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manent good. If France shall ulti- of his bistory. To them do painter! mately obtain freedom at no greater has given colour, no poct description; expence than the blood which has al. they make no pa t of the pedeltal in ready been spilt, tho' individuals may the statue of the Place des Vitoiresa : have to mourn their private losses, the The distresses of the lower orders public cannot repent of the purchase, of the people, the want of food, o
But does humanity never speak on clothing, of fuel, are not calculated the other side of the question, nor to figure in painting and sculpture, to think of what those wretches suffered, melt in poetry, or io roule in elo on whom the former goveroment wrec- quence. These orders, however, are ; ked its scagcance uncontroaled? Their what political and philofophical truth! sufferings, indeed, were not seen in the muít own to be the nation. It was ftreets, nor related in Journals ; for the misfortune in France, that the mane i the dungeons of the Bastile and of the Ders, modelied by the form of govern, Castle of Vincennes, were closed up- men, established a fori of contenipt on their miseries. But have you, Sir, for every individual, who had not whose researches have travelled so far rank and fainion to recommend hin.. into Asia, for stories of oppression, ne. This mode of thinking was not the less ver heard of those at your door ? You fatal, and was much less easy to be: will tell us, as the cther difeaders of corrected, for its really not being highthe French Monarchy have done, of ly censurable in those who indulged it. the infrequency of such instances. But It was not the effect of fulfishnets and in țhe syitem of government, it is not innuinanity; it arose from habit meren what is done, but what may be done, ly; it was woin by a man of the Court that, wisdom and foresight look to.-- like his new suit, without any other You talk of the mildness of Louis conlideration than that his companions ; XVI. you speak with a bombastic
had the same, His sphere of connec.) ture of the charms of his Queen; the tiva with mankind reached no fartber poets of Augustus, with a taite as ele- than a few parties of rank and falhion, gant, and a stile somewhat chaiter than whom he called the world. The yours, could tell us of the mildness twenty millions of Frenchmen, who and munificence of his reign ; but that were not of those parties, went for no- power which in him was mildness and thing in the account. The men of su-'s munificeece, in his successurs was ty: purior rank who thoughe chus, were in ranny and murder,
general polite, oblig.ng, onourable' The circle that sees and can best and brave, Some of them, whom talk of Kings, is a narrow and a par- ítrangers were most iikely :o fee, were tial one; and the delegated power of poffcliedi allo of the more folid and eiti.. tije Sarcreign is often mischievous in mable qualities of taite, of sentiment, the extreme, while he, from whom it of infur nasion. But they stili retain.: flows, is amiable and beneficent. Kings ed the aristocrat c prejudices of their, may be praised by poets, and idolized order. These are, indeed, not unnaby courtiers, even without the aid of tural to minds of a certain refinement. · much imagination or flattery, while The heruif n of knight errantry, the their people are groaning under the galla atry of a Cavalier, the spirit of he opprchions of their government. On recitary Nobility, all these intereit the such testimony Lewis XIV. has been feel ngs and captivate the imagination. celebra:ed as the most liberal, the most We are, therefore, not surpriled, that magnificeat, the greatest of Monarchs ; you, Sir, ihould be seduced by them. the miferics of millions of bis subjects It is no', perhaps, unfair to bring make no figure in his hiftory, or at the very abalement which the nobi.. least in the common and current ideas lity of France has suffered, in proof of
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302 Brutus's 2d Letter to the Right Hon. E. B its having somewhat deserved that a. the revenues of the church had beea basement. That this great and nu- laid out in the best poftible way, yet mérous body, possessed for so many the charity of the state, like the chacenturies of its elevated station, with rity of iodividuals, must be a secondso much power, and so much proper. ary consideration to its own immediate ty to attach mens interests, with al! fubliftence or support. State necekty its present and all its traditionary called for retrenci ments and for imgrandeur to overave their minds, that posts. Had the King retained ibat such a body should have shrunk into power which this very neceffity tendannihilation withont a struggle, is ed to overthrow, he would probably pretty strong evidence of iis having have wrung some more millions of live lot by some demerit, that influence res from the poverty of the people. which it should have had in the coun- Was it muchro be regreted that his luctry; that it held the people in a Vaf- cestors in that power found a resource in falage intolerably oppressive, and had the éxorbitant wealth of the church? exercised all the feudal tyranny wiih- I ealily allow for your feelings on out having gained any of the feudal behalf of the monastic establishmects. attachinent,
