholic strength (Vinum Album Fortius) being the menstruum used. The official Wines number 14, of which 3 are not medicated, 4 are made by solution or admixture, 3 by maceration and 4 by percolation. They are as follows, viz.:
Vinum Rubrum, 10-12.
Vinum Aloes, 6.
Vinum Antimonii, 0.4.
Vinum Aromaticum, 6.
Tinctura Scillæ, 81⁄2.
Tinctura Tolutana, 5%.
Tinctura Valerianæ Ammoniata, 104.
Tinctura Veratri Viridis, 24.
The figures placed after the first three show the percentage of absolute alcohol which is required in each; those placed after the other members of the group show the quantity of the active ingredient used in preparing 100 parts of the Wine.
Spiritus Juniperi Compositus.
Vinum Colchici Seminis, 15.
Vinum Ferri Amari, 8.
Spiritus, Spirits,—are alcoholic solutions of volatile substances, which may be solids, liquids or gases. They are officially prepared either by simple solution, by solution with maceration, by gaseous solution, by chemical reaction, or by distillation. The number of official Spirits is 22, as follows, viz.:—
Vinum Ferri Citratis, 4.
Vinum Rhei, 10.
Of these, the first fifteen are prepared by simple solution, the next three by solution with maceration, the next one by gaseous solution, the next one by chemical reaction, and the last two by distillation.
Elixiria, Elixirs, are sweetened, aromatic, spirituous preparations containing active medicinal substances in small quantities. There is but one official Elixir (Elixir Aurantii), which is intended as a type of the class
of unofficial elixirs so largely employed in extemporaneous pharmacy. It is practically a flavored alcoholized syrup, designed for use as an excipient with extracts, salts and tinctures.
Oleoresinæ, Oleoresins,-are liquid preparations consisting principally of natural oils and resins extracted from vegetable substances by percolation with Stronger Ether. They differ from fluid extracts in not bearing any uniform relation to the drug of gramme to cubic centimeter, in containing principles which though soluble in ether are not in alcohol, and in some instances being devoid of principles which are insoluble in ether but soluble in alcohol. They are the most concentrated liquid preparations of drugs which can be produced, and are prepared by percolating the powdered drug with Stronger Ether until exhausted, recovering the greater part of the ether by distillation, and exposing the residue in a capsule to spontaneous evaporation until the remaining ether has evaporated. There are 6 official Oleoresins, viz. :—
Oleoresina Aspidii (10-15).
Oleoresina Cubeba (18-25).
The figures in parentheses show the percentage of oleoresin yielded by each drug.
Oleoresina Lupulini (50).
Collodia, Collodions,-are liquid preparations having for their base a solution of Pyroxylin in a mixture of Ether and Alcohol. They are intended for external use, being applied to the skin by means of a brush, and producing a film on the surface after the evaporation of the menstruum. There are 4 official Collodions, viz. :—
Collodium cum Cantharide.
The Flexible Collodion contains 5 per cent. of Canada Turpentine, and 3 per cent. of Castor Oil. Styptic Collodion contains 20 per cent. of Tannic Acid.
Linimenta, Liniments,-are very thin ointments for external application and intended to be applied with friction to the skin. They are solutions of various substances in oily liquids or in alcoholic liquids containing fatty oils. Of the following 10 official Liniments the first 4 have Cotton-seed Oil, the next 4 have Alcohol and the last 2 have Oil of Turpentine as their respective bases.
Oleata, Oleates,-are liquid solutions of metallic salts or alkaloids in Oleic Acid, intended for external administration. They are not definite chemical compounds, though the term is also employed in trade to designate certain solid preparations which are claimed to be chemical compounds of the same acid with various bases. [See under ACIDUM OLEICUM, ante, page 71.] There are two official Oleates as follows, viz.:— Oleatum Hydrargyri (10 per cent.). Oleatum Veratrinæ (2 per cent.).
