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fibilities, I had not given you the lived folitérily on the ifle of Joan Fertrouble of this Epiftle.” 16 Yet," aandez, four years and four mon:his, said Johnson io Piozzi, “ was there was relieved on the 2d of February ever any thing written by mere man, 1708-9, by Caprain Woodes Rogers, that was wished longer by its readers, in his cruizing voyage round the world except Don Quixote, Robinson Crusoe, But let no one draw inferences ull the and the Pilgrim's Progrefs. This fact be firit ascertaired. The advenepiftolary critic, who renewed his an- tures of Seikirk had been thrown into gry atrack when the fecond solume the air, in 1712, for li erat: hawks appeared, has all the dulness, without to devour; and De Foe may have the acumen, of Dconis, and all his catched a common prey, which he malignity, withour his purpose of re- converted to the uses o: his intellet, formation, The Life of Crusoe has and dirti ibuted for the purpoks of his paffed through innumerable editions, intereit. Thus he may have fair y acand has been translated into forcig quired the fundamental incidest of languages, while the criticism suuk in- Crusoe's life; but, he did not corrow to oblivion.

the various events, the useful moraliDe Foe set the critics at defiance ties, or the engaging ft;le. Few mea while he had the people on his fide. could write such a poein; and few As a commercial legiilator he knew, Selkirks could imitate fo pathetic an that it is a rapid sale which is he original. It was the happiness of De great incentive : and, in August 1719, Fce, that as many writers have fuche published a second volume of Sure ceeded in relating caterprises by Igorde prising Adventures, with similar suce he excelled in parratiag adventures by cefs. In hope of profit and of praise, fea, with such felicities of language, he produced in August 1720, Serious fuch attractive varieties, such in finca. :: Reflections during the Life of Robia- tive instruction, as have feldon been

Sun Crufoe, with his. Vision of the equalled, but never surpaffed. Angelic-World. He acknowledges. The whole fory of Selkirk is told diat the present work is not merely in Woodes Rogers's voyage, which he the product of the two first volumes, published in 1712, from p. 125 to but the two first may rather be called 131, inclalive; whence it appears, the product of this : tlie fable is al. that Selkirk had preserved no pen, ink, ways made for the moral, not the mo- or paper, and h.d lost his language ; ral for the fable. He however did fo that he had no journal or papers, Rot advert, that instruciion must be which he could communicate, or by insinuated rather than enforced. That others could be Itolen... There is an this third volume has more morality account of Selkirk in The Englishman, than fable, is the cause, I fear, that it No. 26. The particular man ger how has never been read with the same a- Alexander Selkirk lived four years vidity as the former two, or spoken of and four months, in the isle of Joan with the same approbation. We all Fernandez, is related in : Captain prefer amusement to instruction; and Cooke's voyage into the Souh Sca he who would inculcate useful truths, which was published in 1712. And must study to amuse, or be will offer Selkirk's tale was told in the Mehis lessons to an auditory, neither nu- moirs of Literature, 5th vol. p. 118: merous, nor attentive.

so that the world was fully postested The tongue of detraction is feldom of Selkirk's story in 1712, seven years at reft. It has often been repeated, prior to the publication of Crusoe's that De Foe had sarreptitiously appro- adventures, Nor were his ad fentures priared the papers of Alexander Sel. fingular; for, Ringrose menţiops, i kirkiny a Scotch mariner, who having his account of Captain Sharp's voyage. bo

a pa.

a person who had escaped fingly from and to whom the most part of the a fhip that had been wrecked on Juan story directiy alludes." This turns Fernandez, aud who lived alone five the scale in favour of Selkirk. Nors years before he was relieved: And was the name of Crafoe wholly fictiti. Dampier mentions a Mosquito Indian, ous; for, among De Foe's contempoo, who having been accidentally left on raries, John Dunton speaks of Timothy this ilanu, subfuted three years foli. Crusoe, who was cailed the Golden tarily, till that voyager carried him Preacher, and was so great a textyarya off. From which of these De Foe that he could pray two hours together borrowed his great incident, it is not in scripture language ; but, be was not easy to discover. In the preface to arrived at perfection; as appeared by The Serious Reflections, he indeed his fioth in cying the conjugal koot: says, “ That there is a man alive and yet, his repentance was lincere and well known, the actions of whose life public, and I fear not but he is now a are the jaft subject of these volumes, glorified Laint in heaven..

