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and influenced through a long fuccef- general as fuch, and without diftine fion of generations, even to the time views, is to be regarded as romance we live in. If it should ever be to- and folly. Regicide, and parricide, jally'extinguished, the lofs I fear will and facrilege, are but fiétions of fube great. It is this which has given perftition, corrupting jurisprudence by its character to modern Europe. Iz destroying its fimplicity. The muris this which has distinguished it un- der of a king, or a queen, or a bishop der all its forms of government, and or a father, are only common homi distinguished it to its advantage, from cide ; and if the people are by any the states of Alia, and possibly from chance, or in any way gainers by it, ê thofe ftates, which flourished in the fort of homicide much the most par moft brilliant periods of the antique donable, and into which we ought world. It was this, which, without not to make too severe a scrutiny. confounding ranks, had produced a . On the scheme of this barbarous noble equality, and handed it down philofophy, which is the offspring of through all the gradations of social cold hearts and muddy underitando life. It was this opinion which mi- ings, and which is as void of folid tigated kings into companions, and wisdom, as it is deftiture of all taste raised private meo to be fellows like and elegance, laws are fupported only kings. Without force or opposition, by their own terrors, and by the conit fubdued the fiercenefs of pride and cern, which each individual may find power; it obliged fovereigns to sub- in i hem, from his own private fpecomit to the soft collar of social esteem, lations, or can spare to them from his compelled stern authority to submit to own private intérefts. In the groves elegance, and gave a domination van of their academy, at the end of every quilher of laws, to be fubdued by vifto, you see nothing but the gallows. mapners.
--; 1: Nothing is left that engages the affecBut now all is to be changed. All tions on the part of the commonthe pleasing illusions, which made wealth, "On the principles of this power gentle, and obedience liberal, mechanic philosophy, our inftitutions which harmonized the different fhades can never be embodied, if I may ufe of life, and which by a bland assimila the expreffon, in persons; fo as to tion, incorporated into politics the create in us love, veneration, admira sentiments which beautify and foften tion, or attachment. But that fort private society, are to be diffolved by of reason which banishes the affections this new conquering empire of light is incapable of filling their place. and reason. All the decent drapery These public affections, combined with of life is to be rudely torn off. All manners, are required sometimes as the fuperadded ideas, furnished from fupplements, fometimes as correctives, the wardrobe of a moral imagination, always' as aids to law. The precere which the heart owns, and the un- given by a wise man, as well as a great derstanding ratifies, as necessary to critic, for the construction of poems, cover the defects of our daked shiver- is equally true as to fates. Non ja ing nature, and to raise it to dignity in tis eft pulchra effe poemata, dulcia funta our own eftimation, are to be explod. There ought to be a system of manéd as a ridiculous, abfürd, and anti- ners in every dation which a wellquated fashion.
· formed mind would be dispofed to re. On this scheme of things, a king lish. To make us love our country, is but a man ; à queen is but a our country ought to be lovely. woman; a woman is but an animal ; But power, of some kind or other. had an animal not of the highest or will survive the shock in which man. der. All homage paid to the fex in pers and opinions perith; and it will
find other and worfe means for its sup- in the minds of men, plots and aftaffiport. The usurpation which, in order nations will be anticipated by prevento subvert antient institutions, has de- tive murder and preventive confiscaItroyed antient principles, will hold tion, and that long roll of grim and power by arts similar to those by which bloody maxims, which form the poliit has acquired it. When the old feu- tical code of all power, not ftanding dal and chivalrous spirit of Fealty, on its own honour, and the honour of which, by freeing kings from fear, those who are to obey it. Kings will freed both kings and subjects from the be tyrants from policy when fubjects precautions of tyranoy, shall be extinct are rebels from principle.
On the Religious Establishment of England. * THE majority of the people of from infancy to manhood. Even
1 England, far from thinking a re. . when our youth, leaving schools and ligious national establishment unlaw. univerfities, enter that most important ful, hardly think it lawful to be with. period of life which begins to link out one. In France you are wholly experience and study togetler, and miltaken if you do not believe us a- when with that view they visit other bove all other things attached to it, countries, initead of old domeftics and beyond all other nations; and whom we have feen as governors to when this people has acted unwisely principal men from other parts, threeand unjustifiably in its favour (as in fourths of those who go abroad with fome instances they have done most our young nobility and gentlemen are certainly) in their very errors you will ecclefiaftics; not as austere mafters, at least discover their zeal. i nor as mere followers ; but as friends
This priociple rups through the and companions of a graver character, whole system of their polity. They and not seldom persons as well born do not consider their church establish as themselves. With them, as relament as convenient, but as essential tions, they most commonly keep up à to their state ; not as a thing hetero- close connexion through life. By geneous and separable ; something ad- this connexion we' conceive that we ded for accommodation ; what they attach our gentlemen to the church may either keep up or lay aside, ac- and we liberalize the church by an cording to their temporary ideas of intercourse with the leading characters convenience. They consider it as the of the country. foundation of their whole conftitution,' So tenacious are we of the old ecwith which, and with every part of clesiastical modes and fashions of inwhich, it hold's an indissoluble union. Ritution, that very little alteration has Church and state are ideas inseparable been made in them since the fourin their minds, and scarcely is the one teenth or fifteenth century; adhering ever mentioned without mentioning in this particular, as in all things elle, the other.
