English Composition and Rhetoric: A Manual

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D. Appleton, 1867 - 343 sider

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SIMILE OR COMPARISON 16 Simile defined and exemplified
29
Metaphor defined and exemplified
30
Personifying Metaphors
31
Metaphors express the more hidden operations of the mind
32
Highest degree of Personifi ion
34
Inferior degree
36
Allegory defined and exemplified
37
The Fable
38
REMAINING FIGURES OF SIMILARITY 31 Certain kinds of Synecdoche 39 5
39
Exercise on Figures of Similarity
40
FIGURES OF CONTIGUITY 32 Resolvable principally into Metonymy and Synecdoche
41
Metonymies classified
42
Forms of Synecdoche
43
The Transferred Epithet
45
The Antithesis proper
46
Secondary forms of Antithesis
47
Proper employment of Antithesis
49
EPIGRAM
50
Defined as in most instances Apparent Contradiction
51
Epigram of the Identical Assertion
52
The Seeming Irrelevance
53
11e arrestive conjunctions are epigrammatic
54
HYPERBOLE
55
Origin of the tendency to Exaggeration
56
The Extreme Case in exposition
57
Use of Exclamation
60
CHAPTER II
66
CHAPTER III
73
Simplicity defined
79
The Abstract Noun
81
A series of Abstract Terms difficult
82
Simplicity of Structure
83
Opposed to Obscurity and Vagueness
84
The same word not to recur in two senses
85
Parallelism in drawing comparisons
86
Essential pleasure of Power a rebound from Weakness
88
Anger or Indignation allied to the Sublime
89
Contemplation of Power in Nature
90
Vocabulary of Strength
91
Originality
92
Harmony or Keeping
93
Variety or Alternation of Effects
94
Variety in the length and structure of Sentences
95
Exciting effects should be relieved
96
Strength from Objectivity
97
Resources for causing strength
98
Tender Feeling allied to inactivity or repose
99
Vocabulary of Tenderness
101
Natural objects sometimes suggest Tenderness
102
THE LUDICROUSHUMORWIT 108 The Ludicrous defined
104
Derision
106
Wit defined
108
Wit combined with the Ludicrous
109
Involves the voice and the ear
110
Abrupt consonants should alternate with vowels
111
Alternation of vowel and consonant in successive words
112
Varying the letters
113
The closing syllables of a sentence
114
Variety of sound in composition generally
115
HARMONY OF SOUND AND SENSE 126 An example of the general Law of Harmony
116
Imitation of Movements
117
Bulk expressed by slowness of rhythm
119
Meanings of Taste
120
CHAPTER V
122
The Participial construction in the Period
124
The periodic form favorable to Unity
125
Balance aids the Memory
126
40 Extreme form of the Balance
127
Balance with Obverse Iteration
128
Keeping up the same leading term
129
The Condensed Sentence used for Comic effect
130
1 In the be ginning
131
2 After an adverbial phrase or clause
132
3 At the end
133
Unity of the Sentence
135
Clauses united in a Sentence without breach of unity
136
THE PARAGRAPH
141
Paragraph defined
142
Adversative Conjunctions
143
Phrases of reference
144
166170 Cases in which connecting words are unnecessary
145
Demonstrative Phrases of reference
146
Repetition in substance of what has been said
147
De Quincey remarkable for explicit reference
148
Fourth Requisite Freedom from dislocation
151
Sixth Requisite A due proportion between Principal and Sub ordinate statements
152
Second Feelings may be suggested by their Associations
162
Description involved in all other kinds of Composition
163
In Poetry What Descriptions may be undertaken by the poet
164
CHAPTER II
166
First rule To follow the Order of Events
167
A backward reference may be necessary
168
Sometimes what is recent is best to start from
169
A comprehensive scheme possible in narrative
170
Contending parties Danger of stealthy transition
171
Third Relieving the detail by Summaries
172
Art of Abridgment
173
Fourth The Explanatory Narrative
174
Interest or the gratification of the Feelings
176
CHAPTER III
185
Constituents of Science
186
Whenever truth is expressed generally we have Science
187
Individual facts by themselves not peculiar to science
188
Defining by Particulars
189
The two methods combined
190
The scholastic definition a form of Analysis
192
The PROPOSITION or Principle
193
There should always be one chief statement
194
Advantages of the Obrerse Statement
195
The principal medium of Exposition is Examples
196
197
197
Principles embodied in Examples
198
Delineation of Character and Criticism
199
The imparting of extended human interest to Science Plato
201
The choice of Examples and Illustrations with this view
202
The conditions of the employment of Illustrations for expository ends
203
Calling attention to Difficulties
205
Inferences and Applications serve to elucidate principles
207
The Expository Paragraph
208
Various forms of the Paragraph
210
Management of novel terms
211
CHAPTER IV
212
Oratory of the Law Courts
213
Pulpit Oratory Cultivation of the Religious Feelings
215
An orator has to overbear mens special views by means of larger principles of action
219
ability to the minds addressedHistory of the abolition of the Censorship of the press in England
220
MEANS OF PERSUASION
223
A thorough knowledge of the subject a chief requisite Re sources of language and illustration also requisite
224
Different aspects of Persuasion
225
Persuasion as based on Description Narration or Exposition
226
Persuasion aided by all the arts that impress ideas
228
An Argument defined
229
Deductive Arguments
230
Inductive Arguments
231
Arguments from Analogy
233
Probable Arguments
234
Devices for stifling Arguments
236
Number and Order of Arguments
237
Separating the arguments on the other side
238
Kind of Refutation called Argumentum ad hominem
240
Exposure of defective Arguments from Analogy
241
Debate often turns on opposing Probabilities
242
Tactics of Debate
243
Oratory of the FEELINGS Classes of human motives
244
First our own Pleasures and Pains considered as remote
245
Secondly Sympathy with the Pleasures and Pains of others
248
Fear Love Vanity and Pride Anger Ridiculé Fine Art Emotion the Moral Senti ment
249
Management of the Feelings generally
255
The Demeanor of the Speaker
256
CHAPTER V
257
Subjects and Form peculiar to Poetry Pure and mixed kinds
259
External Nature furnishes materials for Poetry
260
Our interest in Humanity enters into Poetry
262
Concreteness and Combination are characteristic of Poetry
263
The Ideal is sought after
267
SPECIES OF POETRY
274
VERSIFICATION
285
Examples of the different Measures
286
Rhymed Verse
292
Dr Campbells allegorical comparison of Probability
299
Robert Halls Reflections on War The Sentence Pathos
308
Examples of Description from Sir Walter Scott
316
Hobbes on Laughter Sentence Paragrapb Exposition
324
Drydens criticisms on Ben Jonson and Shakespeare Sen tence Paragraph Exposition
327
Expository Extract from Mr Samuel Bailey Application of Principles
330
Expository and moralizing passage from Macaulay
333
Confused chain of reasoning from Campbells Rhetoric
335
Passage from Adam Smith Exposition applied to Moral Suasion
336
Oratorical passage from Demosthenes on the Crown
338
Coleridges Mont Blanc Poetic rendering of Nature
341
Byrons Thunder Storm The Impressiveness of Action
342
Dyers Grongar Hill Poetical Description
343