Letter from Rousseau to Voltairea

is spre IN every respect, Sir, it is my duty a miracle so great that it can lae

to express my gratitude to you; wrought only by God, and so perai and, while I offered the rude outlines nicious that it can be willed only of my sorrowful reveries, I thought by the devil. Do not therefore ate not of making a present worthy of reanje 10 walk on all-fours : todo you, but of acquitting myself of and. which no mad on earth is leis qualibligation by rendering the homage fied. You teach' men too effectually which we all owe to you as our chief. to stard firmly not to remain erect Sensible, beside, of the honour which yourself. I own the disgrace which you do my country, I participate in atiends on celebrated men of letters the gratitude of my fellow-citizens, is great indeed, nor do I deny thap and hope that it will augment in the evils are numerous which are av proportion to the profit they may de. tached to human nature, and which rive from your precepts. Embellish appear to be independant of our vaia the afylum you have chofen, enlight. knowledge. Men have opened to en a people worthy of your leffons, and many fources of misery to themselves do yod, who so well know how to that their happiness is but little indisplay liberty and virtue, teach us to creased when they chance to escape a cultivate them in our actions as we fingle misfortune. There are secret adorn them in our writings. All connections, however, in the progrefs who approach you ought to learn of - things which are unperceived by from you the road to fame and im- the vulgar, but which do not escape mortality,

the thoughtful eye of the philofoYou fee, Sir, I do not aspire to the pher. .. Teputation of once more leading men It was neither Terence, Cicero, into the woods; not but that I re- Virgil, Seneca, nor Tacitus, who gret my part of the loss of a state of caused the crimes of the Romans and nature. With respect to yourself, the misfortunes of Rome. But with Sir, to make you a savage would be out the flow and secret poison which .., 3G2

rai ATA, ? From Rousseau's Confessions, lately published.


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- Letter from Rousseau to Voltaire. inferfibly corrupted the most vigo: are to receive it? The larte, says - rou: government ös ühich hiflory has Montaigne, are ill calculated for bo.

profi, ved the remembrance, Cicero, dily exercise, or decrepid, souls for Lucre:rus, Salluft, and such men lad the exercises of the mind. Neser. never exified,' or they had nevertheless, in this learned age, we fee written. The amiable age of Lælius none but the lame willing to teach and Terence insensibly introduced others to walk. the brilli'irt period of Horace and' Ordinary meo receive the writ. Augutus ; and, in fine, the horrid' ings of the learned to criticise them, epoch of Senica and Nero, that of and not to instruct themselves. Never Tacitus and Dumitian.“ A taste for has the world fwarmed with such the arts and sciences has its birth in a dwaifs in intelle&t; they crocd the fccret vice, which it soon augments thea:re, the coffee-houics rescund in its turn; and if it be true, that all with their fentences, the booksellers human acquirements are percicious Malls are covered with their writings, to the species, those of the mind and and I hear the Orphan criticised, beof knowledge, which increale our cause it is applauded, by a school-boy pride and multiply our wan rings, so liale capable of perceiving its dewill soonest accelerate men's misfor- fects that scarcely can he feel any of tunes. Yet, there necessaiily comes its beauties. . a time in which those acquirements Let us look for the first fource are requifite to stay the progress of of all the disorders in fociety, and we evil : it is the feel which must re- fhall find that the miseries of mankind main in the 'wound, left, in removing proceed from error rather than igooit, the wounded should expire. :rance; and that what we do co know

As to myself, had I pursued my is much less' prejudicial to us than first vocation, and neither read nor that which we think we underltand. written, I should have tcen unguef- Now what furer means to run from tionally more happy; yet if letters error to error than the rage of knowcould now be entirely efraced, I should ing every thing? Had not men prebe deprived of the only pleafure which tended to know that the earth does is left me. It is in letters that I not turn on its axis, they had not find a' confolation' for 'all my punimed Galileo, for having affirmed 'misfortunes : it" is among their illut ihat it did urn. If none but phi trious children that ') talte the de- Josophers had claimed the title of lights of friendship, and Icaro to en. philofopher,' the Ercyclopedie had joy life and despise death. To them experienced no sersecution. If an I owe the little merit I have, and to hundred despicable beings had not them am I indebted for the honour aspired to fame, you would have been of being known to you. But let us left to the peaceful enjoyment of confult interest in our concerns, and your's, or at least you would bare truth in our writings. Although there had to contend with pone but adresneed philosophers, historians, and faries worthy of you. Be not fur. truly learned men to enlighien the prised then thould you feil some world, and conduct its blind inhabi. flords which are inseparable from the tants, yct, if the wife Memnon has flowers that adorn furerior talents. mot misinformed me, I know nothing The calumnies of your enemies are inore ridiculous than a nation of sages, the followers of your triumph, as Confefs, fir, if it be right that great formerly satyric acdaniations were minds should instruci ner, the rul- those of the Roman generals. It is gar ought to receive thcir precentsi 'the public eagerness for your writings, If each takes upon himlelf to pive in which produces the thesis of wbich Kruclion, where will those be who you complaid ; but the assimilating

them with others is not easy, for nei. I am proud of your invitation, and ther iron nor lead unites with gold. if this winter leaves me fu cii cum

