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tion to this, and obtained the beautiful tracing shown in Fig. 8. This curve seems to be even more distinctly sinusoidal in character than that taken by D'Arsonval, shown in Fig. 3. In Fig. 9 is shown a tracing obtained from another magneto-electric apparatus which does not produce a perfect sinusoidal current. The variations of this current, while not the same, are similar to those of the machine studied by D'Arsonval, shown in Fig. 1.
Some of the special qualities of this current were thus stated by the writer in a paper read at the annual meeting of the American Electro-Therapeutic Asso
ciation held at the Academy of Medicine, New York, Oct. 4-6, 1892:
TRACING OBTAINED FROM A MAGNETO-ELECTRIC MACHINE NOT SINUSOIDAL IN CHARACTER.
"The two special and most important characteristics of this current, to which the term sinusoidal has been very appropriately applied by D'Arsonval, are (1) its comparative painlessness, and (2) its great penetrating power.
"Motor Effects. When an ordinary sponge electrode connected with the machine is placed in each hand and firmly grasped, and the machine made to rotate slowly, vigorous contractions occur in each arm in alternation, in which all the muscles of the arm seem to participate. Placing one electrode in contact with the feet, and grasping the other be
tween the two hands, the muscles of both limbs are thrown into most vigorous muscular contraction. There is no tetanic contraction, however, as in the employment of the faradic current, and absolutely no other sensation than that of motion, unless the current is made so strong that pain is induced by the violence of the muscular movement itself. With one pole placed in the vagina and the other upon the abdomen, and with the proper adjustment of the vaginal electrode, the muscles of the abdomen and of the thigh of one side or both thighs in case my divided pole vaginal electrode is employed, may be induced
without other sensation than that of motion. The patient suffers no inconvenience whatever from the application of a current sufficiently strong to throw into vigorous action all the voluntary muscles of the lower abdomen, pelvis, and upper thighs.
"I have noted a number of motor points in the pelvis by pressing the electrode upon them, by which most powerful and extensive muscular contractions may be induced. I have often seen a patient lying upon the office table, with the muscles contracting so vigorously under the influence of the current as to shake the table violently, and yet experiencing no unpleasant sensation whatever. Applied
to the interior of the stomach by means of a suitable electrode passed through a stomach tube, the current induces strong muscular contractions that can be easily distinguished. An induced current capable of producing equally strong contractions, is so painful as to be almost intolerable. The same is still more emphatically true of contractions produced by the induced current obtained by the Leyden jars of a static electrical machine, with the discharging rods placed near together, producing the so-called Morton
"As a means of exercising the muscles, especially muscles the action of which cannot easily be isolated in voluntary action, as is the case with many of the muscles of the trunk, and in cases of paralysis in which degenerative changes are not far advanced, this current certainly affords a method superior to all others. It is also of great service as a means of passive exercise in connection with rest cure, encouraging tissue renovation and reconstructive action much more efficiently than massage, which, however, may be employed to excellent advantage in connection with it. The impression The impression made upon the patient, who sees his muscles in vigorous action without feeling the slightest prickling, cramping, or other unpleasant sensation, is of the happiest kind, especially in persons who have previously been 'shocked' by the clumsy use of the electrical current, or unavoidably through the employment of ordinary faradic apparatus."
In cases of facial paralysis, this current affords an admirable means of exercising the muscles and stimulating the nutrition of the paralyzed structures, as one can pick out the affected muscles and put them into rhythmical action with very great facility. In the treatment of spinal curvatures due to weakness of the muscles of one side, or irregularities of muscular development, this current is also invaluable. With one pole applied to
the feet and the other to the two hands, vigorous movements affecting nearly all the muscles of both extremities, are easily produced. The current affects involuntary as well as voluntary muscles. It is of great service in a case of constipation, one pole being applied to the rectum and the other to the abdominal muscles. It serves a double purpose in cases of this kind, awakening the vital activities of the rectum, and at the same time rapidly increasing the strength and efficiency of the abdominal muscles.
I have also found it of great service in cases of dilatation of the stomach. By means of a stomach electrode, which I have had constructed for the purpose, with one pole applied internally, the other externally, vigorous contractions are readily produced. I have verified this in several ways. After the current is turned on, one can easily detect the active peristaltic movement by listening over the region of the stomach with a stethoscope. The most positive evidence is afforded, however, by the fact that the stomach diminishes in size. I have sometimes noted an upward movement of the lower border of the stomach during a single treatment, amounting to fully two inches. No painful sensation is produced by the current, even when quite strong. I have, in some instances, increased the strength of the current sufficiently to enable me to obtain the most indubitable evidence of contraction of the organ in the forcing out of the stomach contents through the tube, or along the side of the tube containing the electrode. This effect is always produced when the current is made sufficiently great. The ejection of the stomach contents is not accompanied by nausea, and ceases the instant the strength of the current is lessened, beginning again when the current is increased. I have used this current to the most excellent advantage in many cases of insufficiency of the stomach, with and without dilatation.
(To be continued.)