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Letter from Rousseau to Voltaire. inferfibly corrupted the most vigor are to receive it? The lame, Pays rous government of which history has Montaigne, are ill calculated for bo. profi ved the remembrance, Cicero, dily exercise, or decrepid louis for Lucrerius, Sallust, and such men lad the exercises of the mind. Neser. never exified,' or they had nevertheless, in this learned age, we tee written. The amiable age of Lælius Done but the lame willing to reach and Terence insensibly introduced others to walk. the brilliirt period of Horace and ' Ordinary men receive the writAugustus; and, in line, the horridings of the learned to criticise them, epoch. of Senica and Nero, that of and not to iostruct themselves. Never Tacitus and Dumitian." A talte fór has the world fwarmed with such the arts and sciences has its birth in a dwaifs in intellect ; they crood the fccret vide, which it fcon augments thea:re, the coffee-houics rescund in its turn; and if it be true, that all with their fentences, the booksellers human acquirements are persicious falls are covered with their writings, to the species, those of the mind and and I hear the Orphan criticised, beo of knowledge, which increale our cause it is applauded, by a fenool-boy pride and multiply our war crings, so little capable of perceiving its dewill sooneft accelerate men's misfor- fects that scarcely can he feel any of tunes. Yet, there necessarily comes its beauties. a time in which those acquirements Let us look for the firft source are requifite to stay the progress of of all the disorders in society, and we evil : it is the feel which must re- fhall find that the miseries of mankind main in the wound, left, in removing proceed from error rather than ignoit, the wounded should expire. rance; and that what we do cot know
As to myself, bad I pursued my is much less' prejudicial to us thao first vocation, and neither read nor that which we ibink we underltand. written, I should have teen unguef. Now what furer means ro fup from tionally more happy; yet if letters error 10 error than the rage of krowcould now be entirely effaced, I should ing every thing? had not men prebe deprived of the only pleafure which tended to know that the earth does is left me. It is in letters that I not turn on its axis, they had not find a' confolation for all my punished Galileo, for having affirmed 'misfortunes : it" is among their illuce that it did wrn. If none but gotip trious children that I fatte the de: Josophers had claimed the title of lights of friendship, and learn to en- philosopher, the Encyclopedie bad joy life and despise death. To them experienced no serfecutione If an I owe the little merit I have, and to hundred despicable beings had not them am I indebted for the honour aspired to fame, you would have been of being known to you. But let us left to the peaceful enjoyment of confult interest in our concerns, and your's, or at least you would bare truth in our writings. Although there had to contend with none but adrerneed philosophers, historians, and faries worthy of you. Be not furtruly learned men to enlighten the prised then should you feel some world, and conduct its blind inhabi- thorns which are inseparable from the gants, yct, if the wife Memnon has flowers that adoin superior ralcdis. not misinformed me, I know nothing The calumnies of your enemies are inore ridiculous than a nation of fages, the followers of your triumph, as Confefs, fir, if it be right that great formerly satyric acdamations were minds should inftruet mer, the rul- those of the Roman generals. It gar ought to receive their precepts: 'the public eagerness for your writings If each takes upon himlelf to give in. which produces the tielts of which Aruction, where will those be who you complain ; but the assimilating them with others is not easy, for nei., I am proud of your invitation, and ther iron nor lead unites with gold. if this winter leaves me fo ci cụm
Permit me, in consideration of the stanced that I can visit my country ioterelt which I take in your repose in the syring, I will avail myself of and our initruction, to advise you to your goodness. But I would rather disdain yain clamours, by which it drink the water of your fountain, is less the design to make you do than the milk of your cows; and with ill than to divert you from producing respect to the herbs of your orchard, I good. The more you
shall be cri muft fear to find nothing there but ticised, the more must you be admi-' the lates, which is only pasture top red; and a work of genius is a terri- beasts, or the moli, which prevents fying answer to weak reproaches. men from becoming brutes. I am Who will dare to attribute books to fincerely and respectfully. &c. you, which you have not written, J. J. Rousseau, Citizen of Geneva. while you contique to produce inimi. table works?
An Account of the Diseases peculiar to the Negroes in the Weft-Indies, and
which are produced by their Slavery. By Benjamin Rush, M. D.
