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declaration, and other circumstances, seem to show that it is prospective, relating mostly, to events which are yet future.

10. Pass through thy land as a river, O daughter of Tarshish: there is no more strength. If Tarshish be England, it will be readily admitted, that the daughter of Tarshish is Ireland. Probably there were few of the early emigrants to Ireland, who did not stop for a time in England. Many, doubtless, were native inhabitants of England. The verse, with the marginal reading, is as follows. Pass through thy land as a river, O daughter of Tarshish: there is no more GIRDLE. It appears that flax was cultivated in Egypt at an early period.* Probably therefore, the Sythians, when they left Egypt, carried with them, to Spain and Ireland, a knowledge of the culture and manufacture of this article. Those in Ireland would be likely to keep up an intercourse with the Tyrians, who visited England. They would be in want of foreign commodities, for which linens might be exchanged. It seems that linen girdles were used in ancient times ; and Ireland may have been distinguished for the manufacture of these; and may also have furnished linens of other kinds. Mention is made, in scripture, of two countries that produced linen, Syria and Egypt; but it is rendered somewhat probable, that both these were confined to the manufacture of fine linen.t If so, they were, not unlikely, supplied with other descriptions, by the Tyrians. But, whatever might have been the advantages of this traffick, to Ireland, it was now brought to a close. Considerable tracts, which had been devoted to a profitable husbandry, would now lie waste. Like the rivers, they would be valuable, only as affording a way through the forest; and for their native products. Again, if these tracts bore somewhat such a proportion to the forest as the rivers, extensive districts would be unoccupied. Here then, is clearly indicated the land to which the Tyrians sailed, when they left Tarshish.*

* Ex. 9: 31.

+ Is. 19 : 9; Ezek. 27: 16. # It has been discovered, that the Egyptians made use of linen, almost exclusively, for bandages, in the process of embalming, instead of cotton, as had been previously supposed. If the Egyptians restricted themselves to the manufacture of fine linen, as above, it seems ‘not improbable, that the word girdle, in this verse, refers to a kind of linen cloth, manufactured in Ireland, for embalming; and conveyed to Egypt by the Tyrian fleets. The consumption for this purpose, must have been very considerable.

The inhabitants of England were strangers, and the possessions of the Tyrians would excite the cupidity of those, who had nothing more to gain, by a profitable commerce. In Ireland, on the other hand, the Tyrians would find a people of the same origin, language and traditions, as themselves; and who would be likely to be gratified by such an accession to their strength. The circumstance, to be more particularly mentioned hereafter, that the Irish language is, at this day, essentially Phænician, leaves no doubt, that the Tyrian wanderers found a home in Ireland.

11. He stretched out his hand over the sea; he shook the kingdoms : the Lord hath given a commandment against the merchant-city, to destroy the strong holds thereof. The kingdoms, which were thus shaken, were the nations west of Tyre, with which the Tyrians had had commercial dealings, &c. The strong holds, or, as it is in the margin, strengths, were those places, whether colonies or otherwise, where the Tyrians had exercised a predominating influence, commercial or political. Those places would now decline, would be estranged from Tyre, &c.

12. And he said, Thou shalt no more rejoice, O thou oppressed virgin, daughter of Zidon : arise, pass over to Chittim; there also shalt thou have no rest. Tyre would A great

* Verses 6,7

no more rejoice, as she had done, in numerous colonies, subservient to her will; and many nations, eagerly solicitous to share in the benefits of her commerce. predominance is given, in the prophecy, to Tarshish, over Chittim; yet we are expressly informed, what would be the result of the removal to Chittim. It may be inferred, therefore, that the supposition above, verses 6, 7, is correct; and that the word also, in verse 12, refers primarily, if not exclusively, to those verses. As they found no rest in Tarshish, so also, would they find none in Chittim. It will directly appear probable, that they did find rest, at least protection, and that they still enjoyed some commercial privileges at Tyre. Another inference may also, in the connection with verse 11, be deduced, with considerable probability. That those who removed to Chittim, and perhaps to other places, soon found it expedient to join their brethren in Ireland.

