« ForrigeFortsæt »
6. The year
sion to the above days, up to the present date, there were only 10 of the days so determined on which displays took place; that is, 20 per cent of successes as against 80 per cent of failures. In illustration of the above, the aurora of the 5th day should have reappeared on the 327, 594, 861. 114 and 1417; from the days of auroras given above, it will be seen it appeared on none of the required dates; nor did that of the 6th; that of the 8th reappeared twice out of five solar periods; the 21st, once out of five; the 35th, once out of four, and so on.
One more objection, previously overlooked, before passing on. I am of opinion (no one can be certain, failing the necessary observations), that there is practically no instance in which aurora displays are not taking place in one hemisphere or other of the earth; a large proportion should be observed co-incident with any other class of recurrent phenomena, and think it possible that "chance," which Dr. Veeder avoids the discussion of, is really an important element in our discussion, as I shall now, endeavor to prove this by his own admissions.
In a letter to me, dated May 4, 1892, he says: 1879, selected for printing as an illustration of the results seen throughout the entire table, is one of profound minimum at which times solar disturbances are well separated from each other and the relation comes out distinctly although for the construction of such a table one year is just as good as another." (italics are mine.) This is a perfectly sound conclusion, and by it alone might this theory stand or fall if chance" is not, or is, as important as I maintain. On May 13tb, Dr. Veeder writes: (This table of comparison between the phenomena being now printed) “ It (1879) being a year of minimum the relation does not come out so strongly as when disturbances were more numer
In the next year (1880) the numbers would be much larger and the relation in every way more distinct.
So far, then, Dr. Veeder has been about equally positive on both sides of this question, both of which opinions are apparently obtained from the observations he is in possession of, leaving the possibility open (it is his suggestion) that we are very far from “a realizing sense, that it is facts and not a personality against which " are contending."
length. It was clear from an inspection of those most recently killed, that they had been killed by some animal for food. The flesh of all had at least been partly devoured, but it was observed that not a carapace nor a plastron was broken. The reptiles had been killed, apparently, by some sharp-beaked bird, by thrusting its beak between the joints of the reptile's armor, so to speak. The loon is clearly competent to do this, but lcons are seldom seen in this locality. Moreover these birds would hardly drag their prey so far inland to devour it, as was observed to be the case with many of the turtles. The blue heron is more abundant here than the loon, but still not abundant enough to be credited with so much destructive work on animals so large. I have never suspected him, either, of being a turtle-eater. The only other birds competent to do the work and sufficiently numerous and intelligent to be suspected, are crows. Several flocks of these were bovering about the locality, and though we were not able to approach the wary birds close enough to observe them feeding, our suspicions fell upon them. Has any reader of Science observed crows killing turtles ? If so, is this a well established babit of the bird or is it one which has been recently acquired ?
EDSON S. BASTIN, Chicago, Ill., 2421 Dearborn Street, June 14.
Might I again suggest the advisability of setting a limit on the term "eastern limb,” adhering rigidly to it throughout the investigation, not admitting too much of the suppositional wben sunspots fail at the required period by the substitution of “faculae," and seeing how far the element of chance” enters into this question by showing a continuous series of comparisons through a semi-period, at least, of solar activity.
W. A. ASHE. Quebec, May 17.
Scientific Words in the Century Dictionary. ALTHOUGH one of the most useful books published, the Century Dictionary is, of course, not faultless. The mention of a mistake in a recent issue of The Critic reminded me also of the following:
According to the latest edition of Foster's “Physiology,” saliva “in a healthy subject is alkaline, especially when the secretion is abundant. When the saliva is scanty, or when the subject suffers from dyspepsia, the reaction of the mouth may be acid.” According to the Century Dictionary, the saliva " is a colorless ropy liquid which normally has an acid reaction.”
