« ForrigeFortsæt »
On the Nexy Syftem, which admits the Electric Fluid as the Cause of the
Congelation of Water. By the Abbé L. G. Robeit of Liege. F the opinion of the learned re- present by people who, doubtless, find pears still to leave a more extensive reafoning than from experiene, field for reasoning than for the experi- which, in natural philosophy, is the ments of the philosopher, he ought mother of just nctions, and the only rather - 10 subscribe to the received fource of truth. opinion than become a partizan of a According to this new syftem doétrine absolutely hypothetic, which congelation depends upon the electric contains more novelty than instruc- fluid, which combines with water ia tion.
order to harden and crystallize it. The opinions of Boerhaave and Bot how can this fubtle matter, which Muschenbroek respecting congelition, philosophers have agreed to diftin. have been long received as the most guilh by the name of an igneous plausible. The first affigus as the fluid, elementary fire, &c. because cause of the condensation of water, the they find in it all the properties of absence of the igneous marter ; and real fire, and which accumulaies in the second, considering this absence large quantities on the hardest metals, as insufficient, adds to it the con- and which is capable of putting them course of certain particles which he into a state of ignition, and of mello' distinguishes by the name of frigorificing them, be the principle of a preparts.
nomenon in a body where we know Though the opinion of the latter fire cannot refide, and which it c.no be supported by reasoning and expe- not even touch without destroying rience sufficient to make us admit that hardness of which we will tą this frigorific matter, it is, however, make it the principle ! physically ackn wled ed that the pri- To support this opinion, f me have vation of the igneous fluid is the first mentioned the great quantity of elec: ant principal cause of the congelation tricity which prevails in the atmosand condensation of warer ; and phere during very cold weath:1. I this opinion has been adopted by confess thar in dry frufts, experience the Abbé Noller and many other e. demonstrates this ; but does it thence minent philofophers. But as the ex. follow that it is the principal cause plantati-n of a system far from being of freezing, whilft observation proves established still leaves mankind at li in the most convincing manner that beriy to account for this phenomenon this igneous fluid can neither be con. according to what they think they fined nor alloyed, that it cannot be observe, different opinions, more or combined even with air, and that in leis agreeable to reason, and more the absence of the latter fluid, it ex. or less ridiculous, have at different ists with more force and energy? If times been formed respecting this electricity manifests its presence in pujcct. Among other fyftems on the hard frosts, it is because the air being formation of ice, a Memoir was pub- then rarer, purer, and much less lithed in the beginning of the year loaded with hererogeneous bodies, 1989, which admitted the electric fruid which form so many obstacles to this * the principal cause of it; and fluid, it consequently acts with roro though this system is calculated only force, traverses the atmosphere at to propagate doubt and perplexity, more liberty, and accumulates more we are surprised to see it received at easily, as it is then less diflipated, he
The Electric Fluid not the cause of Congelation. cause the air is not so much imprego to the temperature of the second and dated with moisture, which is one third degree of Reaumur's thermos of the grand conductors of the elec. meter, you will see this tric fluid. It is this moisture which congeal, though it
be insulated the coli generally causes to descend and surrounded by any lubstance to the earth under the figure of small ever so little calculated to transmit Stars or stalactites united, and forming the ele&ric fluid to it. According Aakes of snow, which are so much to Muschenbrock, the privation of the larger in calm weather, as they the igneous fuid is not alone fuffic meet wiih more congealed matter io cient to convert water from a fluid their fail; and it is this mofture also to a solid ftate, and according to this which falls on the nights of summer, princi: le, which he has supported under the appellation of dew, and by experiment, we must admit a subm which in chofe of winter, fornis what stance, which, combining with wa. we call boar frost, because these small ter, hardens it, and causes it to globules of water make an innuie. cr ftallize. This subitance he calls rable multitude of crystallizations, the frigonic. In the supposition which reflect so many rays to our
therefore, that we muk allow of any eye.
substance whatever as the cause of To judge of the justness of Boer- congelation, the system of Muschen, baave's theory, it were to be wished broek gives us less reason to receive that experimental philosophy, which the ele&ric matter as the congealing has got a machine to free matter from principle, than a nitrous and volaa part of the air it contains, had one tile lubitance, which, according to also to free bodies from their fiery many philosophers, prevails in the particles; the causes of many phe atmosphere, but in greater abundance Domena would then appear to the during cold than warnı weather.
