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ened her trot, and gradually dropped down her ears and tail, until she was certain, and then fell down on her knees: so staunch was she, that she would often remain five minutes and upwards on her point. As soon as the game rose, she always returned to Turner, grunting very loudly for her reward of pudding, if it was not immediately given to her.
To enter into a labourate description of the natures, properties, virtues, vices, natural propensities, and mechanical structure of the several parts of the brute creation, is not at present our intention; that having been so often, and so satisfactorily done already by many eminent naturalists and anatomisis, among whom we may mention Pliny, Aristotle, and Ray. Our principal aim is, to refute the sophistical, dangerous, unfounded, unscriptural, and uncharitable opinion of bruies being possessed by devils: that they are in general envious; or, that they finally perish at death, i. e. that they have no souls; or, if they have, that they will be annihilated.
We do not lay claim to infallibility, but hope, what has been said on this most important and interesting subject, will need no stronger arguments to convince those, even of the least understanding, the absurdity of such doctrine as Father Bougeant wishes to
instil into the minds of the sober and less suspecting part of mankind.
From the greater part of the preceding arguments, many borrowed from real life and actual observation, with the few anecdotes of their abilities, and attachment to the human species, can it be insisted upon by the most strenous disciples of Descartes, that brutes are mere machines, and have no souls? Certainly not. That they have the power of reasoning, to a ceriain degree, in their own mind, and that they possess memory and a sentient principal cannot be denied, even more so than many who can boast of the human form: for, if we offend a dog in the least, twelve months time will not eradicate from his memory the sense of the injury he received, but will retaliate, and take revenge by some means or another. He will also know his proper owner from among his other keepers, although the master never was in the practice of feeding or minding him. A dog will also start in his sleep when dreaming, and seem to be much concerned about something which he cannot explain; which is a further proof of his having a soul, (as dreaming is an act of the soul,) and if a soul, it must be IMMATERIAL, and if immaterial, consequently IMMORTAL!
* An instance of memory in the horse, happened within our own observation a short .
A farmer leading one of his horses across a small temporary stone bridge, the weight of the horse caused an opening to take place between the stones of the bridge, where one of the horses feet went through and was so wedged in, as to be with difficulty got out again. About nine months after, the horse had occasion to be led the same way, but all the threats and arts of the leader could not make him pass over the bridge, so that he had to turn back and cross a ford at some distance from the place which he did willingly, After admitting of these reasoning powers and faculties, which brutes possess, (some of them in no ordinary degree,) they must therefore, undoubtedly, proceed from something IMMATERIAL, for we deny the power of thinking to matter, i. e. MATERIAL substance.
It is true, a machine may be made to imitate many of the human as well as brute actions, and may be maile, with the assistance of wind, to utter many sounds not discordant, but familiar to the ears of those unaccustomed living near wild beasts, but never can be made to think, or reflect on past, present, or future. Therefore, can we think, or be made to believe that, that Infinite and merciful Father who has endowed them with such superior abilities, and made them to be liappy in their primary state, would deprive them of that happiness, by an utter extinction of their being? Or, could we, for a moment, suppose that,the poor frightened hare, &c. which once enjoyed a place in Paradise, was now only to continue for a few days in existence; and these few days too to be miserably hunted and despitefully torn, then fall a victim to the cruelty of some rapacious and blood-thirsty tyrant, whose only happiness is when their hands
are embrewed in the blood of the slain, *
* In reading over the list of game certificates in Aberdeenshire for this present year,we find no less than four RevERENDS who have paid a licence for the liberty of venting their cruelty on those harmless and defenceless part of our adorned creation that chance to be so unfortunate as to fall in their way. How unsuitable is such an employment for the title of reverend, and the followers of the harmless and holy, the meek and lowly Jesus? This Jesus, (whom such pretend to serve,) while on earth, went about doing good: yet for all his parental and friendly labours in cause of poor perishing sinners, and even in the midst of his affliction, had no where to lay his head.--He was a man of sorrows and acquainted with grief: while they who boast of being his servants and disciples, are wallowing in luxury and ease; although we are expressly told by our Saviour that, the servant is not above his master, nor the disciple above his Lord. How different were the lives which those Apostles and Fathers of the primitive Church led, to that of many of the modern professors of Christianity ?-_They suffered hunger and thirst, pain and watchfulness, derison and scorn, banishment and shipwreck,imprisonment and sickness and even death itself, in every shape the cruelty of their persecutors could devise, for the glory of their Lord and Master. And Paul, after he had undergone all the hardships man is capable of suffering in this life, and all the misery of human degradation, wished himself accursed, that those bound with the chains of satan might be free.
Dare we call those who go about spending their time in the idle and wanton pursuits of the field, or transitory pleasures of the world, servants of God, or faithful pastors of a sheepfold, while the enemy is prowling around its gates, seeking whom he may devour? The tree is known by its fruit, and a good and just servant attends to the will and commands of his master: and surely cruelly mangling the body, and wantonly depriving the inoffensive of life, is no where to be found in scipture; for the Poet says.com