The word “griffe,” which is commonly used in Louisiana, is defined by the Century Dictionary as a “a mulatto-especially a mulatto woman.” I hare copied in a note-book from a lecture delivered in New Orleans by Hon. Charles Gayarré, the historian of Louisiana and authority on such matters, the following:
* In Creole America there is a very mixed population Even in very early times there were these distinctions: European, or fresh white immigrant; Creole, or pure white American of European parentage; the aboriginal Indian; tbe griffe, or cross betueen Indian and negro; the mestizo, or mixed white and Indian; the mulatio, etc., etc.” These may not be the exact words of the speaker, since I may bave misunderstood or copied it wrongly, but I think the same statement may be found in one of his works. Griffe, no doubt, is from the Spanish grifos, meaning frizzled
DR. VEEDER'S reply of June 2nd, is so objectionable on account of the positive way in which he closes his part of the argument (believing, as I do, that his facts are in fault) leaving it to be believed that at “no point throughout the research has there appeared to be even the sligbtest chance for an alternative hypothesis," that I am once more tempted to reply. Let me, before passing on, emphasize the fact that we are not discussing the question of " magnetic storms" and sun-spots. I believe there is only one astronomer and physicist of any eminence who disbelieves in this association, so that as far as discussion of the question is concerned, we may consider it as practically closed; but, even if I held the contrary opinion with the majority, so long as an opponent of such eminence held out, I should consider it inadvisable to be as positive as Dr. Veeder in his last letter, on the subject of the aurora, where, I believe, I am not alone in supposing there is reason to doubt a connection between this display and areas of disturbance on the eastern limb of the sun. I have raised some well-known objections to this theory, and, as a rule, have been met by Dr. Veeder with generalities (Science, April 7, 28, May 19 and June 2); it is unnecessary to mention them again bere, so that I shall content myself with discussing this last contribution, wbich leaves me in such an uncomfortable position, apparently.
The whole base and superstructure of this theory is erected upon a solar period of rotation of “277 days,” and to quote from a letter which I have received from Dr. Veeder, dated March 16, 1892, the addition of “a few hours difference in the length of the period introduces a drist into the tables that becomes every. where apparent” Surely this is a suspicious degree of perfection in the theory, as no one knows what the solar period of rotation is: such periods as have been determined from sun-spots (the only possible method so far) give values between 23 and 27} days, depending on the solar latitude of the spot; yet, the addi. tion of a “few hours" can introduce a “drift which becomes everywhere apparent." when 21 days is left out of the tabulating without apparent effect, for, it is evident, that in considering the effects of the return to the eastern limb of a sun.spot or area of disturbance, that it is not a fixed rotational period that should be used, but the one belonging to the latitude of the spot under discussion.
This year auroras were visible here on the following days of the year: the 5th, 6th, 8tb, 21st, 35th, 36th, 44th, 45th, 46th, 47th, 104th, 109th, 127th, 128th, 130th, 144th, 145th, 160th, 164tb, 165th and 166th. If auroras are caused by a disturbed solar area at the eastern limb, we should find, by adding the interval adopted by Dr. Veeder of 271 days to any of the above days, the probable date of the returning display. What do we find in fact? That, of the 52 periods obtained by adding this interval in succes.
hair. This is a peculiarity of many of the crosses between Indian and African. I need but mention the Cafusos, who, according to Tyler, "are remarkable for their hair, which rises in a curly mass, forming a natural periwig, which obliges the wearers to stoop low in passing through tbeir but doors."
The word playa is not mentioned in the Century Dictionary, although, according to the Popular Science Monthly, vol xxii., p. 381, it " has been adopted by geologists as a generic term, under which the various desiccated lake-basids of the West may be grouped."
Although the cese, or platinum-needle or loop, is the most important tool of the bacteriologist, both of these words have been omitted. The word oese is, of course, German, but is now much used in English books.
The common names, and often the scientific names, of wellknown plants have been omitted. The Amorphophallus titanum, a vegetable wonder of the Arum family, discorered in Sumatra in 1878 by Beccari, is not mentioned under its generic or common East Iodian name of Krubut, although both of these appear under Rufflesia, the generic name of a remarkable plant which grows with it.
