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one of these circumstances fingly, or mentioned, as it depends on knowfrom an union of two, or more of them, ledge gained by experience or instrucor from a happy combination of all ? tion; and is never inimical, but faCertain it is, that the difference of vourable to virtue. For it is the use character is great in this particular; of the understanding in regard to and that some persons are born with all the rules of rectitude, in improv- : the principles of ibis useful quality, ing all our accomplishments and tawithout po.Telling great value of intcl. lines, and employing them usefully to leet, thining paris, or those energies ourselves and o hers. It is watchful of the mind which give birth to ad- in attending to the d&ates of reason, mirable actions.
amijit the clamours of paflion; anh Prudence has gained on these rea- lastly, it proceeds upon a judicious sons, the appellation of commɔn fense, love of virtue, with such a careful exthough it is of such determined utili- amination of all its interests, as to ty, that none wonid gain by its ex. fufter no eager pursuits of some parts change for what is called fine enfe. cf it to be injurious to others. And as its opertaions begin early in There ar other characters so opposite life, parents are not liable to mistake to ihe naturally :rudent, that discretion the tendency ; but in order to make finds no place in their composition. the most of their knowledge, it will To: fe perforis in general have quick be necefliry to observe, tha: fine fenfc, and lovely pirts, great activity of mind, when well managed, is better adapred with exquisite fenfibility and their to fofter the higher virtues of the vul, birits move with a velocity that dethan common fine. The fime mo- ftroys all that frigidity which is so fadera:ion which prevents those who are vourable to the operation of the unpoffesfed of physical prudence fiom derfarding. Thus their imagination falling into great evils, will be obita- is liable, not only to be infiamed, but cles to their pursuing virtue with any deceived ; every impressoa made on degree of warmh. They will be apt it from external objects, or which ato mistake the cartion of wisdom for rises from the action of the mind, is craft, fu tlety, and dead it ; and they re eived with a vivacity that must be will be so far from attempting heroic inconceivable to those of flower feel. virtue, that without care, their con- ings ; and their passions are always duet will border on meanness. Of fuch ready to rise in an uproar, whenever pupils then, wo show syarptoms of they are stimulated by defire. These poffefiing the quality of a physical pru- characters, when they come under the dence, the parent or tutis may reft tuitio. of very wise persons, or are unsatisfied on the point of their worldly commonly favoured by accident, bein crest; they ought confequently to come of exiensive utility, and rise to poft; one thir lectures on difcretion, the highett fame; but for want of the and endeavour to animate their feel. fame circumstances of fortune, hey ings by itimulating examples of great oftener act a mid and a ridiculous and towering virtue, and of those high p'rt in the worid, and become objects ant dilinterefied parts of conduct, of its derifion and perfecution. wheri the nobler pullions take the kad, As thele characters form a conand where the interests of self are fa- trast to those who are endowed with crificed to equity or to general utility. the quality of a physical prudence, it When the cold insenlivility of such will be n-cetiny to give them a conDatures becomes animated, it will be trary treatment. Instead of endeathen time enough to inculcate lefluns vuring to cocrease sensibility, or exof moral prudence, which is a viry alt the pallions of the mind, every different thing from the quality above- fimulus to dere should be kant 15
On the varions Difpofitionis in Children much out of the way as possible, till they seize every opportunity which the understanding has had time to the absence of thofe they stand inawe ftrengthen, and till it has gained the of prefents, to break through the rales' havit of exerting its powers : others which authority obliges them to fol. wise it will be ever borne down by the low. They are never left to them. torrent of pallion, and kept under by felves without entering into some' vothe tyranny of imagination. The lucky course of action, and this not mint should be kept active without proceeding from any vicious turn in intenfeness. The examples for forth their affections, but from an irregular for admiration, should be exact picta- imagination, which is ever prompting res of practical imitation. Such an them to a mischievous activity. This example as Genlis' Laggaray would turn of difpofition, in all probability, drive these inflammable tempers into proceeds from some capiial defects in enthusiasm or despair. The secrets the conftitution, which affc& the due of their heart should be drawn from circulation of the animal spirits, and them by such winning arts of seeming those finer juices which act on the confidenca, and real tender.ers, as brain. Thus the imagination grows should induce them to throw of eve- irregular. Thus the ideas presented ry disguise. Observations on the ad- to the mind, lose their doe magnitate, vantage of discretion, and the cvils and become liable to diitoriion. The which attend temerity, should be remedy for such evils lies in a strie made on every oppor unity which care of the bodily health, particularly presents its If; and these propofitions in an attention to the rendering it thould be varioully illustrated by ap- robust and equal. The mind ought posite examples, drawn from ancient to be kept perpetually engaged in times, from the characters and con- those innocent occupations which a. duet of acquaintances, and from the muse without transporting. Io&rucftories and anecdoies of the present tion itself should wear the face of gaday.