A philosopher; and this apparatus, by proof that the atmosphere abounds depriving water of these particles, th a nitrous and faline matter when which alone can render it liquid, ice is formed, is, that the globules might enable us, without the help of of congealed water assume figures electricity, to obtain a hard and that appear constant and fimilar, and compact matter, which would form which make them resemble crystalli. habitations more solid even than Zations—a phenomenon ascribed to te: I say more solid, because cryllallized falts. these pieces of ice would unite in The following fact, which is ao. their contact, so as to inake only one Dually renewed, appears still to fabody: and to render edifices con- vour this system much more than Atructed of it durable, it would be that founded on the electric fluid. necessary to remove from them all In the year 1788, the ground in the phlogiston, as well as every princi- neighbourhood of Liege having been ple of heat, and consequently all e. covered with snow, there arose a lectricity, which owes its existence to north wind which swept away a part clementary fire alone.
of this snow into the valleys, and As it is certain that electricity does places which by their local lituation not penetrate and pass through' vitri- were moft sheltered from it. On the fied bodies, we may demonstrate by return of spring, the farmers sawa experiments that congelation is affect with pleasure and afton.fhment that ed independent of electricity. If you these valleys were more fertile and fill a very thick crystal globe with luxuriant than the rest of the country, water, seal it hernietically, and ex- which had not been overloaded pole it, thiaking it every now and ihen; with snow. This beneficent virtuo, which has been long Gnce acknow- ries with it into the bosom of the ledged to reside in snow, can be at- earth on the return of warm wea. tributed only to the nitrous salts it ther, fontains, and which the water car.
Aphort Account of Georgia, and its Inhabitants. Translated from tłs
call Gurgustan, and the Turks beautiful pastures ; the rivers teem Gyrtihi, contains the ancient Iberia ; with fish, the mountains contain rich Colchis, and perhaps a part of Al treasures of minerals, and the clie bania, since the cougory of Kacketi, mate is pleasant and mild; in short, in the ancient Georgian language, nature seems to have poured forth was known by the name of Albon. her richest gifts on this fortunate
The inhabitants are Chriftians of country, and to have entertained a the Greek church, and it is probable peculiar favour for its inhabitants. that they were called Georgians, on
The rivers of Georgia are not account of the great veneration which proper for navigation, sometimes on they entertained for Su George, the account of their rapidity, occasioned tutelary faint of the country. by torrents which fall from the moun.
Georgia is divided into nine pro- tians and often on account of their vinces, five of which are subject to thallowness. The navigation of the Heraclius, and compute that part Black Sea, which might have introcommonly named the kingdom of duced commerce and European manGeorgia. The other four provinces pers into these countries being still are uoder the dominion of David, exclusively in the possession of the and form the kingdom, or rather Turks, the internal trade of Georprincipality of Immeretta.
gia is very much limited by the All these countries are in general so mountains of Caucafus, and this in-, beautiful and fertile, that fome enthum convenience continues daily to infiaftical travellers have imagined that crease, on account of the numerthe ancient garden of Eden was situat- ous bands of plunderers who inhabit ed in the middle of them. The mo in- them. tains are.covered with oaks, chefnut In the fifteenth century, the Georand walnut-trees, birches, and an im- gians were conquered and made slaves, mense number of trees, of every partly by the Turks and partly by kind, inter mixed with vines, which, the Persians. Since that epoch, bav. though little cultivated, do not fail to ing at different times, very incongproduce abundance of grapes. The derately, and without support, ate inhabitants make as much from them tempted to recover their liberty, they as is sufficient for their annual con- have on that account seen their counfumption, and suffer the rest to perish. try often ravaged and threatned with
grows here without any care, entire ruin. It is said, the Schah and great plenty of our European Abbas the Great, in one campaign, fruit trees may be seen, which thrive carried with him eighty thousand much better than among us. Rice, families, and the merciless Nadir laemp and dax are easily cultivatedó exercised against the inhabitants of
À fhort Account of Georgia. these rich countries every cruelty residence of Prince Heraclius, is that the most atrocious barbarity and Teflis ; the inhabitants call it Tyblis. a thirit of blood could inspire into a Cahar, or the Warm City, on account mo ster like him. Hippy would it of the watın baths which are found have been for these wrctched peos in its neighbourhood.
This city ple had they then got rid of their was but in the year 1063 by enemies ; but the iniest ne wars which Prince Lierang, according to an infoilowed, and the great lods, still scription seen on the front of the castle: added to their mis oriunes.
The city of T Ais is no more than There numerous bodies of idle, two English miles in circumference ; haugity, and cruel men, had unii- it contains 20,000 fou's; the greater mited power over the lives and pos- part of whom are Armenians, and feifions of their valdls. Not being the rest Georgians and Tartars. acqua nied with any other exercise There are reckoned to be in this than that of arms, and no other city twenty Armenian churches, tifmeans of aggrandising themielves teen Greek, and three Mutfcheds: but by plunjering, they carried on The widelt streets are only seven co. tioval wirs with one another ; feet in breadth, and some of them and as the fate of arms naturally in. are so narrow that a man on horseclined different włys, the multitudes back can scarcely pals along them. of peasants made prisoners, and sold It may therefore be readily imagined to the Turks and the Persians, visi. that they are far from being clean. bly diminished the number of the in. The houses are built with fiat roofs, habitants. They carried their han upon which the Georgian ladies tred so far as to form alliances with walk to enjoy the fresh air when the plunderers of the mountains ; the weather is fine.