THE locked jaw, or, as it is called ing burdens beyond their ' ftrenpth
the planters, the juw.fall, when they are young and in some in. is a very common discase among the tances, by the figure of the reis bechildren of slaves, and carries of so ing distorted by ihose kicks to which many of them as evidently to affect they are fo ofien exposed in cal fe, their population. After many enqui- from fudden gufts of passion dicir ries into the causes of it, 1 ami perfect- masters. I received this information ly satisfied that it arises from the hei from Dr Taylor of the Illand of St and smoke of the cabins, in which :h: Kitrs, who assured me at the same children are born, and from their be- time, that the white wonien of the ing exposed afterwards to the cool air. Hand in general, had very short and
2. The hipohondriasis, or, as it is safe labours, compared with the wocalled in the French West Indies, the men in European countries. " mal d' eftcmai,” is a very common 4. All the numerous chronic dirdisease among the lives. It occurs eases which arise fiom a scant or an foon after their importation, and oftun excess of vegetable diet, are common proves fatal, with a train ofjainfuland among faves in the West-Inies. This distresling symptoms which are igno. cvil, I have been wel! informed, cenrantly ascribed to the effects of low rou be remedied, while lavery rentains poison tahen by themselves, or given upon its present footing; for very alto them by others. This diseałe, with curate calculations have made it is all its terrible consequences, is c ca- dent, that the whole profit of a sugar fioned wholly by grief, and therefore eftutc, as it is now conducted, is saved stands juftly charged upon favery, frum the necessary food and clothing
3. Child bearing, among the slaves of the Naves. in the Weft-Indies, is attended with 5. Undcr all the diseases, and the peculiar danger and mortality. T is many other complicateu evils which is occafioned entirely by ihe wonen tic blads endure, we vie :old by their having their bodies injured by carry- waiters, they are the happiest people Wolkmar, in the world, because they are smer. rit for half an hour, when the catalo ry.” The finging and dancing, to trophe ended, and the ship and crew which the negroes in the West-Indies disappeared for ever. This curious are fo much addicted, are the effects fact was communicated to me by the of mirth, and not of happiness. son of an old lieutenant of a British
Mirth, and a heavy heart, I believe ship of war, who was an eye-witness often moet together and herce the of the melancholy scene, and who of. propriety of Solomon's 'observation, ten mentioned to his children, and in that " in the midit of laugliter, the company, the dying mirth of the crew, heart is fad.” In the last war but two as one of the moft fingular and wonbetweco Great Britain and France, a derful things he had ever seen or heard British transport was accidentally set of in the course of his life. From the on fire : the neighbouring transports facts that have been mentioned, inftead in vain attempted to relieve her: Tome of considering the songs and dances of the crew faved themselves by the of the ncgroes in the Weft-Indies as long boat, while a few of them perish- marks of their happiness, I have loog ed in the ocean in attempting to swim considered them as physical symptoms to the thip that lay within light of of melaacholy or madness, and i here: them. The remaining part of the crew fore as certain proofs of their misery. for a while filled the air with their I bave taken no potice of the leprocries for mercy and help. Suddenly fy nor yaws in this account of the dire there was a cellation of theke cries, and eases of the degrees, inasmuch as shey nothing was heard on board the vessel are both common in Africa, and therebut a merry tune on a violin, to which fore do not stand chargeable upon flan the crew danced with uncommon fpi. very:
E' quanto a dir qual era, e cofa dura,
It was a wood so wild, it wounds me fore
But to remember with what ills I ftrove;
But I will tell the good which there I found :
High things 'twas there my fortune to explore. Harler. II F was evening, when Wolkmar with thrubs that hung fearbering from
and his dog, almost spent with their summits, and at intervals was fatigue, descended onc of the moun- heard the rushing of a troubled tains in Switzerland; the sun was di- stream. lated in the horizon, and threw a riot Amid thię scenery, our traveller, of rich crimson oper the waters of a far from any habitation, wearied, and Deighbouring lake ; on each side rocks uncertain of the road, fought for some of varied form, their green heads excavation in the rock, wherein he glowing in the beam, were fwarded might repose himself, and having ac
+ From the Speculator,
length discovered such a situation, first to his master, and then to the fell fait alleep upon fo:ne withered stranger, leaping upon each with marks leaves. His dog fat watching at his of the utmost rapture, till too rudely feet, a small bundle of linen and a expressing his joy, the old man, totterstaff were placed belide him, and the ing, fell at the foot of a blasted beech, red rays of the declining fun, having that stood at the bottom of the hill. pierced through the surubs that con- Wolkmar hastened to his relief, and cealed the retreat, gleamed on the had just reached the spot, when startlanguid reatures of his beloved mas. ing back, he exclaimed, “ My father, ter.