The word noctilucent is defined in the Century Dictionary, but the word noctilucence, a term sometimes applied to the light emitted by the Noctiluca, is omitted, although phosphorescence is the more common, but perhaps less accurate, term.
Many of the definitions are inaccurate and unsatisfactory. From the following definition of Carıb, one would conclude that they are all of a “pative race" and that none are living in the Caribbean Islands at the present time: “One of a native race inhabiting certain portions of Central America and the north of South America, and formerly also the Caribbean Islands." ACcording to the latest Handbook, in British Honduras, there are 2,200 Caribs who, “although to all appearance of true African origin, being a black and woolly-headed people, are a mixed race of the aboriginal Caribs, with a large percentage of African blood.” A few true Red Caribs and some Black Caribs still live in the Windward Islands. The true Caribs are not natives of Central America. They inbabited the northern part of South America and the Caribbean Islands, and, according to Dr. Brinton, their original home was south of the Amazon. JOHN GIFFORD.
Swarthmore College, Pa.
that Mr. Merrill's doubts will be dissipated; if not, Professor Davidson, in the “Coast Pilot of California, Oregon and Washington Territory,'' 1869, describes this very junk and the very berswax in question.
Mr. Merrill's informant, however, seems to have fallen into an error as to the quantity and locality of this wax; for no such quantities were ever found as those mentioned in Science; in fact, the story is this: At some recent—but prehistoric-time a Japanese junk loaded with beeswax was thrown ashore at or naar Clatsop beach, Oregon, anil the cargo was scattered along the sands and buried therein, where it is found even today in small quantities and that is all.
Mr. Merrill's letter to Science is published, he says, “in the hope of gaining more information on the subject," and I will be fully repaid if through the instrumentality of this note he shall have obtained that information.
Many Japanese wrecks bare been thrown ashore on our coast, of which we have authentic information, all the proof of which has largely been collected by the eminent gentlemen quoted above.
JAMES WICKERSHAM. Tacoma, Washington, June 26.
^) after ada
Color Perception: A Correction, I HASTEN to send this note of correction to my paper on “ Distance and Color Perception by Infants" in Science, April 28 error brought to my attention by a friend. In Tables I. and II. of that article (p. 231) I have taken the proportion of “accep
A tances" to the entire number of cases the ratio ing up the simple numbers for each color at all the distances. It is evident that the resulting percentages are wrong as representing comparative results for the different colors, since there are not an equal number of cases for each same color at different distances, nor for the different colors at each same distance. The proper method is, of course, to compound the percentages representing the relative attractiveness of each color at each distance. This
A gives the values for in Table I. : Blue, .78; red, .75; white,
N .78; green, .68; brown, .43; and in Table II.: Newspaper, .76; color, .71. This brings wbite up to the level of blue and red. The
R same correction should be made for the values but in the re
sult it is immaterial.
I wish to add, also, that I do not consider the results relative to the individual colors of much value, since the cases are so few. The experiments had to be broken off unexpectedly. I published the tables mainly to illustrate the working of the method of experimenting. For this reason I did not enter in my article into side considerations, such as color-brightness, fatigue, etc., which were duly provided for in the experiments themselves. I hope to discuss such points in the fuller treatment of the monograph on the infant's actire life which I am preparing.
J. MARK BALDWIN. Princeton, N.J., June 30.
A Peculiar Occurrence of Beeswax. In Science for June 16, 1893, Mr. George C. Merrill, of the U. S. National Museum, has a request for information under the abore beading concerning some beeswax forwarded to bim from Portland, Oregon. He describes it as having all the elements and characteristics of beeswax, but says, “such it would have unhesitatingly been pronounced but for certain stated conditions relating to its mode of occurrence.”
He says it occurs in the sand along the beach, at quite a depth in places, and in a fragment of sandstone, etc., and further says: “Tradition has it that many hundred years ago a foreign vessel (some say a Chinese junk) laden with wax was wrecked off this coast. This at first thought seems plausible, but aside from the difficulty of accounting for the presence in these waters and at that date of a vessel loaded with wax, it seems scarcely credible that tbe material could have been brought in a single cargo in such quantities por buried so deeply orer so large an area."
