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EBENUS (EBENUM), ebony, a black beautiful oriental wood (G. ii. 117): Diospyros Ebenaster (König).

EBULUS, elder, a water-loving plant, having clusters of black berries with blood-red juice (E. x. 27): Sambucus


ELLEBORUS, hellebore, an herb with medicinal root, used as a cure for madness (G. iii. 451): Helleborus niger.

ERUCA, rocket, a plant whose seeds were used like mustard, as a

flavor (M. 85): Brassica eruca.

ESCULUS, oak, a tall Italian oak, with edible acorns (G. ii. 16, 290): Quercus esculus.

FABA, bean (G. i. 215): Vicia faba.

FAGUS, beech, a spreading, shady, forest tree, with smooth bark, and small triangular nuts, used as food (E. i. 1): F. silvatica. FAR, wheat, especially spelt, or large bearded wheat (G. i. 73, 219). FASELUS (PHASELUS), haricot or kidney-bean, climbing, ornamental, productive (G. ii. 227): Phaseolus vulgaris.

FERULA, fennel, a large herb with strong hollow stalks (E. x. 25). FILIX, fern (G. ii. 189, iii. 297): Pteris aquilina.

FOLIUM SERICUM, mulberry-leaf (G. ii. 121): Morus alba. FRAXINUS, ash (E. vii. 55; G. ii. 65): Fraxinus ornus. FRUMENTUM, winter-wheat: but used for grain generally (G.

i. 315).

Fucus, a seaside lichen, used as red dye; propolis or bee-glue, so called from its purplish color (G. iv. 39).

GALBANUM, a resinous fragrant medicinal gum (G. iii. 415). GENESTA, broom, a small fragrant shrub with bright yellow flowers (G. ii. 12, 434): Spartium junceum.

GLANS, acorn, used as food for swine (G. i. 8, 149, ii. 520).

HEDERA (nigra), ivy (E. iii. 39; G. ii. 258): Hedera helix.
HEDERA (alba), another variety, perhaps rare (E. vii. 38).
HELLEBORUS, hellebore (see Elleborus).

HERBA SARDOA, crow-foot, a species of ranunculus (E. vii. 41). HIBISCUS, marsh-mallow, a plant with a strong fibrous stalk, sometimes used like flax (E. ii. 30, x. 71): Althea officinalis. HORDEUM, barley, of no particular sort (E. v. 36; G. i. 37). HYACINTHUS, turk's-cap lily, with drooping flowers of a rich sombre red (E. iii. 63; G. iv. 183; Æ. xi. 69; Ov. Met. x. 212): Lilium martagon.

ILEX, holm, an evergreen oak, allied to the live-oak, of dark, indented foliage (E. vii. 1; C. 138): Quercus ilex. INTUBUM, endive or chicory, a tough troublesome weed with a blue flower (G. i. 120); also a cultivated sort used as a food or relish (G. iv. 120; M. 84): Cichorium intybus, or endivia. INULA, elecampane, a meadow-plant, with aromatic medicinal root (M. 72), used also as a preserve: Inula helenium.

JUNCUS, bulrush (E. i. 49, ii. 72): Scirpus lacustris. JUNIPERUS, juniper, a low hardy evergreen tree, with aromatic blue berries (E. vii. 53, x. 76): Funiperus communis.

LABRUSCA, wild grape (E. v. 7; Cul. 52): Vitis vinifera.

LACTUCA, lettuce (M. 76).

LANA MOLLIS, cotton.

LAPPA, burdock, a rough plant with prickly burrs (G. i. 153): Galium aparine.

LAURUS (nobilis), laurel, a bright fragrant evergreen (E. iii. 64). LENS, lentil, a valuable pulse, or small pea (G. i. 228): L. ervum. LIGUSTRUM, privet, a hardy shrub, with white blossoms and harsh

black berries (E. ii. 18): Ligustrum vulgare.

LILIUM, white lily (Æn. xii. 68); also used for various wild lilies (E. x. 25): Lilium candidum.

LINUM, flax (G. i. 77, 212): Linum usitatissimum.

LOLIUM, darnel, a weed growing in sterile ground (E. v. 37; G. i. 154) Lolium temulentum.