Aceta, Vinegars,-are solutions of the active principles of certain drugs in Diluted Acetic Acid. They are made by percolation and each contain the soluble principles from 10 per cent. of drug. Acidulous menstrua form soluble salts with the alkaloids and possess antiseptic qualities. The official Vinegars number 4, viz.:—
Glycerita, Glycerites,-are mixtures of medicinal substances with Glycerin. In the U. S. Phar. of 1870 there were 5 official Glycerites, which were solutions of Carbolic, Gallic, and Tannic Acids, Tar, and Sodium Borate, in Glycerin. They were very useful preparations for dispensing purposes, as they could be readily diluted with water or alcohol without precipitation. Only 2 Glycerites are now official, viz:
Extracta, Extracts,-are solid or semi-solid preparations obtained by evaporating solutions of vegetable principles. The drug is first powdered, then percolated with the appropriate menstruum to exhaustion. The first third of the percolate is reserved, the remainder is evaporated at a temperature not above 122° F. until its weight is ten per cent. of that of the drug used, then mixed with the reserved portion, and both are evaporated to a pilular consistence. The above is the general rule, but in several instances maceration is directed for 1 to 4 days before percolation; and in other cases, instead of reserving a portion of the percolate, the whole quantity is distilled until the alcohol is removed, and the residue is evaporated to a pilular consistence. The menstrua used are,-in 5 cases Alcohol, in 15 cases Diluted Alcohol of varying strength, in 8 Water, in 1 Water with 5 per cent. of Aqua Ammoniæ, and in 1 a diluted Acetic Acid. One extract is an inspissated juice (Ext. Taraxaci); one is made by evaporating a fluid extract (Ext. Ergote), and one by mixing extracts with aromatics (Ext. Colocynthidis Comp.). Five per cent. of Glycerin is added to 10 to prevent their becoming hard. The official Extracts
number 32, and are named as follows, the letters in parentheses showing the nature of the menstruum used in extraction in each case, viz. :
Extractum Aconiti (A).
Ext. Belladonna Alcoholicum (A,W1).
Ext. Cannabis Indicæ (A).
Extractum Hæmatoxyli (W).
Ext. Hyoscyami Alcoholicum (A2W1).
Ext. Juglandis (A).
Ext. Krameri (W).
Ext. Leptandra (A,W1).
Ext. Colchici Radicis (W).
Ext. Gentiana (W).
Ext. Mezerei (A).
Ext. Nucis Vomicæ (A.W1).
Ext. Opii (W).
Ext. Physostigmatis (A).
Ext. Rhei (AW1).
Abstracta, Abstracts,-are solid, dry, powdered preparations, containing the soluble principles of the drugs from which they are made, and each representing twice the strength of the corresponding drug or its fluid extract. They are prepared by spontaneous evaporation of an alcoholic tincture at a low temperature (not exceeding 122° F.), mixing with it enough dried Sugar of Milk to make the product weigh one-half the weight of the drug, and then reducing it to a fine and uniform powder. They are permanent and portable preparations, not subject to variation in strength, nor to become hard and brittle. They were first introduced into the U. S. Pharmacopoeia in the edition of 1880, and are 11 in number, viz. :—
Abstractum Nucis Vomicæ.
The menstrua used for these are Alcohol 8, Water 1 for the two last
named, and Alcohol for the others; but 2 per cent. of Tartaric Acid is added in the case of Aconite, and 6 per cent. of HCl in the case of Conium.
Resinæ, Resins,-are solid preparations obtained by precipitating the resinous principle of plants from their alcoholic solution by the agency of water. They differ from alcoholic extracts in containing only those principles which are soluble in alcohol and insoluble in water, while the extracts contain all principles which are soluble in alcohol. There are 4 official Resins, viz. :
Massæ, Masses, -are Pill-masses prepared as described in the next paragraph. The official Masses number 3, viz. :—
Massa Ferri Carbonatis.
Pilulæ, Pills,-are spherical masses composed of medicinal agents and intended to be swallowed whole. The "mass" consists of the active ingredients and the excipient, the latter being the substance which gives to the mass its adhesive and plastic qualities. In official pharmacy the excipients are specified both as to composition and quantity in each case, and those directed to be used in the preparation of the 3 official Masses and the 15 official Pills are as follows, viz. :—
5 are made with Soap and Water, viz.-Pil. Aloes, Pil. Aloes et Asafoetidæ, Pil. Asa. foetida, Pil. Opii, Pil. Rhei.
3 are made with Water alone, viz.-Pil. Aloes et Mastiches, Pil. Catharticæ Comp., Pil. Rhei Comp.
3 are made with Syrup, viz.—Pil. Aloes et Myrrhæ, Pil. Ferri Comp., Pil. Galbani Comp.
I with Mucilage of Tragacanth, viz.-Pil. Antimonii Comp.
I with Acacia and Water, viz.-Pil. Ferri Iodidi.
I with Glycerin and Water, viz.-Pilulæ Phosphori.
I with Confection of Rose, viz.-Pilula Aloes et Ferri.
1 with Honey, Syrup and Water, viz.-Massa Ferri Carbonatis.
I with Glycerin and Honey of Rose, viz.-Massa Hydrargyri.
I has no excipient, viz.-Massa Copaibæ.
The pharmacopoeial directions for the formation of the pill-mass vary in each case, but in general they prescribe that the ingredients shall be mixed intimately, then beaten with the excipient to form a mass and divided into a certain number of pills. Two of the official pills are directed to be coated with an ethereal solution of the Balsam of Tolu, viz.-Pilula Ferri Iodidi and Pilula Phosphori. Full descriptions of the various details of pill-making are given in the section on Extemporaneous Pharmacy. The number of official pills is 15, for the composition of which the student is referred to their several titles in the section of Materia Medica. They are named as follows, viz. :