The first difficulty Mr. Merrill seems to encounter is the presence of a vessel of that supposed nation on our coast at so early a date. This should give him no difficulty whatever, for Hon. Horace Davis, of California, in an article before the American Antiquarian Society, April, 1892; Charles Walcott Brooks before the California Academy of Sciences, March 1, 1975, and Professor George Davidson, of the U. S. Coast Survey, for thirty years or more last past, bare all been calling attention to the hundreds of known wrecks of Japanese (not Chinese) junks cast on the American shores, from Bebring Sea to Peru, by the “Kuro Shiwo," or black stream of Japan
In both the articles mentioned above you will find an account of the “ beeswax junk” and so much information concerning it
Birds that Sing in the Night. I bave read with a great deal of interest the notes under this head as they hare appeared in Science from time to time. While some species have been mentioned that I have not heard, there are also some not mentioned which are night singers in central Iowa, where I have spent many years studying the birds in their carious moods and conditions.
The first in point of beauty of execution is the wood-thrush (Turdus mustelinus). Not only does he sing in the night, but his song is given at shorter intervals and more earnestly then than during the day. It is rarely that be sings at high noon, unless the day be dark and wet. Nor does he sing all night long; from midnight until after two, there is only an occasional burst of song or pone at all.
Second in point of regularity and persistence is dickcissel (Spiya americana). Not only does he sing at short intervals all
day long, but he prolongs his day far into the night. By day their use, doubt is cast upon the measurements. Still, on the his song is not very musical, but at night it seems softened and wbole, the ground was as good as is usually made. subdued almost to sweetness. The country boys call him the One hundred obms' resistance in the earth circuit under all cir" sheep-sheep shear-shear-shear” bird, as an imitation of his cumstances should be reckoned on and may be regarded as a song. The first two notes are uttered sharply with a considera constant.
D. FLANERY. ble pause between them then, the last rery rapidly — nearly run Mempbis, Tenn., June 30. together. Two other birds are not uncommon night singers – the grass
On the Evolution of the Habit of Incubation. hopper and henslow's sparrows (Ammodramus s. passerinus and
It may be stated as a general rule that harmless snakes proA. henslowi), especially the latter. His modest little song is so
duce their young by means of eggs, while poisonous serpents are drowned out during the day by the larger birds that he must sing
viviparous, to which fact they probably owe their generic appelat night it he be heard at all. I bave often heard his note well
ation of “ vipers." The oviparous snakes, like most other repinto the night.
tiles, deposit their eggs in a sunny spot, and never trouble themThere is one winter night singer, the chestnut-colored long
selves about the incubation, but leave the eggs to hatch out as spin (Calcarius ornatus). As one wanders over the snow.clad
best they may under the influence of the sun's heat. There is, hills on some frosty night, he may near the clear chee-ho of this
bowever, a very curious though authentic instance on record of a bird starting from the snow where he lies hidden,
caged python, in the Jardin des Plantes, at Paris, which hatched LYNDS JONES.
out her own eggs. She laid fifteen in all, and then coiled herself Oberlin, Ohio.
around them, and so incubated thein in much the same manner The Earth as a Conductor.
as a setting hen, her temperature being observed to increase per
ceptibly during the period. In reference to the communication on the use of the ground in This strange fact, whether an anomaly or whether a natural an electric circuit, June 16, you may allow me to say: The earth habit of the pythons, seems to throw considerable light on the is not a conductor of electricity in any sense, only as a conven evolution of the habit of incubation, so universal among birds, tion. All Du Moncel's measurements, and they were many, gave for it must be remembered that the bird is closely allied to the the resistance of the earth as about 100 ohms. This resistance is
reptile, and is in fact but a higher form of the type. This relanegligible in long circuits, telegraphic or telephonic, but not in tionsbip is clearly shown by the study of the morphology of the short circuits.
