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Some disputes having arisen re- what nature, as it is imposible for us fpecting the age of Mrs Jordan, the to ascertain, it would be improper to register was searched, by which it ap- speak here: . pears, that she is just now six ad . In private life she is respected and iweaty. Since her luccess in Loio caressed by many persons of the first don, she has received a considerable rank and character, who are pleased addition to her income by the death with her conversacion, which is, howof a gear relation of her mother, ever, rather sensible than sprightly. which, together with her theatrical She has no improper pride, nor is the emoluments, amount to upwards of like some of her cotemporaries, fond three thousand pounds per annum. of appearing a little something among

Whether from attachment or other the great. The brightest part of her motives, we cannot say, bur it is well character is, that she is kind to her known, that she has refused many relations, and generous to the needy. fplendid offers ; and more than once And humanity, says the Moralist, is ) an honourable alliance, with a title. not only an indication of a feeling Inclination with her seems to be suheart, but the strongelt criterion of perior to interest, as the has formed a virtue. connexion with a gentleman, but of.

Account of Vesuvius: By Bishop Berkeley. In a Letter to Dr Arbuthnot.

W ITH much difficulty I reached stones with a hideous noise, which,

V the top of Mount Vesuvius, in as they fell back, caused the foremenwhich I saw a vast aperture full of rioned clattering. May 8. in the smoke, which hindered the seeing its morning, I ascended to the top of Vee depth and figure. I heard within that suvius a second time, and found a dif. horrid gulf certain odd sounds, which ferent face of things. The smoke a. seemed to proceed from the belly of scending upright, gave a full prospect the mountain ; a sort of murmuring, of the crater, which, as I could judge, lghing, throbbing, churning, dashing is about a mile in circumference, and (as it were) of waves, and between an hundred yards deep. A conical whiles a noise like that of thunder or mound had been formed lince my last cannon, which was copstantly attend. vifit, in the middle of the bottom: ed with a clattering like that of tiles this mount, I could see, was made of falling from the tops of houses on the the stones thrown up and fallen back ftreets Sometimes, as the wind again into the crater. In this new changed, the fmoke grew thioner, dif- hill remained the two mounts or fur. covering a very ruddy flame, and the naces already mentioned : that on our jaws of the pan or crater treaked left was in the vertex of the hul with red and several shades of yellow. which it had formed round it, and After an hour's stay, the smoke, be- raged more violently than before, ing moved by the wind, gave us short throwing up every three or four miand partial prospects of the great hol- nutes, with a dreadful bellowing, a low, in the flat bottom of which I vast number of red-hot-stones, fome. could discern two furnaces almout times in appearance above a thousand, contiguous : that on the left, seeming and at leaft three thousand feet highabout three yards in diameter, glowed er than my head as I stood upon the with red fame, and threw up red-hot brink ; but there being little or no VOL. XII, No. 67, H

- wind,

wind, they fell back perpendicularly the north side of the mountain, to feo into the crater, increasing the conical a great quantity of roddy smoke lię hill. The other mount to the right along a huge tract of sky over the riwas lower in the side of the same new. ver of molten stuff, which was itself formed hill. I could discern it to be out of fight. The gth, Vesuvius raa filled with red-hot liquid matter, like 'ged less violently: that night we saw that in the furnace of a glass-house, from Naples a column of fire shoot which raged and wrought as the between whiles out of its summit, waves of the sea, causing a short a. The 10th, when we thought all brupt noise like what may be imagi- would have been over, thę mountain ned to proceed from a sea of quicksilgrew very outrageous again, roaring ver dashing among uneven rocks. and groaning most dreadfully. You This stuff would sometimes fpew over cannot form a jufter idea of this noise and run down the convex fide of the in the most violent fits of it, than by conical hill; and appearing at first imagining a mixed sound made up of red-hot, it changed colour, and hard. the raging of a tempeft, the murmur ened as it cooled, Thewing the first ru. of a troubled sea, and the roaring of diments of an eruption, or, if I may thunder and artillery, confused all to fay fo, an eruption in miniature. Had gether. It was very terrible as we the wind driven in our faces, we had heard it in the further end of Naples, been in no small danger of ftifling by at the distance of above twelve miles ; the fulphureous smoke, or being this moved my curiofity to approach knocked on the head by lumps of the mountain. Three or four of us molten minerals, which we saw had got into a boat, and were set ashore sometimes fallen on the brink of the at Torre del Greco, a town situate af crater, upon those shot from the gulf the foot of Vesuvius to the south-west, at the bottom. But as the wind was fa- whence we rode four or five miles bevourable, I had an opportunity to sur. fore we came to the burning river, pey this odd scene for above an hour which was about midnight. The roar, and a half together; during which it ing of the volcano grew exceeding was very observable, that all the vol- loud and horrible as we approached, leys of smoke, flame, and burning I observed a mixture of colours in ftones, came only out of the hole to the cloud over the crater, green, yelour left, while the liquid ftuff in the low, red, and blue ; there was likeother mouth wrought and overflowed, wise a ruddy dismal light in the air as hath been already described. June over that tract of laod where the Sth, after an horrid noise, the moun- burning river flowed ; athes continu. tain was seen at Naples to spew a little ally showered on us all the way from out of the crater. The same conti. the sea coaft: all which circumstanpued the 6th. The 7th, nothing was ces, set off and augmented by the hor. observed till within two hours of ror and Glence of the night, made a night, when iç began a hideous bel- scene the most uncommon and aftolowing, which continued all that night nifhing I ever faw, which grew ftill and the next day till noon, causing more extraordinary as we came nearthe windows, and as fome affirm, the er ihe stream. Iniagine a vast torvery houses in Naples to shake. From rent of liquid fire rolling from the that time it spewed yaft quantities of top down the side of the mountain, molten Ituff to the south, ' which and with irresistible fury bearing down streamed down the mountain like a and coosuming vines, olives, fig-trees, great pot boiling over.' This even: houses ; in a word, every thing that ing I returned from a voyage through stood in its way. This mighty food Apulia, and was surprised, paffing by divided into different channels, ac