There is a“ dim religious” reference, A fimilar argument may be brought a tenderness for ttoried melancholy, with regard to the church. The which the heart and the fancy will higher ecclefiaftics must have forfeit- readily acknowledge towards their ed the elliem and regard of their own antient folitary reign ;" but the a. subordinate clergy, and of the people, bolishment of their cold ascetic aufiebi tore their power and their domains rities, (for in a cloyster 'there can could have been wr.fted from them, fcarcely be any virtues) will not, I without the imprefion of facrilege or believe, be confiderc by philosophy, impiety, almost without the idea of (or philanthropy, if you should disa injuitice. Had they claimed veneration like the word philofophy) as one of by their fanétity, or good will by their the evils of the Revolution, benevolence, ihe reverence, or the love From you, Sir, one would hardly of the people would have felt and re- have expected that viclent and fomeSented the infringment on their pos what illiberal attack on the philosofe Tions. The people would have com- phers, and men of letters in France plained from tentiment, but it would which your book contains. Do
you have still been a quettion how far they really, in your cooler judgment, tecomplained with re-fon. The property lieve, that the world has gained noof the church certainly itood on a very thing by their labours ? Has your different fuoring from thit ofan heredi- sympathy in the pride or prosperity tary defcendible estate. No man is born of narıkind found nothing with which Archbithop of Paris, or Abbé of St it could congratulate itfelt in all the Gerrains. Their great incones were increased koowledge and humanity of a ftipendiary allowance, though they the present century, for a part of arofo from the poffeffion of land. The which we are indebted to the mea function of ecclefiaftical is more sacred whom your zeal in this argunent bas than that of temporal offices; but if condemned in thegross ? Would you their emolumenis are beyond the abi- forego all the discoveries of their Jities of die liate, or if any of those science, all the productions of their religious offices are entirely unnecef- genius, to retire again into the fade fary, it may fairly enough be argued of that gloomy superstition which your that the power of reliumption of the fancy has hallowed? In all ages phiantient' ftipends, or of abolition of the lofophers have been fcepsiod, and anticnt offices, lies, with the people. wirs licentious: but it is not like the Even if it were to be granted that all liberality of Mr B. to proscrite phi
lofophy and it in a peevith indul- perfect confidegce of the future. A gence of his averfion to Icepticism and little more diflidence in opinion, and licentiousness.
a little more reserve si exprellion, As I am not a pleader so determi. might have been fater, as well as ned tur one of the parties in this great more conciliating. Oue. copfideraquestion as you, Sir, I will freely con- tion should have especially induced
fels, that in the opinion of thinking this, which might have great, weiglit 2. and impartial men, there are, in the in a calm and difpaflionate view of - the present Nate of France, con- this whole business. The bulk of the fiderable abuses, and that in the prof. people seem to be satisfied with the peet of her future condition, there are Revolution. After a considerable to be foreseen much diffculty and time to cool from the fervor of newdanger. In some of the members of ly-acquired freedom, a great majority her National Asembly, there is a want of the nation have, on trying occaof virtire, in more there is a waat of fions, declared for, and Supported the wisdom, and in a ftill greater number measures of the National Assembly, a want of moderation; while in the It is bold in an individual foreigner, aggregate body there is a deficiency however able and enlightened, to arof power to enable it always to adopt raign the measures which so general a the best measures, or to enforce those suffrage of the people, whose interells which it has found a necellity of a. they concern, has fanctioned. dopting. From the impofition and While I venture these remarks, on collection of the revenue, from the your perfurmance, I mean not to des construction of the inferior munici- pretiate its merit, or to doubt the pal jurisdictions, but especially from goodnefs of thofe motives with which the Situation of the army, they are it was written. I feel all its genius threatened with the overthrow of all and its ability, with that partiality they liave done in correction of the which is inspired by its virtue and its old, or in the establishment of the benevolence. This is an advantage new Constirution.