bird's organs, for every part of a bird's body is but a modification On the principle of contact electricity (see Ayrton and Perry, of the corresponding part of the reptile; it is also shown by the Jenkins or Gorden) it was wrong to place a copper plate at one fact that birds are found in geological strata immediately after end and a tin plate at the other, as their contact or connection the reptiles, and hence must have appeared upon the face of the by wire would produce a current along the wire. Nor was it earth at a later period. Were any further proof necessary, it is proper to put charcoal or carbon or iron around either plate on furnished in an irrefutable manner by the science of embryolothe same principle. Both plates, preferably, should be of copper gy, for the bird passes in the egg through all the reptilian stages surrounded by sulphate of copper. There is considerable resist of development before it is finally hatched out in its perfect ance offered in the passage of a current from one kind of mate form. rial to another (see Jenkin passim).
This being the case, we may rest assured that the habit of inThe earth may, for convenience, be called a reservoir of elec
cubation has been evolved at some time during the evolution of tricity, but its quantity is always constant and no electricity can reptiles into birds, and hence this case of the python hatcbing its be taken from it at one point without putting an equal quantity own eggs acquires exceptional interest. into it at another point. The action or roll of the earth in the We may premise that the babit could never have been evolved circuit is like this. Consider a lake of large dimensions with a unless it were of some value to the species, but we must at the
same time admit that the incubated egg would in all cases batch out far in advance of that heated only by the sun, hence those individuals which thus appeared earlier than their brothers ran a better chance of surviving in the struggle for existence. So far, so good, but how did the babit originate ? Wbat first led snakes or other reptiles to think of hatching out their eggs? That it was not intelligence we can safely assert, for all who have had
any experience in keeping spakes, agree in stating that their inlift and force pump at A connected with a pipe which crosses the telligence is of the lowest order. I am therefore inclined to belake to B; the water lifted at A and forced over to B falls into lieve that what first led animals to incubate their eggs was the the lake, but not a drop of it ever gets back to A.
heat developed in the egg during the process of batching. Snakes If you will consider a ground wire in a large telegraph or tele are exceedingly fond of heat, in fact I have known them to inphone office with a number of circuits of variable resistances and jure each other in cages in the attempt to retain the warmest different polarities attached to it you will see that it is absurd to places. Hence we can infer that if, when basking in the sun, a say that a positive current from one battery goes down that snake chances to lie near its eggs, especially if these hare already ground wire and off to a distant point while at the same instant begun to hatch, it will soon feel their heat and so be led to coil a positive current from a distant battery comes up the same wire. more closely about them, and while thus warming itself it will That is the common sense view of it, and it is supported by at the same time hasten the process of incubation. Kirchoff's law, E C = 0, or the sum of all the EM F's or currents The next question that arises is, how this babit of incubating meeting in a point equals nothing. In fact, the ground wire in her eggs, even when thus acquired, will be transmitted to the off. a large office may be cut (as I have often seen it done for experi- spring, for if not transmitted, the habit could never become mental proof) without stopping communication. When three or general. more wires are joined to the same ground either one of the wires So little is known of the principles of inheritance that we canacts as a return wire for the others when the ground wire is cut. not hope to solve this problem at present. Even Darwin, who But when all are open at once, then the ground comes into play made a life-long study of the subject, and to wbom we are into form the circuit for the first one that closes. It is also useful debted for the ingenious theory of pangenesis, was forced to adas a regulator of current, but the manner of doing this is not mit our abject ignorance of the laws of transmission of characters properly introduceable here.
from parents to children. We can, however, infer that those If nothing had been said of the use of tin at one end and cop serpents most susceptible to the cold would be most likely to reper at the other the resistance of 102 ohms as found would indi main by their eggs, and this susceptibility to cold would tend to cate a good ground. But as some current probably arose from be inherited by the young
Moreover, when we remember wbat unexplainable cases of in- shallow gutter, in which there is a considerable accumulation of beritance occur, such as special movements during sleep, we the winged seeds from a neigbboring tree. These were standing must admit that even the tendency in a snake to incubate its in shallow water, left there by the recent raios. eggs may also be transmitted, the more so as we have an indis- I obserred a robin alight on the roof, and noticed that she putable inheritance of the same nature daily shown us in the picked from the gutter a bunch of those seeds, wbich she held in case of birds, for the tendency of the parents to incubate their her bill while she seemed to be preparing to fly away. young is in all cases inherited by the offspring.
