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ous disorders. It is also used as a cosmetic, and may be employed as an aliment.
XANTHOXYLUM, Prickly Ash,-is the bark of Xanthoxylum fraxineum, the northern species, and of Xanthoxylum carolinianum, the southern species of an indigenous shrub of the nat. ord. Rutaceæ, having small, greenish flowers, alternate, unequally pinnate leaves, leaflets punctate with pellucid dots, stems and leafstalks armed with prickles. The bark of both species comes in curved or quilled fragments, of a brownishgray color externally with whitish patches, and minute black dots, faintly furrowed, inodorous, bitter and pungent; that of X. fraxineum is about
inch thick, has several two-edged spines each 4 inch long; the bark of X. caroliniaum is twice as thick as the other and is marked by many conical, corky projections, and by stout brown spines, arising from corky bases. It contains a volatile oil, a fixed oil, resin, gum, coloring matter and an alkaloid, Xanthoxyline, which is identical with Berberine (see ante, page 133). Dose, of the powdered bark, gr. x-xxx.
Extractum Xanthoxyli Fluidum,-Dose, 3 ss-j.
Decoctum Xanthoxyli (Unofficial),—3j to the quart. Dose, a pint during 24 hours in divided doses.
Xanthoxylum is a stimulant and aromatic bitter, a local and systemic sialagogue, diaphoretic, diuretic and emmenagogue. Its taste is aromatic, soon becoming acrid and bitter and causing profuse salivation, tingling in the tongue and increased secretion from stomach, intestines, liver and pancreas. It also increases the cardiac action and raises the arterial tension, and is classed among the vegetable alteratives, with Mezereum, Guaiac, Stillingia, etc.
Xanthoxylum has a high reputation in chronic rheumatism, myalgia, lumbago and similar disorders, also in jaundice from catarrh of the bileducts, in dropsies, chronic pharyngitis and constitutional syphilis. In old cases of pharyngitis, the mucous membrane being glazed and dry, the decoction should be used as a gargle and mx-xxx of the fluid extract taken internally thrice daily. The bark, used as a masticatory, is a popular remedy for toothache, and has been frequently successful in paralysis of the tongue.
ZEA MAYS, Maize, Indian Corn.-This well-known species of the nat. ord. Graminaceæ, though itself unofficial, is the source of two drugs one of which is official, viz. :
Ustilago, Corn Smut,-Ustilago Maydis, nat. ord. Fungi, grown upon the stems, the pistils and the male inflorescence (tassel) of Zea Mays. It occurs in irregular, globular masses, sometimes 6 inches thick, and consisting of a blackish membrane, inclosing numerous globular, minute spores, their surfaces covered with echinulate warts. Its odor and taste are unpleasant, and it contains fixed oil, resin, pectin, gluten, sugar, an acid resembling the Sclerotic Acid of Ergot, and a volatile principle called Secaline, which is supposed to be identical with Trimethylamine.
Extractum Ustilaginis Fluidum (Unofficial),—may be made according to the general rule. Dose, mxv-3j.
Stigmata Maydis, Stigmata of Maize, Corn Silk (Unofficial),should be gathered when the tassel has well shed its pollen. Its active principle is said to be Maizenic Acid.
Extractum Stigmatarum Maydis Fluidum (Unofficial), -made by the general rule for fluid extracts. Dose, zj-ij.
PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS.
The properties of USTILAGO, so far as examined, resemble those of Ergot and Nux-vomica combined. It is a spinal excitant, exalts sensibility and reflex action, producing tonic convulsions on the least irritation of the skin. It slows the heart by stimulation of the pneumogastric, dilates the pupils, causes muscular paresis, and death by tetanus of the respiratory muscles or by exhaustion. Experiments on its reputed oxytocic action have not substantiated the claims made for it in this respect, though it is said to have produced abortion in cows and other animals, after they had eaten the diseased grain. As a therapeutic agent Ustilago has been very little used, and when employed it has been as a substitute for Ergot.
STIGMATA MAYDIS is a certain but mild diuretic when given in full doses at short intervals. It is by some observers considered demulcent and anodyne, and is generally believed to have a specific or alterative influence over many disorders of the genito-urinary passages and the urinary bladder. It has been used with considerable success in incontinence of urine, uric and phosphatic gravel, gout, rheumatism, urethritis, pyelitis, acute and chronic cystitis, cardiac dropsy and obstructive valvular disease of the heart.
ZINCUM, Zinc, Zn,-is metallic Zinc, in the form of thin sheets, or irregular, granulated pieces, and is a bluish-white metal, having the sp. gr. 6.9. It occurs native as a Sulphide (Blende), as a Carbonate and a
Silicate (Calamine), as a Red Oxide (Zincite), and as a mixture of Zinc Oxide with Oxide of Iron and Manganese (Franklinite). Zinc is soluble in the weakest acids, and therefore should never be used for culinary vessels. Its salts are all more or less active poisons. Metallic Zinc is not employed as a medicine.
