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other friends. • It is a translation,' says Bacon, but almost enlarged into a new work. I had good helps for the language. I have been also mine own index expurgatorius, that it may be read in all places; for since my end of putting it into latin was to have it read every where, it had been an absurd contradiction to free it in the language, and to pen it up in the matter.'*

The Advancement of Learning opens with a noble defence of the dignity of knowledge against the discredits and disgraces which it had received from ignorance, but ignorance severally disguised; appearing sometime in the zeal and jealousy of divines; sometimes in the severity and arrogancy of politicians; and sometimes in the errors and imperfections of learned men themselves. t

* Letter to king James, vol. 12, p. 451. The copy presented to the king is still preserved in the royal library in the British Museum.

† Bacon's Works, vol, 2, p. 7.

To sir Thomas Bodley he likewise sent the same tract, and also the Advancement of Learning; but the celebrated founder of the Bodleian Library, (who built an ark, said Bacon, to save learning from deluge, *) was, like his equally or more famous predecessor, Appellicon of Teos, whom Strabo characterized as a lover of books rather than a philosopher,-φιλοβιβλος μαλλον η φιλοσοφος-1 and he liked not the argument of the inductive philosophy. Playfully retorting upon his friend, If you be not of the lodgings chalked up,' said Bacon, I 'whereof I speak

dean of Westminster, my request to you is, that not by pricks, but by notes, you would mark unto me whatsoever shall seem unto you either not correct in the style, or harsh to credit and opinion, or inconvenient for the person of the writer, for no man can be judge and party. I would have come to your lordship, but that I am hastening to my house in the country, and so I commend your lordship to God's goodness.'

* Bacon's Works, vol. 12, p. 82. + Strabo, xiii.

Bacon's Works, vol. 12, p. 91, or vol. 13, p. 62. See sir Thomas Bodley's elaborate letter to Bacon, oni

in my preface, I am but to pass by your door; but if I had you but a fortnight at Gorhambury, I would make you tell me another tale, or else I would add a cogitation against libraries, and be revenged on you

that way.'

Lord Bacon also presented the Instauration to his old friend, Matthew, who, in his affectionate writing touching that work, (it is thus that Bacon delicately characterizes his friend's letter,) warned him not to tread too closely on the heels of divines, lest they should endeavour to hinder the popularity

receiving the Advancement of Learning, vol. 10, p. 506, and vol. 12, p. 83. The following passage from the Novum Organum will explain the curious phrase, lodgings chalked up:-Dixit Borgia de expeditione Gallorum in Italiam, eos venisse cum cretâ in manibus ut diversoria notarent, non cum armis ut perrumperent; itidem et nostra ratio est, ut doctrina nostra animos idoneos et capaces subintret; confutationum enim nullus est usus, ubi de principiis et ipsis notionibus, atque etiam de formis demonstrationum dissentimus.'Bacon's Works, vol. 9, p. 196; and see post, p. 129.

of his book. This, as might be expected, called forth a characteristic reply. For your caution,' said Bacon, 'for churchmen and church matters, -as for any impediment it might be to the applause and celebrity of my work, it moveth me not; but as it may hinder the fruit and good which may come of a quiet and calm passage to the good port to which it is bound, I hold it a just respect so as to fetch a fair wind I go not too far about; but troth is, I shall have no occasion to meet them in my way, except it be as they will needs confederate themselves with Aristotle, who, you know, is intemperately magnified with the schoolmen, and is also allied (as I take it) to the Jesuits by Faber, who was a companion of Loyola, and a great Aristotleian.' "Myself," he adds, 'am like the miller of Huntington, that was wont to pray for peace among the willows; for while the winds blew the wind-mills wrought, and the water-mill was less customed. So

I see that controversies of religion must hinder the advancement of sciences.' *

Long before the publication of his Instauration, Bacon had imparted the plan of it tọ bishop Andrews, who was his literary inquisitor; † and he told the king that about some such work he had been engaged near thirty years. I Vanity, which is oftener the froth of folly than of genius, never inflated Bacon's mind,-never corrupted or hardened his heart by extinguishing, as it is wont to do, all the social and

* Bacon's Works, vol. 12, pp. 92, 93; and see vol. 13, p. 44.

† Bacon, writing to Mr. Matthew, tells him, 'I have now, at last, taught that child to go, at the swaddling whereof you were. My work touching the Proficiency and Advancement of Learning I have put into two books, whereof the former, which you saw, I cannot but account as a page of the latter. I have now published them both, whereof I thought it a small adventure to send you a copy, who have more right to it than any man, except bishop Andrews, who was my inquisitor.'-Bacon's Works, vol. 13, p. 62.

IIb. vol. 12, p. 393.


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