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immediately derived to them from his every hour whilst the ships remained services, presented him with valuable at anchor in the bay. Upon the 20th, pieces of plate, in token of their private Admiral Ross with his squadron regratitude and public esteem.

gained the fleet, when he received the In Nov. 1758, he was appointed to thanks of the Comander in Chief, and the Chatham, of 50 guns, under the having re-shifted his flag to the Royal orders of Admiral Hawke, who, with George, he returned with the feet to 22 fail of the line, in October 1759, England. then off Quiberon Bay, fell in with 24 In April 1782, he was appointed to fail of French line-of-battle ships, which the command of a squadron, consisting he engaged, and of which two were of 8 ships of the line and 5 frigates, sunk, two driven on shore and burnt, to be employed in the North Seas, and, one taken.

' and cruized off the Texel, in which In the action between the British he had blocked up '15 fail of Dutch and French fleets in July 1778, he men of war, until the end of June, commanded the Shrewsbury, of 74 when most of the officers and men of. guns.

his squadron were seized with a very In 1779, he was promoted to the prevalent disorder at that time, known rank of Rear-Admiral of the Blue, by the name of the lifluenza. . The ånd having hoisted his flag on board Admiral himself was not exempted the Royal George, he sailed under the from the contagion, and in this fickly orders of Admiral Rodney, whose state he thought it advisable to return fleet, consisting of 22 lips of the with his feet to the Downs. In the line, with transports and stores for the December following, his health being relief of Gibraltar, fell in with 11 Spa- perfectly re-established, he made a nith ships of the line, which having tender of his services to the Admiralty chased and engaged, they took the Board ;' but the conclusion of hostiliSpanish Admiral and fix of his ships, ties, in the beginning of 1783, renbesides one blown up in the action. dered his re-appointment unnecefiary. • In March 1781, he again failed in Io estimating the character of the the Royal George under the command late Sir John Lockhart Rofs as an offiof Admirals Darby and Digby, with cer, when we take into the account, 26 fail of the line, frigates and tranf- his zcal, his activity, his uncommon ports, containing stores and provisions ardour in the prosecution of all the for the relief of the garrison of Gib. sivere and unremitting duties of his raltar.

hazardous profession, with the very On the 12th of April the ficc: came great benefits which the commercial off the bay, when Sir John Lockhart interest reaped from his exertions, it Rofs received orders to shift his flag will be found that he is entitled to to the Alexander of 74 guns, and pro- rank with the first naval characters of ceed with her and five two- decked Britain. In coolness and intrepidity, Ships of his division, the frigates, and in the hour of battle, he could not be 60 sail of store-thips, into the bay, and surpassed.- In the course of a long and superintend and direct the unloading active war, to fight and to conquer bethe stores, which he accomplished in came alike habitual to him. six days, having landed 7000 tons of. He was reckoned a disciplinarian, provisions, and 200 barrels of gun. but in the exercise of his authority he powder in the midst of the heaviest never was cruel or tyrannical. To cannonade ever kr.own, not less, at the discipline of the British Navy is a moderate computation, than 200 wholly owing its boasted superiority (hots and shells having been thrown over that of every other State. The

free,

free, turbulent, and intrepid spirit of The face of the country, as well as the British Seamen, when unawed by the human face, assumed a different authority, defeats its own power by aspect. Bare mountains became cloa:hdiversity and exuberance :' but, broughted with trees, and barren heaths with under controul by well-regulated dis- verdure ; and, while he thus gra'ified cipline, it consolidates and forms a his benevolence and natural activity balwark which no human force is of mind, he very considerably improved equal to subdue.

his fortune. Sir John Lockhart Ross was respect He married, in 1761, Miss Elizaed and beloved by all the Officers and beth Baillie, heiress of Laminton, eldmen who ever served under him ; forest daughter of the late Robert Dunhe combined the manners of a Gentle- das, Etq; of Arniston, Lord President man with the feelings of a man. In of the Court of ellion in Scotland, his temper, he was cheerful and con- by whom he has left two sons and five vivial-in his dispositions benevolent daughters. In 1768, he was returned and humane. By fome, and in parti; to Parliament for Lanark. cular by a late writer, he has been In 1730, he became a Baronet of censared for his attention to ceconomy. Scotland, by the death of his elder That writer inconsiderately and im brother, from whom he likewise inheprudeptly advanced, that it even threw rited the paternal estate of Carstairs. a fhade uron his merits as an officer. He is succeeded in his title and On the absurdity of this position, it is ełates by his eldest son, now Sir unnecessary to comment. , A just at- Charles Ross, Major of the 37th retention to economy is a requisite in giment of foot, and Member in the every great character, and will invari- late Parliament for Kirkwall, &c. ably be found in every good one. We His second fon is now on service, a have at present too many living in- Midfhipman in the Barfieur, who palftances, that, without it, the most fed for a Lieutenant some years ago brilliant talents degenerate into in with very distinguished approbation. famy, and are unable to shield their Sir John Lockhart Ross died on the prodizate possessors from contempt and 19th June laft, in the 69th year of his disgrace.