LOTUS, water-lily (nymphæa); but the name is given to a great variety of fruit and water plants (Cul. 124; G. ii. 84, iii. 394). LUPINUS, lupine, a sort of pulse with white flowers: the seeds are

bitter when raw, and make "a sorry food" (G. i. 75).

LUTUM, weld, or dyer's rocket, a rich yellow dye-plant (E. iv. 44; C. 317): Reseda luteola.

MALUM, apple (E. viii. 37; G. ii. 33; Cop. 19).

MALUM AUREUM, in prose, orange (?), the "golden apples of the Hesperides" (E. vi. 61); or simply apple (E. iii. 71).

MALUM CANUM, quince (E. ii. 51): Pirus cydonia.

MALUM FELIX (medicum), lemon or citron (G. ii. 126): the term tristes sucos referring to the tonic bitter of the rind. MALUS, apple-tree (G. ii. 70): the art of grafting was new, introduced by Matius, a friend of Cicero, and its results exaggerated.

MALVA, mallow, an herb with large purplish flowers, of mucilaginous texture, used in soups (M. 73).

MEDICA, lucerne, a succulent plant, valuable for green fodder (G. i. 215): Medicago sativa.

MELISPHYLLUM, balm, an erect fragrant aromatic herb with white flowers, loved by bees (G. iv. 63): Melissa officinalis. MILIUM, millet, an inferior bread-grain (G. i. 125).

MORUM CRUENTUM, black mulberry (Cop. 21); SANGUINEUM, blackberry (E. vi. 22): Rubus fruticosus.

Muscus, moss (G. iv. 18; Cul. 105).

MYRICA, heather, a ground-plant, with purplish blossoms (E. iv. 2); also tamarisk, a flowering shrub or low tree (E. viii. 54, x. 13). MYRRHA, myrrh, a resinous fragrant eastern gum (Æ. xii. 100; C. 438).

MYRTETUM, grove (G. ii. 112); MYRTUM, berry (G. i. 306) of the MYRTUS, myrtle, a beautiful evergreen shrub or small tree, with white flowers, and berries aromatic and astringent (E. ii. 54, vii. 6; G. i. 28; Æ. iii. 23; Cul. 143): Myrtus communis.

NARCISSUS, narcissus (daffodil or jonquil), a beautiful and fragrant flower (E. vii. 53); purpureus, "narcissus of the poets: "" Narcissus poeticus, white, with purple nectary (E. v. 38); also, an autumn variety (G. iv. 122).

NASTURTIUM, a sort of cress, an acrid relish (M. 84): Lepidium


Nux, walnut (G. i. 187).

OLEA, olive, a tree most prized of all for its great utility and productiveness (G. i. 18, ii. 38, 64, 144). It has a narrow leaf, like the willow, glossy above and gray below: Olea Europaa. OLEAGINA, i. e. of the olive (G. ii. 31). OLEASTER, wild olive (G. ii. 314): Elæagnus angustifolia. OLEUM (OLIVUM), olive oil (G. ii. 222, 466).

OLIVA, olive, the tree or fruit (E. v. 16; G. ii. 85).

ORCHAS, Spanish or queen olive (G. ii. 86).
ORNUS, a mountain ash (E. vi. 71; G. ii. 71, 111).

PALIURUS, Christ's thorn, a shrub with sharp spines and pliant
branches (E. v. 39): the name is given to a variety of plants.
PALMA, date-palm (G. ii. 67, iv. 20): Phænix dactilifera.
PALMES, vine-sprout (G. ii. 90).

PAMPINUS, vine-branch with leaves (G. i. 448, ii. 333).

PAPAVER, poppy (G. i. 78, iv. 131): its seeds made a concentrated and valuable food; cereale, wild-poppy?

PAUSIA, a bitter early olive (G. ii. 86).

PICEA (Æ. ii. 180, ix. 87); and

PINUS, pine (G. i. 256, ii. 443) ; hortensis (E. i. 38, vii. 65), stonepine, valuable for its edible seeds: Pinus pinea. PIRUS (PIRUM), pear (E. i. 74; G. ii. 87, iv. 145). PLATANUS, plane-tree, or sycamore, a lofty and noble ornamental tree, with deeply indented leaves (G. ii. 70; Cul. 123). POPULUS, white poplar (E. ix. 41); Herculea, black poplar (E. vii. 61; G. ii. 66). The name is also used vaguely of several varieties.