to our old settled maxim, never en* Our education is ro formed as to tirely nor at once to depart from anconfirm and fix this impression. Our tiquity. We found these old inftirueducation is in a manner wholly in the tions, on the whole, favourable to mohands of ecclefiaftics, and in all stages rality and discipline; and we though.c From the fame
they they were fufcept ble of amendment, nobility, independent. without altering, the ground. We From the united considerations of thought that they were cap-bie of re- religion and conftitutional policy, from ceiving and meliorating, and above all their opinion of a duty to make a fure of preserving the ac:eilions or science provision for the consolation of the and literature, as the order of Prori. feeble and the instruction of the ignodence should succeTively produce rant, they have incorporated and iden: them. 'Aod after all, wiih this Go. tified the estace of the church with thic and monkish education (for such the mass of private property, of which it is in the grouod-work) we may the state is got the proprietor, tither put in our claim to as ample and as for use or dominion, but the gaardia: early a share in all the improvements only and the regulator. They have in science, in arts, and in literature, ordained that the proviGon of this estawhich have illuminated and adornei blishment might be as itable as the the modern world, as any other na. earth on which it stands, and thouli tion in Europe ; we think one main not fluctuate with the Euripus of cause of this improvement was our funds and acions. pot despising the patrimony of know. The men of England, the men, I ledge which was left us by our forefa. mean, of light, and leading in Enge thers.
land, whofe wisdom (if they have It is from our attachment to å any) is open and direct, would be church establishment that the English ashamed, as of a filly deceitful trick, pation did not think it wise to en- to profess any religion in name, which trust that great fundamental interest by their proceedings they appeared to of the whole to what they ruft no contemo. If by their condue (ilie part of their civil or military public only language that rarely lies) they service, that is to the unsteady and seemed to regard the great ruling precarious contribution of individuals. principle of the moral and the DaturThey go further. They certainly al world, as a mere invention to keep Lever have suffered and nerer wilĮ the vulgar, in obedience, they appre. Suffer the fixed estate of the church hend that by such a conduct they to be converted into a pension, to de- would defeat the politic porpose they pend on the treasury, and to be de. have in view. They would find it layed, withheld, or perhaps to be ex. difficult to make others to believe in tinguished by fiscal difficulties; which a system to which they manifeftly gave difficulties may sometimes be pretend- no credit themselves. The Christian ed for political purposes, and are in statesmen of this land would indeed fact often brought on by the extrava- first provide for the multitude ; begance, negligence, aud rapacity of po- cause it is the multitude; and is there. liticians. The people of England fore, as such, the first object in the think that they have constitutional ecclesiastical institution, and in all in motives, as well as religious, againit ftirutions. They have been taught, any projet of turning their indepen. that the circumstance of the gorjel's dent clergy into ecclefiaftical pension. being preached to the poor, was one ers of state. They tremble for their of the great rests of its true millon. liberty, from the influence of a clergy They thiøk, therefore, that those do dependent on the crown ; they trem- not believe it, who do not take caro ble for the public tranquillity from the it should be preached to the poor. disorders of a factious clergy, if it But as they know that charity is not were made to depend upon any other confined to any one description, but than the crown. They therefore made ought to apply itself to al men who 8:eir church, like their king and their have wanis, they are pot deprived of
a due and anxious sensation of piry to fruition defeated by meditated schemes the distresses of the miserable great. and contrivances of delight; and no They are not repelled through a faf. interval, no obstacle, is interposed tidious delicacy, at the stench of their between the with and the accomplish, arrogance and presumption, from a ment. medicinal attention to their mental The people of England know how blorches and running fores. They are little influence the teachers of religion sensible, that religious instruction is are likely to have with the wealthy of more consequence to them than to and powerful of long standing, and any others; from the greatness of the how much less with the newly fortu. temptation to which they are expose nate, if they appear in a manner no ed; from the important consequences way affortea to those with whom they that attend their faults ; from the muft associate, and over whom they contagion of their ill example; from muft even exercise, in some cases, the necesity of bowing down the stub. fomething like an authority. What born neck of their pride and ambition must they think of that body of teachto the yoke of moderation and virtue ; ers, if they see it in no part above from a consideration of the fat ftupi. the establishment of their domestic dity and gross ignorance concerning fervants? If the poverty was volunwhat imports men most to know, tary, there might be some difference: which prevails at courts, and at the Strong instances of self-denial operate head of armies, and in fenates, as powerfully on our minds; and a man much as at the loom and in the field. who has no wants has obtained great