Presently, apparently dissatisfied with what she had picked up,
CLEMENT FEZANDIE. she dropped the seeds, and moving to a place where they were 686 Lexington Avenue, New York.
lying in a thicker bed, she gathered a much larger mass of them,
about as many as her bill would hold together. After gathering Another Ancient Argillite Quarry Near Trenton,
them and satisfying herself that she had enough, she deliberately
dipped the mass into the water and few away with it to a disOn the left bank of Neshaming “ Creek, " Bucks County, Pepn
tant tree. Perhaps some of your readers may suggest a truer sylvania, about three-fourths of a mile above the mouth of
explanation; but to me she seemed to be carrying a supply of Labaska or Mill Creek, I discovered at the base of the cliffs of
water to her brood in what was no inadequate substitute for a metamorphosed slate that there overbang the stream, on June 23,
FRANCIS PHILIP NASH. another ancient work-shop where blocks of argillite, lying in situ,
Geneva, N, Y., June 28. have been chipped into turtle-backs." A layer of chips, hammer-stones, and the now familiar rude
BOOK-REVIEWS. leaf-shaped forms is laid bare for several hundred yards where the stream has worn away the margin. The blocks of workable
Logarithmic Tables. By PROFESSOR G. W. JONES. Ames, Iowa, stone in various instances show peckings upon their sides, as do the Author. similar specimens at Point Pleasant, inferably made by the ancient
The title of this book does not exactly describe its contents. workmen to split them with the grain. No search has yet been made for diggings and refuse-heaps
The strictly logarithmic tables are only about one-balf of those higher up the slope, nor has excavation been made into the ex
given. The arrangement of the tables, of which there are eigb
teen, has been made to meet the wants of those who desire to posed layers; but thus far the story of the workings on Gaddis' Run, near Point Pleasant (Bucks County, Pennsylvania), discor
have, in a handy form, tables to be used in computations covering ered on May 22, seems to be repeated, though on a smaller scale.
a wide range. Table I. is a four-place, of numbers from 1 to
1,000, followed by one of the same accuracy giving the six prinThere we were twenty-five miles from Trenton ; here we are but fifteen.
H. C. MERCER.
cipal trigonometric functions, and of the lengths of arcs in radians. The first five degrees of the quadrant are given to each five
minutes, the following to each ten minutes, with differences for Do Nestlings Drink.
single minutes. A table giving the squares, cubes, square-roots, This question suggested itself to my mind very lately, when I cube-roots, and reciprocals of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 99 is also given. observed the following, and to me, entirely new fact:
Table III. is a six-place table of numbers, the side numbering A piazza-roof, on which my windows open, is provided with a being carried to only three figures instead of four, as is usual in
THE MODERN MALADY; or, Suf- Pennsylvania Bedford Springs Mineral Water
ferers from Nerves.'
CALENDAR OF SOCIETIES. Agassiz Scientific Society, Corvallis, Ore.
For Liver, Kidney and Bladder Troubles.
For Gravel, Gall Stones, Jaundice. June 14.- Dr. Pernot, Apbasia.
For Dyspepsia, Rheumatism and Gout.
For Dropsy, Bright's Disease, Diabetes.
For Hemorrhoids, Etc.
It has been used medicinally and prescribed by Ripans Tabules cure hives.
from a non-medical point of view, of a con- physicians for nearly one hundred years.
DIRECTIONS:-Take one or two glasses about a Ripans Tabules oure dyspepsia. prevalent in all ranks of society. In the Case One Dozen Half-Gallon Bottles, $4.50.