PORRUM, leek, a small and delicate sort of onion (Cop. 74).
PRUNUS (PRUNUM), plum (E. ii. 53; G. ii. 34; Cop. 18).

QUERCUS, oak (E. i. 17, iv. 30, vii. 13; G. i. 349, ii. 16, iii. 332).

RADIUS, long olive (G. ii. 86).

RACEMUS, grape, especially as filled with seeds; or the berry of the wild grape (E. v. 7; Cop. 21).

RHODODAPHNE, rose-laurel, a beautiful flowering shrub (Cul. 401):

Nerium oleander.

ROS MARINUS, rosemary, an ornamental evergreen aromatic shrub (G. ii. 212; Cul. 402).

ROSA (ROSARIUM, ROSETUM), rose (G. iv. 134; C. 98; E. v. 17). RUBUS, bramble, blackberry or dewberry (E. iii. 89; G. iii. 315): Rubus fruticosus.

RUMEX, sorrel (M. 72): Rubus acetosa.

Ruscus, butcher's broom, a low shrubby evergreen, with sharp

pointed leaves; used as props for vines (E. vii. 42; G. ii. 413). RUTA, rue, a bitter medicinal herb, used as a condiment (M. 89)

SABINA, savin, a low evergreen (Cul. 403): Juniperus sabina.
SALIUNCA, wild ward, or valerian, an herb with medicinal root and
pale flesh-colored flowers (E. v. 17): Valeriana celtica?
SALIX (SALICTUM), willow (E. iii. 83, v. 16, i. 55).

SANDYX, (madder ?) probably not a plant, but red lead (E. iv. 45).
SCILLA, squill, or sea-onion, a bulbous plant, with an acrid juice,
powerfully medicinal (G. iii. 451): Scilla maritima.
SERPYLLUM, wild thyme, an aromatic plant used as a relish
(E. ii. 11; G. iv. 31): Thymus serpyllum.

SILER, osier (G. ii. 12): Salix vitellina.

SISER, skirret, a medicinal plant with edible root (M. 73): Sium sisarum.

SORBUS, service-tree, a large tree bearing a fruit like a small inferior pear (G. iii. 379). Its English name comes from beer (cervisia) being made of its berries: Sorbus domestica. SPINUS, sloe, a thorny shrub bearing a harsh astringent berry (G. iv. 145): Prunus insititia.

STYRAX (STORAX), a fragrant aromatic gum (C. 168).

TEDA, pitch-pine (G. ii. 431): Pinus mugho (Mill.).

TAXUS, yew (E. ix. 30; G. ii. 113, 257): Taxus baccata. TEREBINTHUS, turpentine, an evergreen mountain tree (Æ. x. 136): Pistacia terebinthus.

THYMBRA, Savory (G. iv. 31): Satureia thymbra.

THYMUS, thyme, a low aromatic herb (E. vii. 37; G. iv. 112, 270): Satureia capitata.

TILIA, lime-tree, or linden (G. i. 173, ii. 449) : T. Europæa. TRIBULUS, caltrop, a plant with thorny seed-vessels (G. i. 153): Tribulus terrestris.

TRITICUM, wheat (G. i. 219): Triticum hibernum.

TUS (THUS), frankincense, a fragrant Arabian gum (E. viii. 65; G. i. 57): Juniperus Lycia.

ULMUS, elm (E. ii. 70): Ulmus campestris.

ULVA, sedge, coarse water-grass (E. viii. 87; G. iii. 174): Festuca fluitans.

UVA, grape, especially the cluster (G. ii. 60).

VACCINIUM, whortle-berry or bilberry (perhaps, also, hyacinth): Vaccinium myrtillus.

VERBENA, vervain, a flowering shrub, with pale lilac blossoms: the word is used generally of boughs of myrtle, &c., used in religious or magic rites (E. viii. 65; G. iv. 131; Æ. xii. 120). VIBURNUM, briony? or wayfaring-tree, a shrub, so called because it

is "always on the road" (E. i. 26): Viburnum lantana. VICIA, vetch, a kind of pulse, with larger plant and smaller fruit

than lentils (G. i. 75, 227).

VIOLA, violet (E. v. 38), Viola odorata; pallens, a pale marsh violet (E. ii. 38): Viola palustris?

VIOLARIUM, violet-bed (G. iv. 32).

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