Thele houses and the latter, attracted by a desire are all regular, the greater part of the for booty, readily embraced this walls are wainscotted in the infide; opportunity of indulging their incli- and the floors are covered with car nation. These foi midable allies ha- pets. There is an iron founders ving gradually acquired a knowl_dge at Telis, in which a conliderable of the country, and being throughly quantity of mortars, bullets, and canacquainted with the weakness and nons are caft every year ; but the pufillanimity of the inhabitants, car- cannon, which are all of the fame ried every where desolation along calibre, are inferior to those of the with them. A few unfortunate Turks. The powder made here is wretches, half naked, oppreffed by excellent. The Armenians, natuthe tyranny of their lords, difperseí rally industrious, have established themselves into fome of the beauti- here the greater part of the manufacful countries of Georgia. The re- tories established by their country. volutions of Persia, and the weak- men in Persia : the most Hourishing ness of the Turks, have, it is true, of all is that of printed cottons. placed the princes of the country in Tefiis has a mint of its own; but à situation that might enable them besides the money which is coined to recover their liberty; but the small- there, Persian and Turkish pieces nefs of their revenues, arising froin employed for purchasing honey, but. the despotism continually exercised ter, cattle, and cloth, are also current. by the pobles, has hitherto prevent: The subjects of prince Heraclius ed them from easing that heavy load are said to amount to 60,000 famiof taxes which the poor inhabitants lies; but notwithstanding the depoAili sustain.
pulation under which the country The capital of Georgia, and the languilhes, it is proved that the third
of that number are omitted in col- hair, beard, and nails red. The lecting the taxes. The peasants, Georgian women rub over their who are valfals to the queen, as well hands with the same colour, and they as those of the patriarch, pay no wear a kind of bandage round their taxes to the prince, and are conse heads, from which their black hair quently not enrolled among those falls over their forehead: their hair who pay fubsidies. The prince has behind is formed into tresses. They permitted bis fons in law, as well as paint their eye-brows black, in the his favourites, to free their vassals form of a semi-circle, and their from every burden whatever. It is faces are daubed over with red and to be observed that, as the peasants white. Their tunics are open as are taxed by fires, and not by the far as the girdle ; so that when they head, it often happens (and this con- wish to conceal their breasts, they fequently tends to diminith the reve- are obliged to cover them with their nues of the sovereign) that they carry hands. Their carriage is noble, the most valuable effects of several their conversation easy and volupbuts into one, and burn the rest ; so cuous, and the greater part of then that they pay no tax, and the money can read and write, which are quawhich they thence save, enables them lifications rarely to be met with, to acquire more. The whole popula. even among those Georgians who are tion of Georgia is reckoned to be of the firit distinction. The Georabout three hundred and fifty thou.. gain women are indebted for their fand fouls.
instruction to the cloisters in which The goveroment of Georgia is they are educated. despotic; and notwithstanding this, part of the marriages here are a kind the prince would be very much em- of bargains; and girls are often be: barrassed to get his orders executed trothed at the age of four or five. without the asistance of the Russian Women of rank never go abroad troops. Corporal puoishments here without veils, and a man would be are barbarous, but fortunately exe- accused of rudeness, did he accost cutions are rare ; for criminals find them ia the street; the case would it extremely easy to escape, as they be the fame did he in company enare so near foreign powers ; belides, 'quire after the wife of another." the prince is sensible that it is more Though this kind of etiquette seems advantageous to confiscate the wealth to be in some measure a prejudice, it of the guilty ; and on that account, is excusable. The cruelties which he is not too strict in enforcing the the Persians commitied against the laws against them. Regular procel Georgians, under the reign of Nadir fes form a part of the privileges of Shaw, are fill too fresh in their the nobility, and are never employed memory, though handed down from except when the case is very complex, father to fon, not to make us forgive or when the power and influence of them for being very fufpicious of the parties are equally great, or rather strangers. when the court is aliaid of embroil- Many travellers have accused the ing itself with one of the parties. Georgians of cruelty, laziness, avaThis manner of proceeding is called rice and cowardice. These vices, the judgment of God.
which generally belong to llaves and The Georgian dress has a great tyrants, are abhorred in Georgia. resemblance to that of the Cofracks: The vassals of the colonies establishpeople of any consequence dress, ed by Shaw. Abbas at Perea, near however, after the Persian manner. Isphahan, as well as the inhabitants The greater part of them dye their of those of the Mesendran, have gainVo1, XII. No. 67 I