Case Fifty Quarts (Aerated), $7.50. first part of this work the author dwells on ACK NUMBERS and complete sets of Leading Mat the errors in our mode of treating Neuras- Bedford Mineral Springs Co., Bedford, Pa.
1004 Schoharie, N. Y.
thenia, consequent on the wide ignorance of
causes of the malady. The allegory forming
OF SUPERIOR AND SIANDARD QUALITY.
For Sale by all Stationers.
THE ESTERBROOK STEEL PEN CO, By CYRIL BENNETT.
Works: Oamdon, N.J. 26 John St., New York. 12°, 184 pp., $1.50.
Send for our “Winter Bulletin," recently issued. N. D. C. HODGES,
Minerals, Gems, Microscopical Sections, Fine Lap
idary Work, 874 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. GEO. L. ENGLISH & Co., Mineralogists,
Removed to 64 East 12th Street, New York
N. D. C. HODGES, 874 Broadway, N. Y.
ures, it is somewhat disjointed. It is full, however, of interesting matter, and is lavishly illustrated, an unusual feature in works of this class. Its title is unfortunately misleading as the author does not attempt to cover the whole growth of scientific knowledge, but confines himself to astronomy. The k, bowever, is unique in the endeavor by means of plain, unaffected writing and a wealth of illustration to bring the pioneers of celestial knowledge into almost personal acquaintanceship with the reader, tracing the history of their discoveries and the dependence of one discovery upon another. It is to be commended to students of the history of science as a most useful reference book, and to the general reader as a book at once entertaining and instructive.
J. E. I.
such tables. In Table IV. will be found all of the useful constants used in mathematics, chemistry, engineering, physics, and weights and measures. This table is a very complete one, containing, as it does, reference to almost every standard and constant used in the arts and science. Table V. is reprint of the Gaussian sixplace addition-subtraction logarithros. For determining trigonometric functions, there are two tables, the four-place already mentioned, and also a six-place table. The latter is a departure from the usual method. Generally, in a six-place table, the functions are given for each ten seconds. Professor Jones has made up the table for each minute of the quadrant, the proportional part being given for each second. The tables that follow those just explained consist of prime and composite numbers, squares, cubes, square-roots, cube-roots, reciprocals, and quarter-squares. Finally, we have Bissel's table of coefficients for interpellation, and a table containing the integral for finding the mean or probable error of a result in least squares. We judge from our examination that Professor Jones has prepared the tables with great care. He seems exceedingly anxious to free them of all errors, and to induce tbat condition of things he offers a reward for an error found in the tables. We bave not critically examined the tables, but we note a slight error in the text. On the first page the reference to the pages containing Table IX. should read 118–133 instead of 114-133. We would commend these tables to the computer as being a help to have on one's desk.
G. A. H. Pioneers of Science. BY OLIVER LODGE, F. R. S., Professor of
Physics in Victoria University College, Liverpool, with Portraits and Illustrations. London, Macmillan & Co. 404 p. 8o. $2.50.
In this work, Dr. Lodge has given the general public and the student a very interesting and readable book. As he states in his preface the book had its origin in a course of lectures on the history and progress of astronomy, delivered by the autbor in 1887. As is often the case with books based on a course of lect
AMONG THE PUBLISHERS. THE career of the late Sir Richard Burton, the distinguisbed traveller, was most adventurous and romantic. He was an ency. clopædic scholar, and much more than a scholar. He knew and had seen more of dark Africa than most men, and more of Mohammedan lands than any man. His biography, by Lady Burton, will be published shortly by D. Appleton & Co. The book will be decorated with illustrations and maps, as well as portraits. The first part of the story, it is said, will in the main be told in Sir Richard's own words.