Bot many of the which the writings of its auihor, a friendls of mankind will hope, as cer- gecrul poffefs. The defects of his tainly all of them mult will, that all character are pardoned like the defects those dargers snay be avoided and of his writings, because they proceed the difficulties overcome; it at the rather from the extrine c estimable wisdom of the enlightened, and the qualities, than from the want of them ;
virtue of the good among them, may from overtrainied feeling, tium mis* fucceed in ett ablishing, though not a takır humanity, from the zcal of right "? 'perfect or an uoexceptionable govern- pefhed almoit to fanaticism.
bedi, oge at iet more confunant to With me, Sr, the regsct of such
the natural rights (fur the expireilon, defects is always a:tcoded by a wish is after all theirubase, and your iiicule, for their ccrreciion, and a hope of
is still in itleli a good one) and inore the ref. lacts it stor talents by 51. friendly to the happinefs of man than which they are accompanied. From
that which they have abclithed. the firit of your present perior ance,
Your objections are stared when I anticipate a concuct beneficial 10 the new conitilations are yet in their the communi:y. I lee in it a dread beginning, besre t'ie elle as of their of the inconfiderate defire of reform; genuial operation can be seen, or the a jealcals of neeuicts innotation, errors in their detail are correc d. which it ferms to me extremely use. You write with the decision of a iup- ful to keep awake at the prtli nt tiine.
poled perfect knowledge of the pre- Even when the outcry for charge 1 lent circumstances, and predio with a and inrovation is boneit, ir ma, ne
Curfory Objörvatims by Dr. Jortio." hurtful; but if it is only the cloak of the juft prerogatives of the Crown, profligate felt-iaterest, or inordinate or to infringe the rights of the people, ambition, who for their own private from you, Sir, we expect their des advadrage, would risk the peace and fence. With moderate and virtuous prosperity of the country, it is doub. men, the present performance will be ly to be dreaded. It is not from the a guarantee for your conduct; they mcan or desperate tools of selicion will figure you laying your hand up. that the country has most to fear, on this book, Twearing loyaliy to but from more artful and more res- your king, and fidelity to the confti.' pectable partizans, whose abilities for tution; pledging yourself as attached mischief hide their inclination for it. "to no principles so much as to thofe To you, Sir, and other virtuous citi- of general patriotism and public virzens, the public look for protection tue ; as subfervient to the interefts of against fuch enemies. If faction no party in opposition to those of your thould at any time wish to corrupt country. our freedom into anarchy, to ularp
Cursory Obfervations by Dr. Jortin.
N order to be chosen one of the true of Çats,—that seldom do they
fix principal magistrates of Straf- die a natural death. burg, a man must prove that he is ignoble, and a Plebeian, descended from Ad gènerum Cereris fiue cede et Plebeians for eight generations. See
vulnere paucæ La Nothe le Vayer.
Defcendunt Feles, et ficcá' morte
fruuntur. « The more absurd and incredible any divine history, the greater
But if they escape the hands of honour,” says Bacon, we do to violence, they hold out beyond the God in believing it.” I wonder that period aligned by Bacon. Í had one such a man should have adopted such that lived with me fourteen years; and a doctrinc, and have had so little re. I have heard of some that were much gard for his own reputation ; for he older. who talks in this manner, will always How little the duties of Toleration fall under the fufpicion of being either and Moderation were understood, a tru: Fanatic, or a disguised infidel
. either by Papifts or Protestants, in! As to Bacon's Editor, he hath taken the fixteenth century, is evident from fufficient care, both in his nute upon a letter of Melanchthon, who lyet this pallage, and in a Preface, Vol. seems to have been a Divine of much II. 2. 284. to let us know that he mildness and good nature. Concernhimi I is not a Fanatic. See Ba. ing the burning of Servetus, he says con's Works, by Shaw. As to Ba- to Bullinger, “-Legi quà de Serteti con he seems to have give way to his blu/pherniis respondistis, et pietatem ar faney, and exercised his wit, in draw- judicia - veftra proho.