The English people are satisfied, freedom and firmness, and even digthat to the great the consolations of nity. But as the mass of any descrip. religion are as necessary as its inftruc- tion of men are but men, and their nions. They too are among the un. poverty cannot be voluntary, that happy. They feel personal pain and disrespect which attends upon all Lay domestic sorrow. In these they have poverty, will not depart from the Ecno privilege, but are subject to pay clesialtical. Our provident constitu their fult contingent to the contribu« tion has therefore taken care that tions levied on mortality, They want those who are to inft:uct presumptu. this sovereign halm under their goaw, ous ignorance, those who are to be ing cares and anxieties, which being censors Over infoleat vice, Mould nei. less conversant about the limited wanis ther incur their contempı, nor live of animal life, range without limit, upon their alms; nor will it tempt and are diversified by infinite combi- the rich to a negle& of the true mepations in the wild and upbounded dicine of their minds. For there regions of imagination. Some chą. reasons, whilst we provide first for ritable dole is wanting to these, our the poor, and with a parental folici. often very unhappy brethren, to fill tude, we have not relegated religion the gloomy void that reigns in minds (like fomething we were ashamed to which have nothing on earth to hope hew) to oblcure municipal ties or or fear; something to relieve in the rustic villages. No! We will have killing languor and over-laboured lafli. her to exali her mitred fr-ot in courts Lude of those who have nothing to and parliaments. We will have her do ; something to excite an appetite mixed throughout the whole mass of to exifence in the palled satiety life, and blended with all the classes which attends on all pleasures which of f ciety. The people of England may be bought, where nature is not will thew to the haughty, poteatates left to ber own process, where even of the world, and to their talking loSefire iş anticipated, and therefore phifters, that a free, a generous, an
ision: 22:03, tococts the high the who are often the beginners of Thaqifraiss cits churc; that it will them on fortese, and soc a love of not be the rise of wealth and the iefdienial and morification of titles, ot 207 cm (recies of picad the antien church, thus cakes fone pretending a look down wish fun look akance at the citic Soos, and upos wiwithe; isok up to w tn reie. bozours, and reserves, which, taken rince, not prelune i tramp!: on fon do perfon, are let apart for visbu acquired perfonal ability, which ts. This Ears of the people of Ecg. they inicad altays to be, and wbich land are begeithio They bex oftea is the frut, not the reward, ibefe men fperk abroad. Their tog. (ior what can be the reward :) cf gue betrays them. Their !a-guage is learning, piety, ant virtue. They can in the patsis of fracd; in the cast see, without pain or grudging, an and gibberish oi hypocrify. Tbe peoArchbishop precede a Duke. They pie of England put thisk lo, waen can see a Bishop of Durhin, or a chefe praters affect to carry back the Bishop of Wincheiter, in possession of clergy to that primitive evangelic poten thousand pounds a year: add car. verry which, in the Spirit, oucht al. not conceive why it is in worse hands ways to exist in them, and in as too, than estates to the like amouet in the however we may like it) but in the hands of inis Earl, or that Squire; thing muft te varied, wben the rela: although it may be uce, that so many tion of that body to the fate is altere dogs and hories are not kept by the ed; when manners, whes modes of former, and fed with victuals which lite, when indeed the whole order of ought to nourish the children of the human affairs has 'undergone a total people. It is true, the whole church revolution. We shall believe those tevenue is not always employed, and reformers to be then honest enthu. to cvery shilling, io charity ; nor per- kaits, not as 'now we think them, haps ought it ; but fomethirg is gene. cheats and deceivers. when we fee rally so employed. It is better to them throwing their own goods into cherish virtue and humanity, by leave common, and submitting their own ing much to free will, even with some persons to the austere discipline of the dots to the object, than to attempt to early church. make men mere machines and inftrue with these ideas rooted in their ments of a political benevolence. The owo minds, the commons of Great world on the whole will gain by a li- Britain, in the national emergencies, berty, without which virtue caonot will never [feek their resource from exift.
, the confiscation of the extates of the 7 When once the commonwealth has church and poor. “Sacrilege and : established the estates of the church profcription are not among the ways as property, it can, consistently, hear and means of our committee of fup. . nothing of the more or the less. 'Too ply. The Jews in Change Alley much and too little are treason against have not ģet dared to hint their bopes property. Wbat evil can arise from the of a mortgage on the revenues belong.. quantity in any hand, whilft the fun ing to the fee of Canterbury. I am preme authority has the ful', fovoreign not afraid that I thall be disavowed, luperintendance over this, as over ail when I assure you that there is not? property, to prevent every species of w:e public man in the kingdom, whom abuse; and, whenever it notably des you would wish to quote ; no not one viates, to give to it a direction agrec. of any party or defcription, who does able to the purposes of its inftitution. not reprobate the difhoneft, prefidious,
In England most of us conceive and cruel confiscation which the ba. that it is envy and malignity towards tional assembly has been compelled