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genial presence and his impressive composure, nature has added a ready and distinct articulation, which imparts an authoritative emphasis and conviction to his speech. His descriptions of morphological changes, of functional derangements, or of bacteriological and microscopical
FIG. 5.-Tuberculosis after 14 Days. technique, profound in expression, based upon the highest scientific principles, are always characterized by terseness of expression and marvelous significance. While in simple language enforcing the most scrupulous attention to the common details of an experiment, preparatory, concurrent, and subsequent, he ascends to the heights of generalities, in which regions his discourse often sparkles with the scintillations of brilliant and forceful pathological and bacteriological aphorisms.
Such being the habitual manner and method of Prof. Koch, it is not a matter of surprise that his laboratories should be sought by thousands of visitors, spectators, auditors, physicians, pathologists, and especially microscopists and bacteriologists, his great fame elevating him to a position beyond the reach of jealousy.
In 1879 and 1880, Dr. Koch made some remarkably accurate studies in septicæmia, commonly called blood-poisoning. (See Figs. 1 and 2, representing the staphylococcus of suppuration.) He has not only demonstrated, but forcibly proven, that these germs are the direct .cause of suppuration.
In 1882, Prof. Koch first made his discovery, that all tuberculous diseases are due to a bacillus, commonly called a germ, or microbe, which he called "tu
bercle bacillus." (Figs. 3, 4, and 5.) The general practitioner scarcely asks how Dr. Koch made his discovery, but in this method of Koch's, lies the great cause of amazement and admiration. He modestly attributes the result of his studies to the perfection of the microscope; but the best microscope would be useless were we not in possession of Koch's methods of staining, isolating, developing, and inoculating. He ascertained and demonstrated how to provide fostering soil for the minute beings; he understood how to regulate the confusion existing in a single drop of matter, pus, or virus, so that we are able to separate and develop any certain kind, and study it both in its simple and complex states. Figs. 6 and 7 show how he produces a culture of these germs in test-tubes. Dr. Koch has gone one step farther: he first revealed to us the enemy, but was unable to destroy it; now he has accomplished even this; that is, his tuberculin Kochi does not destroy a tubercle bacillus at the first blow, as was anticipated by the unscientific laity, but it has been demonstrated beyond all doubt that by his methods of inoculation and injection, in animals as well as in
logical functions of the tissues in which incipient tuberculosis seemingly exists, i. e., in which tubercle bacilli are found.
I will here explain how preventive inoculations and injections are supposed to do their work. These are based upon the experiments and observations of Koch, Pasteur, Metchnikoff, Friedlander, Loeffler, and other scientific bacteriologists, whose theory is that every infectious disease is produced by a certain germ. These germs, microbes, or bacilli are introduced into the system by way of the alimentary canal, the rectum, through the lungs, or even through the skin. Now, to have each germ produce its specific disease whenever introduced into the system, it must first have a favorable and fostering soil; secondly, only under the most favorable physiological conditions is it possible for each variety of germs to produce its specific pathological condition; thirdly, the chemical elements of the blood and tissues must be such as to act as a favorable, fostering, and developing soil for each specific variety of germs, which, of course, is easily effected by chemical preparations, heat, cold, and the various curative and preventive inoculations and injections, be it that of tu berculin Kochi for tuberculosis, Pasteur's injections against hydrophobia, or vaccine vaccination against smallpox.
Practically, all the injections, inoculations, and vaccinations produce a specific modified intoxication and contamination of the entire system, especially the blood of this certain specific disease of which the germs have been injected, only in a mild, attenuated, and modified form, which is quite sufficient to produce in the system an unfavorable, unfostering, undeveloping soil for each. specific germ in its concentrated form when so introduced. It acts as a preventive, that is, the system resists these concentrated germs simply because the soil (the system) is unfit for their development. Therefore, in all respects, we must highly recommend preventive inoculation, injection, and vaccination. But for what period these inoculations, injections, and vaccinations hold good, that is, keep the system in an unfostering
and undeveloping state, remains yet to be determined by scientific researches and observations.