iety. A full confidence should be In such dispositions as I have just acquired, solicitude avoided, and whea Dow described, is often engraíted a the time of adolescence comes on, whimsical curn o imagination, which very ftrenuous endeavoars thould be is fonctimes an attendant on original made to give the pupil an inlight in. genius; but which, for want of a po. to the Mechanism of the human mind, per attention and management, most and the methods of disciplining it. commonly degenerates into the worst Mr Locke gives fome directions fpecies of mental disease, viz. an in- for the management of the fluw and fànity, which carrying the appearance insentible mind, and Madame Geolis of soundne's in all the ordinary tranf- for correcting an indulent one; but I actions of litc, only thews itful when imagine, that the qualities giren ia the mind is oppreil-d by a combina- these three descriptions, as they have tion of unfavourable cremitances, b en placed by m?, or as they may be and gives the colour of criminality to found otherwise blended and mixed actions which really result from the in the variety which nature produces, disordered state of the mental or- give the lamp of character to all hagans.
man beings; and the judgment of the Children of this cast commonly parent or tutor must be guided by fhow the turn of their difpofition their experience, which will reach early. Th: fulies of childhood are them to adapt their conduct to the tinctured with fingularity; their spi- different modilications formed by the rits four unequally. Sou-tines very various mixtures of these qualities, high, and low in the fame porportion, and their different degrees. Furruca.
tely for the happiness of mankind, in- and vices of parents commonly de sensibility is the prevailing feature ; scend to their children. It coughie and whilit sensibility is often facrisi. therefore to be the task of every paced to ignorance and neglect, he rent to examine carefully their own boldly treads the stage of life, and character, to find out its propenfities, sefts secure in the shelter of a torpid and to regulate the method of educaconftitution.
tion in such a manner as shall guard As most characters have a leading particularly againit those which they feature formed from the operations of find censurable in themselves, unlels the governing pallions, so families are experience should prove to them, that frequently marked by the prevalence their cöildren have a contrary tenof some one or other of the several dency: affections. Thus the natural virtues
décount of the Publication of the Life and Adventures of Rubinf. n Crusos, by
Daniel De For N April 1719, De Foe published" South Britain. In a dull dialogue ben
the wall known Life and furpri- tween De Foe, Crusoe, and his 'nan îing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe. 'Friday, our Author's life is larp.onThe reception was immediate and uni- ed, and his misfortunes ridicůlet. But versal ; avd. Taylor, who purchased lie who inad been struck by apôlexy the manuscript after every bookseller and who was now disc untenanced by had refused it, is said to have gained power, was no fic object of an Engla a thousand pounds. If it be inquired lichman's satire. Our Author deby what charm it is that these surpris- clares; wheó he was himself a writer ing Adventures should have instantly of satiric poetry; "that he never repleased, and always pleased, it will be pioached any man for his priv te infound, that few books have ever so firmities, for having his house burnt, naturally mingled amusement with in- his ships cast away, or his family rein'ftruction. The attention is fixed, ed ; nor had he ever lumponned any either by the fimplicity of the narra- one, because he could not pay his tion, or by the variety of the incidents ; debts, or difered in ju lg ment tron the heart is amended by a vindication him." Pupe has been ju. ly censured of the ways of Gol to man: and the for purfuing a vein of láfire exter.ee under/tanding is informed, by various ly dilia.iar, And Pore placed De examples, how much utility ought to Foe wiih Tutchen, in The Dunced, be preferred to ornament: the young when our Autior's infirmities were are inltructea, while the old are amul- greater and his comfort lefs. Hvas ed,
again dsaulted in 1919, by Anita Robinson Crusoe had scarcely drawn te wo D- De I-, the sound his canoe alhore, when he was at Author of Robinson Crusne.
mir tacked by his old enemies, the fava. Foe,” says the letter writer, “ I have ges. He was a Failed first by The perused your pleafint story of RobinLife and strange Adventures of Mr fon Crusoe; and if the faults of it had D- De F, of London, lolier, extended no further than the frequent who has lived above fifty years by folecisms and incorrtness of style, bimself in the kingdoms of North and improbabilities, and sometimes I. pof3 G Vol. XII. No. 72.
* From Chalmers's Life of Daniel Dc roe.
Acosunt of the Prblication of Robinfon Crufen fibilities, I had not given you the lived följerily on the ifle of Joan Fertrouble of this Epistle.” * Yet," nandez, four years and four mon:hs, fasd-Johnson io Piozzi, “ was there was relieved on the 2d of February ever any thing written by mere man, 1708-9, by Captain Woodes Rogers, that was wished longer by its readers, in liis cruizing voyage round the world except Don Quixote, Robinson Crusoe, But let no one draw inferences ull the and the Pilgrim's Progrefs ? This fact be first ascertaired. The advenepiftolary critic, who renewed his an- tures of Seikirk bad been thrown into gry arrack when the fecond solume the air, in 1712, for li trary hawks appeared, has all the duluess, without to devour ; and De Foe may bave the acumen, of Dconis, and all bis catched a conmon prey, which he malignity, withoue his purpose of re. converted to the uses o; his intellet, formation. The Life of Crusoe has and distributed for the purpoks of lais passed through innumerable editions, intereit. Thus he may have fair.y acand has been translated into forcign quired the fundamental incidest of languages, while the criticism suuk io- Crusoe's life; but, he did not corrow to oblivion.