cording cording to the inequalities of the height. At night I observed the mountain : the largest stream seemed mouat cast up fire as before, though half a mile broad at least, and five not so distinctly because of the smoke. miles long. The nature and coolist. The 14th, a thick black cloud hid the ence of these burning torrents bath mountain from Naples. The isth; been described with so much exa&- in the morning, the court and walls ness and truth by Borellus in his of our house in Naples were covered Lacia treatise of Mount Ætna, chat with alhes. The 16th, the smoke I need say nothing of it. I walked was driven by a wefterly wind from To far before my companions up the the town to the opposite side of the mountain, along the lide of the river mountain. The 17th, the smoke apo of fire, that I was obliged to retire in peared much diminished, fat and great haste, the fulphureous stream greasy. The 18th, the whole appear. having surprised me, and almost taken ance ended; the mountain remaining away my breath. During our return, perfectly quiet without any visible which was about three o'clock in the smoke or flame. A gentleman of my morning, we conftantly heard the acquaintance, whose window looked murmur and groaning of the moun- towards Vesuvius, assured me that he tzin, which between whiles would observed several flashes, as it were of burft out into louder peals, throwing lightning, issue out of the mouth of up huge spouts of fire and burning the volcano. It is not worth while ltodes, which falling down again, re- to trouble you with the conjectures I {embled the Itars in dur rockets. have formed concerning the cause of Sometimes I observed two, at others these phænomena, from what I obserthree, distinct columns of dames; ved in the Lacus Amjancti, the Solfaand sometimes one vast one that seem- tara, &c. as well as in Mount Vesuvied to fill the whole crater. These us. One thing I may venture to say, burning columns and the fiery stones that I saw the fluid matter rise out of seemed to be shot 1000 feet perpendi- the centre of the bottom of the cracular above the summit of the volca ter, out of the very middle of the no. The uth, at night, I observed it, mountain, contrary to what Borellus from a terrace in Naples, to throw up imagines; whose method of explain. incessantly a vast body of fire, and ing the eruption of a volcano by an great stones, to a surprising height. inflexed fyphon and the rules of hydroThe 12th, in the morning, it darken. statics, is likewise inconsistent with ed the fun with afhes and smoke, the torrents Rowing down from the caufing a sort of eclipse. Horrid bel- very vertex of the mountain. I have lowings, this and the foregoing day, not seen the crater since the eruption, were heard at Naples, whither part of but design to visit it again before I the ashes also reached. At night I leave Naples. I doubt there is noobserved it throwing up flame, as on thing in this worth thewing the sothe uth. On the 13th, the wind ciety; as to that you will use your changing, we saw a pillar of black discretion. Iwoke thot upright to a prodigious


Reviews 60

Review of New Publications.

Arialysis of a proposed Publication. by itself. A S the researches of the philoso. II. As relative to a nation coosider. A pher and politician, tend to ed as to its neighbours, or, The diffuse and promote knowledge and precepts of general political law. , civility, and to strengthen the ties of Here some remarks will be offer. civil life, his labours will even claimed the attention of mankind.

um ed on the interests and present state.