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Side 262 - Spit, fire! spout, rain! Nor rain, wind, thunder, fire, are my daughters: I tax not you, you elements, with unkindness; I never gave you kingdom, call'd you children, You owe me no subscription: then, let fall Your horrible pleasure; here I stand, your slave, A poor, infirm, weak, and despis'd old man.
Side 102 - In this choice of inheritance we have given to our frame of polity the image of a relation in blood; binding up the constitution of our country with our dearest domestic ties ; adopting our fundamental laws into the bosom of our family affections ; keeping inseparable, and cherishing with the warmth of all their combined and mutually reflected charities, our state, our hearths, our sepulchres, and our altars.
Side 65 - As the waters fail from the sea, and the flood decayeth and drieth up ; so man lieth down, and riseth not : till the heavens be no more, they shall not awake, nor be raised out of their sleep.
Side 341 - Sovran Blanc ? The Arve and Arveiron at thy base Rave ceaselessly ; but thou, most awful form ! Risest from forth thy silent sea of pines, How silently ! Around thee and above, Deep is the air, and dark, substantial, black ; An ebon mass : methinks thou piercest it As with a wedge ! But when I look...
Side 293 - The lion would not leave her desolate, But with her went along, as a strong guard Of her chaste person, and a faithful mate Of her sad troubles and misfortunes hard ; Still, when she slept, he kept both watch and ward; And, when she waked, he waited diligent, With humble service to her will prepared : From her fair eyes he took commandement, And ever by her looks conceived her intent.
Side 307 - It is this sense which furnishes the imagination with its ideas; so that by ' the pleasures of the imagination,' or ' fancy,' (which I shall use promiscuously) I here mean such as arise from visible objects, either when we have them actually in our view, or when we call .up their ideas into our minds by paintings, statues, descriptions, or any the like occasion.
Side 72 - I charge you, O daughters of Jerusalem, if ye find my beloved, that ye tell him, that I am sick of love.
Side 91 - The stars shall fade away, the sun himself Grow dim with age, and Nature sink in years, But thou shalt flourish in immortal youth, Unhurt amidst the war of elements, The wreck of matter, and the crush of worlds.
Side 220 - We should be wary, therefore, what persecution we raise against the living labors of public men . how we spill that seasoned life of man, preserved and stored up in books; since we see a kind of homicide may be thus committed, sometimes a martyrdom...
Side 220 - I deny not but that it is of greatest concernment in the church and commonwealth to have a vigilant eye how books demean themselves, as well as men, and thereafter to confine, imprison, and do sharpest justice on them as malefactors. For books are not absolutely dead things, but do contain a potency of life in them to be as active as that soul was whose progeny they are...

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