the various events, the ustful morali De Foe set the critics at defiance ties, or the engaging ft;k. Few mien while he had the people on his fide. could write such a poein; and few As a commercial legiilator he knew, Selkirks could imitate fo pathetic an that it is a rapid fale which is the original. It was the happinus of De great incentive : and, in August 1719, Fce, that as many writers have fuehe published a fecond volume of Sur. ceeded in relating caterprifes by lord, prising Adventures, with similar fuc- he excelled in carrating adventures by cess. In hope of profit and of praise, fea, with such felicities of language, he produced in August 1720, Serious fuch attractive varieties, such infinua. Reflections during the Life of Robia- tive instruction, as have feldom beet fun Crusoe, with his. Vision of the equalled, but never surpaffed. Angelic-World. He acknowledges The whole Lory of Selkirk is told drat the present work is not merely in Woodes Rugers's voyage, which he the product of the two first volumes, published in 1712, from p. 125 to but the ewo first may rather be called 131, inclalive : whence it appears, the product of this: tlie fable is al. that Selkirk had preserved no pen, ink, ways made for the moral, not the mo- or paper, and b.d lost his language ; ral for the fable. He however did fo that he bad no journal or papers, not advert, that inftrucion must be which he could communicaie, or by infinuated rather than enforced. That others could be ftolen... There is an this third volume has more morality account of Selkirk in The Englishman, than fable, is the cause, I fear, that it No. 26. The particular manner how has never been read with the same a- Alexander Selkirk lived four years vidity as the former two, or spoken of and four months, in the ide of Joan with the same approbation. We all Fernandez, is related in Captain prefer amusement to instruction; and Cooke's voyage into the Souh Scar he who would inculcate afeful truths, which was published in 1712. And muft ftudy to amuse, or he will offer Selkirk's tale was told in the Mehis lessons to an auditory, neither au- moirs of Literature, 5th vol. p. 118: merous, nor attentive.
so that the world was fully posiekted The tongue of detraction is feldom of Selkirk's story in 1712, seven years at reft. It has often been repeated, prior to the publication of Crusoe's that De Foe had sarreptitiously appro- adventures. Nor were his ad rentures priated the papers of Alexander Sel. fingular.; for, Ringrose mentions, i larkiScotch mariner, who having his account of Captain Sharp's voyage.
• person who had escaped fingly from and to whom the most part of the a fhip that had been wrecked on Juan story directiy alludes.” This turns Fernandez, aud who lived alone five the scale in favour of Selkirk. Nor, years before he was relieved: And was the name of Crusoe wholly fetiti. Dampier mentions a Mosquito Indian, ous; for, among De Foe's contempqe. who having been accidentally left on raries, John Dunton speaks of Timothy chiş iland, subfuted three years soli. Crusoe, who was cailed the Golden tarily, till that voyager carried him Preacher, and was so great a textuarga. off. From which of these De Foe that he could pray two hours together borrowed his great incident, it is not in fcripture language ; but, be was not. easy to discover. In the preface to arrived at perfection; as appeared by The Serious Reflections, he indeed his floth in tying the conjugal koot: says, “ That there is a man alive and yet, his repentance was lucete and well known, the actions of whose life public, and I fear not but he is now a are the just subject of these volumes, glorified Laint in heaven.
Letter from Rousseau to Voltaire
N every respect, Sir, it is my duty a miracle so great that it can be
to express my gratitude to you; wrought unly by God, and so per and, while I offered the rude outlines nicious that it can be willed only of my sorrowful reveries, I thought by the devil. Do not therefore att not of making a present worthy of tempe 10 walk on all-fours': to do you, but of acquitting myself of an - which no mad on earth is leis qualibligation by rendering the homage fied. You reach men too effectualis which we all owe to you as our chief. to stard firmly not to remain eredi Senlible, belide, of the honour which yourself
. I own the disgrace which you do my country, I participate in attends on celebrated men of letters the gratitude of my fellow-citizens, is great indeed, nor do I deny thap and bope that it will augment in the evils are numerous which are all proportion to the profit they may de- tached to human nature, and which rive from your procepts. Embellish appear to be independant of our vaio the afylum you have chosen, enlight knowledge. Men have opened fo en a people worthy of your leffons, and many fources of misery to themselves do yod, who fo well know how to that their happiness is but little indisplay liberty and virtve, teach us to creased when they chance to escape a cultivate them in our actions as we single misfortune. There are secret adorn them in our writings. All connections, however, in the progreft who approach you ought to learn of things which are unperceived by from you the road to fame and im- the vulgar, but which do not escape mortality
the thoughtful eye of the philofoYou fee, Sir, I do not aspire to the pher. reputation of once more leading men It was neither Terence, Cicero, into the woods; not but that I re. Virgil, Seneca, 'nor Tacitůs, who gret my part of the loss of a state of caused the crimes of the Romans árid nature. With respect to yourself, the misfortunes of Rome. But with: Sir, to make you a savage would be out the low and secret poison which
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