age, at his seat of Balnagowan, where Upon succeeding to the citate of he had been resident with his family General Ross, he added to the firname for some months. His conflitution, of Lockhart that of Ross. To this which had fuffered by a life of hardcitare, called Balnagowan, most beauti- ship and activity, had for some years, tally situated upon the bay of Cro- become infirm, and he enjoyed, in manie, in Rossshire, he retired after the cndearments of domestic fociety, the conclusion of the former war in and honourable retirement, all that 1763, where he gave iull scope to his can sweeten and render placid the benevolence and patriotism, in the en- evening of life. By a numerous circle couragement of industry, and the pro- of friends, the remembrance of his motion of the agricultural arts. To private virtues will long be cherished use the words of the celebrated Mr with affection ; while, from his counPennant, “ he successfully converted try, his services entitle him to the most his sword into a plough share.”' ('nder distinguished tribute of public gratitude his auspices the peasanıry laboured, and esteem. were remunerated, and were happy.

On the Origin of the German Towns, and of the German Nobility*.

JT seemed to be reserved for rounded with walls, with towers, and

I Henry I. to re-establish in some gates ; and not only large enough to degree the authority of the crown, contain a greater number of inhabiwhich had suffered a great decline. tants, but capable of affording protecTo preserve the connection of Bavaria tion to their effects, and those of their with the empire he made an incon- neighbours who might take refuge fiderable facrifice, in graoting to the there in times of neceffity. dukes of that country the authority 'Any other motives than those of over the bishops of it, which was before neceflity would have availed but litconfidered as a part of the royal de to divek the people of their aver"power. Whether this was designed Gion so live in towns, but the expemerely as a personal prerogative con- rience of other advantages which ferred on the duke, who was then this inftitution produced, foon taught in power, or intended for all the suc. them to change their opinion; and cceding dukes of Bavaria, is a quef- of course therefore the towns contion which is still disputed, particu- tinually increased. larly by the Bavarian and Salzburg "But how was it poffible to ac. writers. The union which had been complish that innovation at first? formed between Lorraine and Ger- The method which Henry adopted many, in the years 923 and 935, was was, that every pioth man should renow restored, by more than one trea- move from the country, and settle in ty with the king of France, to its the towns, and that all public meetformer ftate.

ings should be held there ; a plan . But we are principally indebted which certainly merits the higheft to this reign for the change which approbation. We have no particular took place in the interior parts of account of any other regulation which Germany by the foundation of towns; might have been made, to encourage for before this period, excepting the the population of the towns, and procastles on the mountains, the seats of mote their trade; much less are we acthe nobility, and convents, which quainted with the number and fituahappened to be surrounded with walls, tion of the particular towns then there were only lonely farms and vil- founded. lages. A few people might possibly It is probable that many of them have erected fome houses in the owed their origin to buildings which ne ghbourhood of a castle or church, happened to be already in the neigh. but all these places were open and bourhood of episcopal churches and defenceless.

cloisters, or else adjoining castles . The mouraful experience, that which were surrounded by exten Give fo few were able, in such liruations, walls. The division of the Atreets 10 make effe&ual provisions against must naturally have depended upon the increasing diftress occalioned by accideot, by one house by degrees the incuisions of foreign nations, first being added to another. Even where fuggested the idea to Henry, that it the top ons were built entirely from would be more conducive to the pub- the ground, one cannot be surprized lic security if there were towns sure that there was so little regularity ob.

served, E From Putter's Political constitution of the German Empirc.

ferved, and so little application of In the same manner, likewife. that refined policy which we imagine the aversion which the people in gea to be requisite in a town at preseat; neral had to merchandise and mepartly as this history relates to an chanical employments was by degrees age of the grosselt ignorance, and deitroyed. Those indeed who conpartly because there was only the tinued to keep up their houses in the short period of nine years, during old style in the country, foon laid wbich' Henry had made a truce with claim to precedency, because they the Thuringians, allotted for the pur till complied with the customs of pole. In such circumftances, it is their ancestors, by principally occurather a wonder that so much was pying themselves in the chase and performed, and that a pation which war, and trading only in the produce was before so exceedingly averse to of their lands and cattle." Thefe this mode of living, could fo foon likewise were the only perfons who be prevailed upon to reside in towns. were appointed to the offices of the But the greatest proof of this having court, and performed the feudal dyreally been the case was, that, after ties, which the inhabitants of the the dangers which they were exposed towns were wholly excluded from. to from the Thuringians were over, At last people were required to protheir number conuinually increased. duce proof of the noble descent both