O my father !” Gothre, for, so the And long be thy rest, О Wolkmar! old man was called, saw and knew may sleep lit plealant on thy sou!! Un. his son, a smile of extacy lighied up happy man! war hach cfranged thee his features, a hectic flushed his check, from thy native villa;e; war, unnatural his eyes beamed tian.port through the war snatched thee from thy Faoay and waters that luffused them, and stretchher infant. Where artthou,best of wives? ing forth his arms, he faintly uttered, thy Wolkmar lives ! 'twas error sprid“ My beloved fun !” Nature could his death. Thou fled'ft; thy beauty ng more: the bloom upon his withcaught the eye of power ; thou fl d'it ered cheek fled fast away, ihe dewy wirn thy infant and thy aged father. luftre of his eye grew dim, the throb, Unhappy womaa! thy husband seekech bing of his heart oppressed him, and thee over the wilds of Switzerland. ftraining Wolkmar with convallive Long be thy rest, o Wolkmar ! may energy, the lalt long breath of aged. Sleep fii pleasant on thy soul! Gothre fed cold across the cheek of
Yet not long did Wolkmar rest; his son. . starting, he beheld the dog, who, The night grew dark and unlovely, seizing his coat, had shook it with the moon Itruggled to appear, and by violence; and havitg thoroughly a- fits her pale light streamed across the wakened hiin, whining licked his lake, a llence deep and terrible preface, and sprang through the thicket. vailed, unbroken but by a cold shriek, Wolkmar, eagerly following, discern- that at intervals died along the valed at fome distance a man gently ley. Wolkmar lay eotranced upon tho walking down the declivity of the op. dead body of his father, the dog stood polite hill, and his own dog running motionless by bis fide; but at last with full speed towards him. Th: alarmed, be licked their faces, and sun yet threw athwart the vale rays of pulled his master by the coat, ull hava blood-red huė, the sky was overcast
, ing in vain endeavoured to awaken and a few big roand drops rustled' them, he'ran hawling dreadfully along through the dropping leaves. Wolk- the valley; the demon of the night mar sal him down, the dog.now fawn. trembled on his hill of storms, and ed upon the man, then bounding ran the rocks returned a deepening echo. before him. The curiosity of Wolk- Wolkmar at last awoke, a cold mar was roused, he rose to meet the sweat trickled over his forehead, every stranger, who, as he drew near, ap. muscle shook with horror, and, kneel. peared old, very old, his steps scarce ing by the body of Gothre, he wept, Tupporting wiib a staff; a blue mantle. aloud. “Where is my Fanny," he was wrapped around him, and his hair exclaimed, “ Where shall I find her? and beard, white as (now, and wav. oh! that thou had'st told me the
yet ing to the breeze of the hill, received lived, good old man ! if alive, my from beneath a dark cloud, the last God, the must be near : the night is deep crimson of the festing fun. dark, these mountains are unknowa The dog now raa wagging his tail, to me." As he spoke, the illumined
On the Gothic Superfiiti.n. edge of a cloud shone on the face of we will die also, my Billy! Gothre Gothre, a smile yet dwelt on his is gone to your own dear father, and features. Smileit'thou, my father,” they are both happy yonder, my Bilfaid Wolkmar, “ I feel it at my ly," pointing to the moon. heart ; all thall yet be well.” The Wolkmar, in the mean time, food night again grew dark, and Wolkmar, enveloped with shade, his arnis itreten retiring a few paces from his father, ed out, motionless, and fixed in filent threw himself on the ground. astonishment ; his congue clove to the
He had not continued many mi- roof of his mouth, and he faintly and putes in this situation, before the dif- with difficulty uttered, “ My Fanny, tant sound of voices ftruck his ear; my chili !" His accents reached her they seemed to issue froin different ear, she sprang wildly from the ground, parts of the valley, and two or three
6 It is
my Wolkınar's spirit,” she ex. evidently approached the spot where claimed. The sky inftantly cleared Gothre lay; the name of Gothre! all around, and Wolkmar burit upon Gothre! mournfully ran from rock to her sight. They ruhed together, le tock. Wolkmar, starting from thé faited. « Gid of mercies !” cried ground, fighed with anxiety and ap- Wolkmar, " if thou wilt net drive prehention ; leaning forward he listen- me mad, restore her to life : fe ed with fearful apprehension but the breathes, I thank thee, O my God, beating of his heart appalled him. the breathes ! the wife of Wolkmar!" The dog who, at first alarmed, had Fanny recovering, felt the warm emcrept to his master's feet, began now braces of her beloved husbanů:"Dear, to bark with vehemence; suddenly dear Wolkmar," she faintly whisperthe voices ceased, and Wolkmar ed, “ Thy Fanny-i cannot speak; my thought he heard the foft and quick Wolkmar, I am too happy ; fee oor tread of people fait approaching. At Billy!" The boy had crept clofe to This moment, the moon burst from be- his father, and was clasping him ronnd hind a dark cloud, and fhone full on the knees. The tide of affection rulhthe dead body of Gothre. A thrill ed impetuously through the bosom of fkriek pierced the air, and a young Wolkmar, it presses on my heart," woman rushing forward fell on the he faid, “ I cannot bear it." The boly of Gothre. « Oh, my Billy," domeftics, whom Fanny had brought the exclaimed to a little boy, who ran with her, crouded round:“ Let us top to her out of breath, 6 fee your knee!," said Wolkmar, “ sound the beloved Gothire ! he is gone for ever, body of aged Gothre:" ihey knek gone to heaven and left us. O my around, the moon fhope fweetly on the poor child! (clafping the boy, who earth, and the fpirit of Gothre palled cried most bitterly,) what shall we do by, he faw his children and was hapwithout him, what will become of us, py.
There would he dream of graves, and corfes pale;
Or blaft that trieks by fits the suddering ifles along. BLATTIS
From the same.