Yudico etiam ing 'p Christian Paradoxes. Senatu Genevenfem reft: feciffe, quod
The Same Author tells us, that bominem pertinacem, et non omiffis
the age of the cat terminatės be rum blafphemia fuftulit: At miratus tween fix and ten." What Jüzenal fum effe, qui feceritatem illam impre says of Tyrants, (Sat. X. 112.) is bent."
It is an observation of Montaigne, much better fortune : and yet I dares! that “ Of those who have made not wish that he were rich." Why themselves famous in the world, he so? you will fay.-" Left it should would lay a wager to produce more make him indolent, and less active inwho died before, than after, thirty- advancing the cause of literature. Pos five." . Effuis, Tom. I. 19. I have, verty is a great spur to incuftry.”_ I believe, considered this matter more. This may be true: but, when a learnthan Montaigne, and marked the ed and a modeft man bath long drugyears of the life of many hundred, ed in occupations which are really be scholars. And, setting aside violent neath him, and hath fewn evident. deaths, I look upon sixty-three to be marks of his attachment to hiterature, the middle term of life; there being of his zeal to serve the public, and of about as many who have died before, his capacity of doing greater things, as at fixty-three and upwards. The if he were more at his ease, and at linumber of those who died at or near berty to chuse such works as bost suitfixty-three is so far greater than at ed his abilities --he is surely worthy any other year, that I suspect it hath of some recompense: and it is a scaonot been called the grand climacteric, dalous thing when such favours are without some reason. The bodies only bestowed upon people, who proof many persons seem to be a machine cure them by soliciting, by flattering, wound up for that period.; which &c. may be thortened, but cannot be much Æsculapius, the Father of Physici. lengthened.
ans, loved fees too well; and for the In the first protestant schools and fake of gold restored a dead man to universities of Germany, most of the life, for which Jupiter killed bin, with students were very poor ; They sup- his thunder, as Pindar informs us, ported themselves by begging and Pyth. III. I wonder that some of the as linging psalms from door to door; Greek Epigrammatists, who often ti. they studied by mooo-light, for want dicule the physicians, did not take the of candles; they were almost starved hint from Pindar; and say, that the for, want of fire'; and often went to children of Æsculapius, left they bed with an empty stomach : Yet should suffer as their father had done, the earneft defire of erudition con- instead of raising the dcad, were con quered all these difficulcies, and thcy tenied to kill the living. became private tutors, schoolmafters, H- is too verbose in liis
com. preachers, and professors. Our young positions. If he were an indigent au. folks now have not the tenth part of thor, who fold his works by the Cheet, these hardships to endure, nor a tenth I could pardon him : for such an one part of their industry and learoing. lofes a penny, along with every idle
The Athenians, a polite people, sentence that he strikes outof his copy ::: gave polite names to ugly things. his neceffities will not suffer him to part They called the jail, the house ; the with his superfluitis. hangman, Tou Anjin the commoner i a The Greeks and Latins made the thief, a LOVIR : that is, “ one who. Mufes, the Graces, and all the Virtues, falls in love with a purse of money, or females. with fome such pretty object, &c.” Boileau was a good poet; but, nor
In many places Erasmus highly content with that, he wanted to pass commends Sigismundus Gelenius, who for a good scholar. He had, in truth, was the corrector of Froben's press. a Nender stock of erudition; and in “ His uncommon erudition," says he, this moft of our celebrated English “ agd the probity and fincerity of his poets resenible him. He was mure manders, render him worthy of a learned ihan Perrault ; but that is