· With respect to the manner of of their paternal and maternal ancel life of the inhabitants of these towns, tors, in religious foundations, and at and among other things the particu- tournaments. Hence we may conlar distinction of rank which prevail- ceive how the few people of the ed, we must not form our ideas of country, whose liberty and birth o* them from the state of our towns at therwise entitled them to no superiopresent, whose origin certainly can. rity over the inhabitants of towns, not be deprived from so early a pe- who were originally 'equally free, riod. Every one of the original in-, in a few centuries confidered themhabitants knew what rank he was of, selves of a diftin&t rank from the and whether he was free or not. In burghers, and endeavoured to emuthe first generation, it is probable lare the rank of those independent fathat the people seldom married per- milies which had hitherto constituted fons of any other fank than their the real nobility of Germany: though own. At that time the mere abode an essential difference has been alin a town was not a fufficient reason ways preserved between this order of for constituting a particular rank or high nobility, and those free far order of men; and this is the cause milies which constitute at present that even in the present day there what is called the inferior nobility are poble families in many ancient On the other side, the burghers, by cities, who have preserved their rank virtue of the freedom which they orialmoft from time immemorial. ginally inherited from their ancestors,

• It was not till several generations or else by obtaining their burgherafterwards that the inhabitants of ship, or freedom of the town, remaincities, whose ancestors were freemen, ed as essentially distinct from the ora Do longer scrupled to intermarry with der of peasants, who were still eitherpersons whose wealth and personal in a state of slavery, or elle groaned accomplishments made them willing. under the grievous hardships of villy forget that their ancestors perhaps lanage, and impolls on their property. were originally laves, or came first This was the origin of the four disinto the town ia the capacity of me- tinet ranks of people still existing in mal letfants.

Germany. The high nobility, con-,

Gifting

lifting of princes, counts, and barons; tes agrarios, which, according to the the inferior nobility, who had an- language of the succeeding times, ciently no other pretension to superi- must be translated “ country knights,” ority than their mere enjoyment of or warriors who lived on their estates. freedom ; the order of burghers; and, The addition of the word agrarius lastly, the pealants.

was probably intended to diftinguish • The contemporary writer, to such knights or freeholders from thofe whom we are indebted for the ac- who were obliged to perform military count of the towns founded by Henry, service as vassals in the field, or elle speaking of the manner adopted to garrison duty in the castles, or the ofpeople them, by means of taking eve. ficers of the court as ministers, just ry ninth man from the country, makes as at present the country geotlemen, ure of an expression, which fomé in- landjunkers, are distinguished from terpret as if the first inhabitants of those noblemen who are in offices at the German towns had been only court, or in the army.' peasants : but he expressly says, mili

Extract from an Account of some Extraordinary Structures on the Topsof Hills

in the Highlands ; with Reinarks on the Progress of the Arts amorig the an. · cient Inbabitants of Scotland., By Alexander Fraser Tytler, Esq; Advocate,

F. R. S. Edinburgh, and Profesor of Civil History in the University of Edinburgh *.

This Paper begins with a Mort account of the different opinions with re. gard to the vitrified Forts in general, and then goes on to the description of Craig-Phadrick near Inverness, which the author had most minutely furveyed.]

CRAIG-PHADRICK is a small shoulder. At the distance of three

U conical hill, which forms the or four miles, its artificial appearance eastern extremity of that ridge of is more perceptible than upon a nearmountains which bounds Loch-Ness er approach, when the eye, seeing one upon the north-west side. It is situ- ly a part, fails to take in the great ate about a mile to the north of In- outlines, and to perceive their reguverness, and commands an extensive larity and symmetry. profpe&t of both sides of the Murray On approaching Craig - Phadrick frith, to the distance of above forty from the level ridge upon the west miles. It is accessible on two differ- fide, what first presents itself to view ent quarters ; on the west by a nar- is a road cut through the rock, from row but level ridge, which joins it to the bottom to the summit; in most the chain of hills upon Loch-Nefs; places about ten feet in breadth, and and on the south-east, by an easy as nearly of the fame depth, winding in cent from the high ground above the an easy serpentine direction for about town of Invernels. When seen from seventy feet; by which means an afthe opposite heights, it appears piezty cent is gained over a very steep rock, much of a conical figure ; the top cut which is otherwise quite inaccessible off, forning a level surface, bounded from that quarter. The form alone at each end by a {mall rising or of this road leaves little room to doubt

• From the Second Volume of the Edinburgh Philosophical Transaction ,

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