—The weekly paper known for the last twenty-five years as The Christian Union with its first issue for July changes its title to The Outlook. It will remain unchanged in other respects, except in the line of improvement and enlargement. It will be, as before, a family paper, non-denoininational in religious matters, and giving large space to the current history of our times; to literature, economics and progressive movements of all sorts, and to bome life. The Rev. Dr. Lyman Abbott will remain as its editor-in-chief, with Mr. Hamilton W. Mabie as his associate, and an editorial staff of several members.
tution and of a German university (Göttingen), I have a fire-proof safe, weight 1,180 pounds, seeks a position to teach chemistry in a college or which I will sell cheap or exchange for a gasoline
similar institution. Five years' experience in engine or some other things that may happen to teaching chemistry, Address Chemist,
757 Cary St., suit. The safe is nearly new, used a short time
N experienced teacher in general biology wisbes For exchange.-Hudson River fossils in good con
a position in a first-class college or university. dition from the vicinity of Moore's Hill, Ind., also Three years in post-graduate study. Extensive
land and fresh water shells, Desire fossils and experience. Strong indorsements. Address E. W. Horsford's Acid Phosphate the..." Hubbath, mores ini
shells from other groups and localities. Address Doran, Ph.D., 1827 G St., N. W., Washington, D. C. with water and on sale at dow price--a.fi ne old-fashioned photo- THABEE dea chere wanted for so male and
female only, sugar
lenses, four inches diameter, made by C. C. Harri- etc., languages, mathematics, sciences, et. al. Send makes a delicious, healthful and son. Plateholders, troughs, baths, etc., all in large stamp with and for particulars. Box 701, Hemp
, President Moore, of Columbia College. This is a invigorating drink. the old my pet-process methods, and valuable to any A years experience in the field is no oropen to teen
and ten Allays the thirst, aids diges-institution amateur interested in the historien gagement, for either field of laboratory, work.
Daniel tion, and relieves the lassitude 236 W. 4th st., New York.
75, White Sulphur Springs, West Va.
I wish to exchange & collection of 7,000 shells, so common in midsummer. land, Huviatile and marine, for a good microsclemWANTED: 4 set of Allen's Commercial
Analysis, 4 vols. Vols. I. and II. particularly
Address, with particulars, Dr. desired. Condition not important, all leaves being Dr, M. H. Henry, New York, says: Lorenzo G. Yates, Santa Barbara, California. present and in place. Address Charles Platt, 84 When completely tired out by pro- South Dakota and other sections, for Lepidoptera
For exchange.- I wish to exchange Lepidoptera of Lewis Block, Buffalo. longed wakefulness and overwork, it is is the world. Will purchase species of North Amer. ANTED, as principal of a flourishing technical
ence who will be capable of supervising both meof the greatest value to me. As a bev- and Hudson's Bay regions. P. c. Truman, Volga, chanical and common school instruction. Special erage it possesses charms beyond any. Brooking county, South Dakota.
familiarity with some technical branch desirable.
Address, giving age, qualifications, etc., J. B. Bloom
For sale.-Wheatstone Bridge wire, made to ingdale, Fifty-ninth street and Third avenue, N. Y. thing I know of in the form of medic order, new and unused. Price, $10." W. A. Kobbe,
Fortress Monroe, Va. cine."
tion of Watt's Dictionary of Chemistry, in fair con Philadelphia.
microscopical department. & Descriptive pamphlet free.
dition; one thirty volume edition (9th) of Allen's
Encyclopædia Britannica, almost new.
'HE undersigned desires specimens of North
pterylosis. These species are especially deTHI
American Gallinae in the flesh for the study of Beware of Substitutes and Imitations. worth, Ripon College, Ripon, Wis.
sired: Colinus ridgwayi, cyrtonyą montezumae, Exchange.--One celestial, one terrestrial globe, deudragapus franklini, lagopus welchi,tympanuchus one lunatettis and charts, celestial maps, diagrams cupido and pedioecetes phasianellus. Any persons and ephemeris from 1830 to 1893, astronomical having alcoholic specimens which they are willing works, all in good condition. Will sell cheap or ex- to loan or who can obtain specimens of any of the change. Make offer. C. H. Van Dorn, 79 Nassau above are requested to communicate with Hubert St., New York.
Lyman Clark, 3922 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa.