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the pure brown type, the great bulk of the population belonging to the mixed blond type or the mixed brown type.

The following conclusions may be drawn from this short sketch of the distribution of hair and eye colours in the Eastern Counties, and in the extreme south-west of England.

Spread all over England was a dark-haired, brown-eyed people, who, from other evidence, appear to have been slight of build, and distinctly dolichocephalic. These are usually spoken of as Iberians, or more correctly as the Iberian branch of the Mediterranean race. They are the men of the polished stone (Neolithic) age, and they often buried their dead in long barrows. We may recognise in them the true autocthones of Britain, for we have little precise information about Palæolithic man, nor can we yet tell how far he persisted into later periods. Mr. Gomme' brings evidence to bear in support of his view that these non-Aryan people were agriculturalists.

We know that agriculture tends of itself to fix men to the soil, and when agriculturalists are conquered by peoples of other social organisation, as practically always occurs, they become still more rooted, and for good reason. The conquerors are usually turbulent, warlike, mobile communities, usually either actual nomads or societies which have but recently emerged from a pastoral mode of life, or they may be a seafaring folk. In any case, while they prey upon the settled population and overlord them, they take care not to exterminate them, for the descendants of herdsmen despise agriculture, and it is only after a long time and due to a powerful constraint that they yield to the force of circumstances and till the soil.

The horse - breeding, chariot - driving, Celtic - speaking peoples who invaded the British Islands were probably no

"G. L. Gomme, The Village Community, 1890, ch. iv. ; Ethnology in Folklore, 1892, p. 70.

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exception to this general rule. It is certain that they tilled the soil, for there are many allusions in Roman authors to this practice among allied tribes on the mainland of Europe; but the same authors are careful to point out how lightly these half-nomad tribes were attached to the soil, and how they were continually on the move. We may therefore take it for granted that these men of the Bronze Age overlorded, but did not by any means exterminate the indigenous population of Britain; the latter by becoming the serfs of the conquerors were still more firmly settled on the land.

Later came the tall, fair-haired, blue-eyed, dolichocephals. At first pioneers opened up the country and showed the way to the Teutonic hordes, who arrived in various swarms of Frisians, Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Danes, and the kindred Norsemen. The story of the incoming of the Bronze Age was repeated, but with this difference. While the fair dolichocephals slipped over, as it were, the dark dolichocephalic serfs, they largely exterminated or pushed before them the Celtic, more or less brachycephalic peoples, so that these are at the present day mainly to be found in the western portions of the country. The mixed race probably shared the fate of the more aboriginal population.

In a recently published book,' on the Formation of the French Nation, De Mortillet points out that various classical authors practically all agree in describing the Celts or Gauls and the Germans in the same terms. Tall, fair people, with blue eyes, white skin, very warlike, and readily undertaking great invasions and vast migrations, constructing neither temples nor towns, fighting naked, but very proud of their hair. Below this military aristocracy there were the common people, ignored by the writers, who constituted the patient and laborious democracy fixed to the soil, the true natives of the country, whom anthropology and palethnol

'G. de Mortillet, Formation de la Nation Française, Paris, 1897.

ogy have revealed. The Gallo-Germanic race is spread over nearly the whole of Europe, and extends into Africa and Asia, each band transporting its particular name to the different countries that it occupied. It is this turbulent, noisy, mobile aristocracy which alone has filled the pages of history. In France the short, dark, brachycephal of Southern Central Europe has fused with, or lived alongside of, the dark dolichocephal, and it is this mixture which has formed the mass of the French people, that sedentary population which may be described as the nucleus of the French democracy.

Although not identically the same, the early history of France and that of the British Islands have much in common, and it is interesting to find that these primitive ethnic movements are still painted, as it were, on the hair and in the eyes of the existing population.

On turning to France we find that analogous results have there been tabulated. Topinard, the distinguished anthropologist, instituted a very extensive inquiry relative to the statistical distribution of the colours of the hair and eyes of the adult population of France.

In order to obtain unity of method, and to reduce the personal equation to a minimum, Topinard issued precise instructions with colour-scales, which were scattered broadcast, but mainly to trained observers, preferably to medical men. More than 200,000 observations were returned; these were abstracted one by one, and classified by departments according to place of birth. The first operation was to reduce the totals of each kind of hair and eyes to the percentage of the whole number of the cases observed for each department. The second operation was to arrange the most blond to the darkest departments for both hair and eyes, in a long list from one to eighty-eight. The third operation was to combine these lists in various ways, so as to determine the relative places occupied by each depart

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ment with regard to the eyes and hair separately. The fourth operation was to again combine these results, so as to arrive at the main synthetic conclusions. There only remained to establish equal groupings, and to plot out the maps according to these lists. Topinard informs us that he employed various methods till he finally drew up twentyone maps presenting all the main facts, from the simplest, giving the distribution of blue eyes, for example, to the most synthetic which combined all the observations. Five of these maps were originally published in his report to the meeting of the French Association for the Advancement of Science, which was held in Paris in 1889. My learned colleague has kindly permitted me to borrow the three that he has also published in his L'Homme dans la Nature.

The eighty-eight departments, including Alsace-Lorraine and Corsica, are divided into four groups of twenty-two departments each. The groups indicate the fair, intermediate fair, intermediate dark, and dark, whether of eyes, of hair, or of both combined.

The line of separation between the departments where the blonds predominate, and those which have a preponderance of darks, extends irregularly from the Alps to the Breton peninsula. This line also corresponds with a fair degree of accuracy to that which separates the people of high stature from those of low stature, the former being to the northeast, the latter to the south-west.

The maximum of frequency of blonds is met with partly along the shores of the English Channel and partly along the north-east frontier. This fact coincides with history.

1 P. Topinard, L'Homme dans la Nature, 1891, p. 83.

? P. Topinard, “Statistique de la Couleur des Yeux et des Cheveux en France.”—Assoc. Française pour l'Avance, des Sci., Paris, 1889 (1890), 2nde Parte, p. 615.

One knows that the blonds came by sea and by land, but always from the north. It is also in agreement with the colour-maps constructed from statistics of the hair and eye colours of over ten million school children in Germany,

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FIG. 5.

Distribution of the Colour of the Eyes in France; from Topinard. The

eighty-eight Departments (Alsace-Lorraine added and counted as one) are divided into four equal groups.

Austria, Belgium, and Switzerland. The fairest children occur in the north, and, speaking in general terms, they darken as one proceeds south and west ; thus the darkest children are to be found on the confines of Italy and France. There are, however, several dark “ islands” in Central Ger

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