13. Behold the land of the Chaldeans ; this people was not till the Assyrian founded it for them that dwell in the wilderness; they set up the towers thereof, they raised up the palaces thereof, and he brought it to ruin. The meaning appears to be, that the Assyrians, by founding the city of Babylon, in the land of the Chaldeans, furnished a center of civilization, which materially aided in forming that people into a regular community. After the Chaldeans, or Babylonians, had thrown off their dependance on Assyria, they strengthened the city with towers, or perhaps walls and towers, and adorned it with palaces. Cyrus brought it to ruin. 14. Howl, ye ships of Tarshish: for your strength is laid waste. This injunction upon the ships of Tarshish to howl, because their strength was laid waste, and immediately after the abrupt introduction of Cyrus, in the preceding verse, renders it probable, that the Tyrians were, in some way, deprived of their remaining

commercial advantages, by hiin ; perhaps by the mere progress of his arms; and this verse being a sort of response to the entire verse preceding. Cyrus took Babylon thirty four years after the siege of Tyre.

15. And it shall come to pass in that day, that Tyre shall be forgotten seventy years, according to the days of one king: after the end of seventy years shall Tyre sing as an harlot. During a period of seventy years, equal to the life of man, Tyre would be in a situation similar to that of delinquents, during the reign of one king. It was customary, on the accession of a new sovereign, to grant pardons and immunities. Accordingly it is said, that just seventy years after the siege of Tyre, Darius Hystaspis granted privileges to the Tyrians, which led to the recovery of their commercial prosperity. This is made highly probable, by the circumstance, that the western expedition of Darius, which must have required the aid of some maritime people, acquainted with the navigation of the Euxine, took place near that time. The marginal reading of the last of the verse is as follows. After the end of seventy years it shall be unto Tyre as the song of an harlot. It was the edict of Darius, above, which was thus, to the Tyrians, like the song of an harlot; exciting their cupidity. It is observable that the ordinary transactions of commerce are represented, in scripture, as being generally, if not, (although not,] de facto, unlawful. 16. Take an harp, go about the city, thou harlot that hast been forgotten; make sweet melody, sing many songs, that thou mayest be remembered. The people of Tyre are likened to an harlot, living in some city. The island of Tyre is the street of the city, where she resides. The entire city then, comprised such of the late colonies of Tyre, as were still in existence; and especially that place to which, as we have seen,* the identity of

Verses 6, 7.

Tyre had been, in a manner, transferred ; in other words, Ireland. The song of the harlot, verse 15, was the edict of Darius; which had, doubtless, been extensively circulated. The object of the songs here spoken of was, that Tyre might be remembered; there can, then, be no doubt as to their character. Where your friends have found an assylum, where you formerly had influence, and your language is yet spoken, disseminate your literature. Especially, inspire a relish for lyrical compositions. Let such compositions be multiplied ; by which means the language will be longest preserved without change ; that so, at a distant period, your descendants may be known as such. This is required in the arrangements of Divine Providence. How well the injunction was obeyed will appear. The evidence, arising from identity of language, that the present inhabitants of Ireland are of Phænician origin, seems not to admit of doubt.*

17, 18. And it shall come to pass, after the end of seventy years, that the LORD will visit Tyre, and she shall turn to her hire, and shall commit fornication with all the kingdoms of the world upon the face of the earth. And her merchandise and her hire shall be holiness to the LORD: it shall not be treasured nor laid up; for her merchandise shall be for them that dwell before the LORD, to eat sufficiently, and for durable clothing. The Tyre which is to be thus visited, is not that street of the city, known as insular Tyre, but the entire city. After the end of seventy years she would turn to her hire ; that is, to the profits of her merchandise and her manufacturing ; and, in the figurative language of scripture, would commit fornication with all the kingdoms of the world upon the face of the earth. Had the ancient world only been intended, the sense would have been complete at the word world.

* See note (B).

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