Zinc Compounds and their Preparations.
Zinci Acetas, Acetate of Zinc, Zn(C2H ̧O)2.3H2O,-soft, white, micaceous or pearly, six-sided tablets or scales, somewhat efflorescent' in dry air, of faintly acetous odor, sharp metallic taste and a slightly acid reaction; soluble in 3 of water and in 30 of alcohol at 59° F., in 1% of boiling water and in 3 of boiling alcohol. Used locally as an astringent in solution of gr. j or ij to 3j, or internally in doses of gr. 1⁄2-ij.
Zinci Carbonas Præcipitatus, Precipitated Carbonate of Zinc, (ZnCO3)2.3Zn(HO),,— a white, impalpable powder, permanent in the air, odorless and tasteless, insoluble in water or alcohol, but soluble in acids with copious effervescence. When strongly heated it loses water and carbonic acid gas, leaving a residue of oxide of zinc. Used locally as a protective.
Zinci Chloridum, Chloride of Zinc, ZnCl,,—a white, crystalline powder, deliquescent, odorless, of caustic, saline, and metallic taste and acid reaction, very soluble in water and in alcohol, forming a clear or only faintly opalescent solution. Tonic and escharotic. For internal use a solution in Spirit of Ether is the most convenient form, of the strength of 3 ss-3 iij, of which from 4 to 8 drops may be given twice daily. Strength of injections and collyria, gr. j-ij ad 3j.
Liquor Zinci Chloridi,-an aqueous solution of Zinc Chloride containing about 50 per cent. of the salt. A clear, colorless, odorless liquid, of a very astringent, sweetish taste and an acid reaction. A powerful disinfectant for sinks, drains, etc. Used also as an injection in gonorrhoea, leucorrhoea, etc., in dilute solution, 1⁄2 to 1 per cent. Burnett's Disinfecting Fluid is similar to the above but slightly stronger.
Zinci Iodidum, Iodide of Zinc, ZnI,,-a white, granular powder, very deliquescent, odorless, of sharp, saline and metallic taste and acid reaction, very soluble in water and in alcohol. Dose, gr. ss-ij in syrup.
Zinci Oxidum, Oxide of Zinc, ZnO,—a soft, pale-yellowish powder, permanent in the air, odorless and tasteless, insoluble in water or alcohol, but soluble in acids without effervescence. Dose, gr. j-x, in pill.
Unguentum Zinci Oxidi,—strength 20 per cent., made with Benzoinated Lard, thoroughly mixed.
Zinci Sulphas, Sulphate of Zinc, ZnSO,.7H,O,-small colorless prisms or acicular needles, slowly efflorescing in dry air, odorless, of sharp, saline, nauseous and metallic taste and acid reaction; soluble in o 6 of water, insoluble in alcohol. Dose, as emetic, gr. x-xxx,—as a tonic and astringent, gr. 1-ij, in pill. For Villate's Solution, see ante, page 200
Zinci Valerianas, Valerianate of Zinc, Zn(CH,O,),.H,O,-soft, white, pearly scales, of sweet and styptic taste and acid reaction; soluble in 100 of water and in 40 of alcohol at 59° F. Dose, gr-ij, in pill.
[The Bromide of Zinc is described under BROMUM, see page 136, and the Phosphide under PHOSPHORUS, on page 312.]
PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS.
Zinc Salts are astringents, but milder ones than the salts of Lead. Its soluble compounds (the Chloride, Iodide, Sulphate and Acetate) are corrosive poisons, causing violent gastro-enteritis, and in some cases profound nervous depression. The CHLORIDE is a very powerful and painful escharotic or rather mummifier of the tissues, having great affinity for water, coagulating albumen and shrivelling the vessels. It is a very active disinfectant. The SULPHATE is also escharotic and a specific
emetic, acting promptly by direct irritation of the stomach, and without much depression or after-nausea. In small doses it is tonic and astringent, in larger it would be a severe irritant but for its causing. prompt emesis. The ACETATE resembles the sulphate in action. The OXIDE used externally is a mild, soothing astringent; used internally it enters the blood as a lactate or chloride, and acts as a mild astringent and as a nervous sedative. Being almost insoluble in the stomach, it has but feeble diffusive power and consequently but slight activity. The CARBONATE resembles the Oxide in action. The IODIDE locally is a powerful escharotic and has been supposed to possess some alterative powers when given internally in addition to its astringent qualities as a zinc salt. The VALERIANATE acts as a nervous sedative, but its properties are in all probability due to its base and not to the acid combined with it.