And now comes his greatest discovery, - another triumph of science, when Koch placed himself at the head of the German Cholera Commission which was sent into Egypt and India; and there, where he first unmasked this hidden enemy to mankind, the comma bacillus (Fig. 8), commonly called the cholera germ, he received the highest reward ever bestowed upon a physician or a scientist, an honorarium of one hundred thousand reich marks; and upon his return to Berlin, the German Government acknowledged his deserts by conferring upon him the rank of Privy Councilor, and the rec
FIG. 8.- Comma Bacilli. (Magnified 500 Diam.)
torship of the Imperial Institute of the "Kaiser Wilhelm's Universität zu Berlin, and the German Government."
INFECTIOUS ABORTION IN MARES.
BY T. J. TURNER, B. A., D. V. S. State Veterinarian of Missouri.
IN response to the Governor's letter of May 16, 1892, ordering me to visit the State of Montana, and investigate a troublesome malady then affecting brood mares, especially those owned by one Marcus Daly, of Riverside, Bitter Root Valley, Montana, I immediately started on
the trip, and arrived at the Daly ranch on May 24. An investigation was begun in a few days, which required about four weeks to consummate. The following is my report upon this subject, containing a history of the outbreak, its nature, and salient points pertaining to the proper management of the trouble, should it occur on any farm; also facts ascertained by experimentation, leaving out the more minute details concerning the parasite, which are yet to be determined by investigation.
Location of Daly Ranch.- The Daly ranch is situated in the fertile valley of the Bitter Root, in Missoula county, Montana. The grounds are generally high and well drained, the tillable land being in a high state of cultivation. Much money has been expended on the property to make it a first-class breeding establishment. Many thousand (some 30,000) acres are inclosed within its confines. The climate is perfect, and feed first-class, as is also the management. To diverge slightly from the object of this report, I am constrained to say that the location of the ranch, its soil, and the climate of the country have nothing whatever to do with the cause of the malady.
History of the Outbreak. Infectious abortion (so called) was first manifested on the ranch, according to facts attainable at that place, about the middle of February, 1892.
To preface the subject, it might be well to state that the malady, whatever its nature, was causing the mares to slip their foals, either by abortion or a premature birth. It was first noticed among the trotters of the Daly ranch, the renowned mare, Fannie Witherspoon," being the first to abort. The trouble ran riot through his entire stud of most valuable animals, of both thoroughbreds and trotters. The first few abortions caused but little alarm, the owner thinking they were the result of some accident. This being the case, the mares known to have aborted were not regarded as specially dangerous to those still carrying foal, and were consequently allowed to pasture with them. Later, however, alarm was taken, but not until too late, for nearly all the mares in foal had been exposed. The abortion continued until the last of May. Before I reached the locality, the mares were constantly, as they aborted,
removed from the ranch, and kept isolated for two or three weeks.
The disease was of an enzoötic nature, no animals save those belonging to Mr. Daly being affected. Thus it will be seen that this disease may be comparatively easily controlled, although of an infectious character.
Concomitant with this abortion, a few mares would carry their foals to nearly full term, and then premature births would occur. Several foals lived, and apparently, for a week or ten days, were perfectly healthy, when it would be noticed that the joints of the little fellows were swollen, and there was general dejection.
The possibility that the same cause was in operation in producing the two maladies, at once presented itself for consideration. Upon this general supposition, the investigation in regard to abortion was made. The result will be seen in a history of the experiment.
Etiology. At first, the trouble was supposed to be caused by the food on which the animals were fed. Investigations were made, but no agents likely to cause abortion were found. These investigations were made by botanists and men thoroughly capable of doing such work. They were employed by Mr. Daly, who has been extremely anxious to fathom the trouble, and has used all available means to do the same. He has spared no expense, and too much credit cannot be given him for his kindly and generous aid. to science in fathoming the cause of this malady.
Prior to this, however, it was supposed that the animals might be aborting from sympathy: then it was that those having aborted were immediately separated from the mares in foal. Mares and cows frequently abort through sympathy, it seems, and no infection exists. Upon arrival, and prior to it, indeed,' infectious abor tion was suspected, and the investigation. was begun with that idea in mind. Having arrived late in the foaling season, few mares were left to foal. This, however, was not a great disadvantage, for a few days after arrival, a sorrel mare, Biddy Mac, running on a mountain range, gave
1 Dr. Halloway, State Veterinarian, had secured the services of Dr. Paul Paquin for Mr. Daly, and they had made researches which led them to conclude that it was infectious abortion. Later, Dr. Paul Evans was secured to continue the investigation begun by the former. His work, not yet published, conforms to the views of Paquin and Halloway.