Permit me, in consideration of the stanced that I can visit my country ioterelt which I take in your repose in the syring, I will avail myself of and our instruction, to advise you to your goodness. But I would vather disdain yain clamours, by which it drink the water of your fountain, is less the design to make you do than the milk of your cows; and with ill than to divert you from producing refpe&t to the herbs of your orchard, I good. The more you shall be cri. must fear to find nothing there but ticised,' the more mult you be admi-' the Lotos, which is only pasure yop red; and a work of genius is a terri- beats, or the moli, which prevents fying answer to weak reproaches. men from becoming brutes. I am Who will dare to attribute books to fincerely and respectfully. &c. you, which you have not written, J. J. Rousseau, Citizen of Geneva. while you continue to produce inimi : table works?

An Account of the Diseases peculiar to the Negroes in the WeftIndies, and ? which are produced by their Slavery. By Benjamin Ruh, M. D.

HE locked jaw, or, as it is called ing burdens beyond their ' ftrength 1 among the planters, the j.uw.fall, when they are young, and in some in. is a very common difcase among the 1 ances, by the figure of the re? is bechildren of Naves, and carrics of so ing diftorted by Those kicks in which many of them as evidently to affect they are fo ofien exposed in cand fe, their population. After many enqui- from sudden gufts of passion in their ries into the causes of it, I am perfect- masters. I icceived this information Jy satisfied that it arises from the hei from Dr Taylor of the Inand of St and smoke of the cabins, in which iho Kitts, who asured me at the same children are born, and from their be time, that the white women of the ing exposed afterwards to the cool air. Island in general, had very short and

2. The bipo: bendriais, or, as it is safe labours, compared with the wocalled in the French West Indies, the men in European countries. « mal d' eftcma.," is a very common 4. All the numerous chronic dir disease among the lives. It oceurs eases which arise fiom a Scant or an foon after their importation, and of in excess of vegetable diet, are common proves fatal, with a train of jainful and among faves in the Weit-In, ies. This distrefling sympions which are igno. Cril, I have been wel! infoj med, cenrantly afcribed to the effects of slow rou be remedied, while lavery remains poison taken by themsclves, or given upon its present footing; for very alto them by others. This diseałe, with curate calculations have made it clip all its terrible consequences, is dent, that the whole profit of a sugar fioned wholly by grief, and th refire eftutc, as it is now conducted, is saved Aands juftly charged upon savery... frım the neceflary food and clothing

3. Child-bearing, among the faves of the flaves. in the West-Indies, is attended with 5. Under all these diseases, and the peculiar danger and mortality : Tis many other complicateu evils which is occasioned entirely by ihe wonen the litis codure, we vie :old by their having their bodies injured by carry- patters, they are the happicit people in the world, because they are a mer. rit for half an hour, when the catal. ry." The finging and dancing, to trophe ended, and the ship and crew which the negroes in the West Indies disappeared for ever. This carious are fo much addicted, are the effect's fact was communicated to me by the of mirth, and not of happiness. son of an old lieutenant of a British

Mirth, and a heavy heart, I believe ship of war, who was an eye-witness often moet together; and herce the of the melancholy scene, and who of. propriety of Solomon's observation, ten mentioned to his children, and in that “ in the midit of laugliter, the company, the dying mirth of the crew, heart is fad." In the last war but two as one of the most Giagular and wonberweco Great Britain and France, a derful things he bad ever seen or hcard Britifh transport was accidentally set of in the course of his life. From the on fire : the neighbouring transports fa&ts that have been mentioned, in tead in vain attempted to relieve her: Tome of coosidering the songs and dances of the crew faved themselves by the of the ncgroes in the West-Indies as long boat, while a few of them perishe marks of their happiness, I have long ed in the ocean in attempting to fwim considered them as physical symptoms to the thip that lay within light of of melancholy or madnels, and iberethen. The remaining part of the crew fore as certain proofs of their misery. for a while filled the air with their I have taken no potice of he lepro crics for mercy and help. Suddenly fy oor yaws in this account of the disa there was a cessation of thek cries, and eases of the negroes, inasmuch as they nothing was beard on board the veffe! are both common in Africa, and there but a merry tune on a violin, to which fore do not stand chargeable upon lan, the crew danced with uncommon fpi. vesy. i'

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IT was evening, when Wolkmar with thrubs that hung feathering from 1 and his dog, almost spent with their summits, and at intervals was fatigue, descended one of the moun- heard the rushing of a troubled cains in Switzerland.; the sun was di. stream. Lated in the horizon, and threw a tint Amid this scenery, our traselle, of rich crimson over the waters of a far from any habitation, wearied, and neighbouring lake ; on each side rocks upcertain of the road, fought for some of varied form, their green heads excavation in the rock, wherein he glowing in the beam, were fwarded might repose himself, and having a

length † From the Speculator,

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