Continued use of zinc salts produces symptoms similar to those of chronic lead-poisoning, but of much less gravity. They manifest much less tendency to accumulate in the system than other metallic salts, and are excreted much more rapidly. Elimination takes place chiefly by the liver and intestinal glands.
[The actions of the Bromide and Phosphide are described respectively on pages 137 and 312.]
Antidotes and Incompatibles.
Lime-water, mucilaginous drinks, soap, tannic acid, milk, Potassium and Sodium Carbonates, if given early, are the antidotes in poisoning by the salts of zinc. Incompatibles are-lime-water, alkalies and their carbonates, nitrate of silver, and vegetable astringents. Acetate of Lead produces double decomposition with zinc salts, but it is often used in solution with the sulphate as an injection.
Zinc salts are chiefly employed in weak solution as mild astringent applications in catarrhs of mucous membranes, such as conjunctivitis, gonorrhoea, etc., and as unguents and lotions in skin-diseases, particularly eczema, impetigo, herpes, and erythema. The CHLORIDE is made into a paste with flour and glycerin for the destruction of lupus, epithelioma and other morbid growths, and for opening abscesses in locations where puncture or incision might be dangerous. The cuticle, if unbroken, should be removed by strong water of ammonia before the paste is applied, as it will not act through the epidermic tissue. It is a commonly used disinfectant and deodorant, and in weak solution (miij-v of the Liquor to 3j of water) makes a good lotion for putrid ulcers, and still weaker (gr. j-ij to the pint), is an excellent injection for gonorrhoea. The IODIDE is not employed as an escharotic, nor has it ever been a favorite remedy for internal use. It is chiefly employed in solution as an application to enlarged tonsils, and as an ointment (1 part to 8 of lard) for the reduction of glandular enlargements. The SULPHATE is used locally as an astringent to mucous surfaces generally, internally as an emetic in nar
cotic poisoning and croup, and in small doses as a tonic and antispasmodic in convulsive diseases, as chorea, hysteria, epilepsy, angina pectoris, asthma, etc. In diarrhoeas and dysentery it is a good astringent, and is frequently combined with Opium and Ipecac. The ACETATE is used for the same purposes as the Sulphate, but is usually preferred for collyria. The OXIDE may be used as a dusting powder in intertrigo, and as an ointment in eczema and excoriated surfaces generally. In combination with Bismuth and Pepsin it is an excellent remedy for the summer diarrhoea of children, and with Aromatic Powder and Morphine it is very efficient in gastralgia. It is a good remedy in 3-grain doses for the night-sweats of phthisis, and has been successfully employed in epilepsy and neuralgia, in whooping-cough, hysteria, nervous headache and in bronchorrhoea to check the profuse secretion. It is much employed as an ingredient of cosmetics. The CARBONATE is by some preferred to the oxide for local use in skin diseases. Calamine Ointment, which is a mixture of the impure carbonate (calamine) with the oxide and an unguent basis, was until recently a favorite application as a soothing protective to abrasions and inflammations of the integument. The VALERIANATE has been used in chorea, epilepsy, neuralgia, and various anomalous nervous affections, such as the nervous headache of hysterical women, nervous coughs and aphonia due to uterine and ovarian irritation.
[The Bromide and Phosphide are used entirely with reference to their respective non-metallic bases, under which titles their therapeutics are described.]
ZINGIBER, Ginger,-is the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, a plant of the nat. ord. Zingiberaceæ, having dingy-yellow flowers on a leafless flower-stalk, and long, lanceolate leaves on a separate stem. The plant is a native of Hindostan, but is cultivated in Jamaica, Sierra Leone, etc. The rhizome is about inch broad, flattish, on one side lobed or clavately branched, of a pale-puff color, striate, agreeably aromatic and of a warm, pungent taste. It breaks with a mealy, fibrous fracture showing numerous small resin-cells and fibro-vascular bundles. It contains an aromatic, volatile oil and a resin.
Extractum Zingiberis Fluidum,-Dose, mx-3 ss.
Tinctura Zingiberis,-20 per cent. Dose, mxx-zij.
Syrupus Zingiberis,—has of the fluid extract 2 per cent. in sugar and water. Dose, 3 ss-ij.
Trochisci Zingiberis,-each troche contains of the tincture 2 grains, with Tragacanth, Sugar and Syrup of Ginger.
Oleoresina Zingiberis,—contains all the virtues of the root, and is extracted by ether. Dose, m1⁄2-j, well diluted.
Ginger is also a constituent of Pulvis Aromaticus, Pulvis Rhei Compositus and Vinum Aloës.