The ge- of the different kingdoms of Europe neral utility of a work of the follow

wi and Asia, with a concise retrospeet . ing gåture is so obvious, that to dwell

of public transactions. on it here would be to offer an insult to the understanding of the reader. In an age, when letters are cultivated

III. with such aviditý; and in a nation, MUNICIPAL OR CIVIL LAW. whose characteristic is liberality of I. General maxims of legislation, sentiment, every work of taste, every

1. As to persons-Honour and production of science will meet with

dignity-Divisions of the peo. a welcome receprion. The author, ple-Of the Patricians and Plewhose sole ambition is to be service

beians among the Romans-Of able to his country, submits the fol. the king, nobles, and commonlowing outline of hiş work to the

alty in ancient and modern oajudgment of an impartial public, tions, &c. The title he has adopted for his per 2. Marriage and population. formance is,

3. Property.

4. Succession. THE ELEMENTS OF JURIS 5. Commerce and oavigation.. PRUDENCE.

6. Finances.

7. Crimes. The fubje&ts of his disquisitions

II. Particular maxims of legislaare,


1. Forces—Army and navy. LAWS OF NATURE.

2. Taxation. I. Laws of nature relative to man as

3. Suniptuary laws.

. an individual.

4. Trade and manufactures. 1. To man as a physical being.

In the prefatory discourse will 2. As an intelligent being-Laws

be given a dissertation on the origis of religion. II. Laws of nature relative to man

of arts and sciences, progress of man.

ners and rehnement, and a comparaas a member of society. 1. The domestic and and relative

tive view of rude and polished nations.

During the course of the work, evea duties of husband and wife --Pa.

ry polition will be illustrated and en. rent and child.

forced by examples culled from the 2. Man considered as a member of

annals of various countries. The community-Origin of society

1 , author submits this part of it with the -General view of government

following observation. The manners -Liberty and slavery--Dif

and customs of a nation do not contin&ion of ranks &c.

tioue sedentary for any leogh of ume;

but Auctoate between caprice and inLAWS OF NATIONS. cidental circumstances. He is aware 1. As relative to a nation considered that Egypt, China, and fome other



regions may be pleaded as exceptions in process of time appointed Profeffrom this general rule. He waves for of Mathematics, and afterwards of bere any enquiry into the truth of Medicine. Having been several times this point, or into the physical and elected Dean of the Faculties both of moral causes, which might occasion Philosophy and Physic, he was at last this uniformity. An intelligent mind, chosen pro-rector of the University. accustomed to fpeculate upon human But neither acide:nical honours, nor events, to regard their causes, their the profits of an extensive medical progression and effects, and to form practice abroad, could make him its general opinions from an expand- forget his native country. He reed furvey of the whole, such a miod turned, after an absence of about will naturally stop at particular æras eight and twenty years, and settled in the history of nations, and assemble in Scotland. He bestowed certain the scattered rays into one concen- lands near Aberdeen upon the Unitered point of view. It has been the versity there, in all time coming, for particular object of the author to di- the education and support of fix poor gest and arrange this vast assemblage scholars : he founded and endowed of reasoning and facts in such a man- the professorship of mathematics in the der, as, he trafts will gratify the Marischall College there, and applied wishes of a man of classical taste. a considerable part of his fortune to

The whole work will compose 3 other benevolent purposes. vols. quarto.

From the view of the life and wris T. RITCHIE. tings of Dr Liddell, contained in the

Sketch before us, the learned author modeitly observes, that “ some judga

ment may be formed of his general A Sketch of the Life of Dr Duncan' character and merits. It has been

Liddel of Aberdeen, Professor of shewn that he was well received and Mathematics and of Medicine in patronized by the most eminent schothe University of Helmiladt. A. Jars in every university where he stu. berdeen, printed by J. Chalmers died; and that in a foreign country, and Co. Sold by Laurie, Syming without fortune or the connections of ton and Co. Edinburgh, and J. E. family, he arrived at the highest hovans London. 4to. is.

nours of his profession, and was dif

tinguished as one of the first physiciTHIS pamphlet, which is written ans and philosophers of his time. He with classic brevity, in the form of appears to have always entertained a annals, contains a biographical ac- muft grateful sense of the favours concount of a man of cooliderable repu. ferred on him in his youth, and to tation, and one of the first scholars bave been warmly attached to his naof his age, now involved with many tive counery and his friends. That others in undeserved obscuri:y. he was also highly esteemed and be

It appears from this publication, loved by them, is evident from the that Dr Duncan Liddell was born at Carmina Encomiaftica addressed to Aberdeen in 1561; that after having him in Latin and in Greek, by many received the rudiments of his educa- of his colleagues in the Academia Ju-. tion in that place, he left Scotland lia and others--though it must be acand ftudied at Francfort on the Oder, knowledged that there is none to be a Brelau, at Rostock, and finally at found from the learned Professor the Academia Julia, eftablished at Horstius.Helmstadt by Henry Julius Duke of To understand the reason of the Brunswick. In this university he was particular exception contained in the


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