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one, and so the wonder with them The experiment was twice after. ceased. But it was not so with the wards in presence of Ras Michael. king : it made the moft favourable But he would not risk his good and lasting impression upon his mindl; - shields, and always produced the nor did I ever after see, in his coun- table, saying, “ Engedan and tenance, aný marks either of doubt those foolish boys were rightly seror diffidence, but always, on the con- ved; they thought Yagoube was a trary, the most decisive proofs of liar like themselves, and they loft friendship, confidence, and attention, their fhields ; but I believed him, and the moft implicit belief of eve- and gave him my table for curiofity ry thing I advanced upon any subject only, and so I saved mine."'.' from my own knowledge.

Singular Cuftonis in Abyssinia *.

IT is here I propose to take notice of that people eating, what they call 1 of an unnatural custom which pre. raw meat, in every page, and yet they vails universally in Abyshoia, and were ignorant of this. Poncet, too, which is early ages seems to have had done the fame, but Poncet they been commion to the whole world. I had not read ; and if any writer upon did not think that any person of no. Ethiopia had omitted to mention it, derate knowledge in profane learning it was because it was one of those facts could have been ignorant of this re- to notorious to be repeated to swell markable custom among the nations a volume. of the east. But what still more fur- It must be from prejudice alone prised me, and is the leaft pardonable we condemn the eating of raw fesh; part of the whole, was the ignorance no precept, divine, or human, that I of part of the law of God, the earliest know, forbids it ; and if it is true, as that was given to man, the most fre. later travellers have discovered, that quently noted, infifted upon, and pro- there are nations ignorant of the use hibited. I have said, in the course of fire, any law against eating raw flesh of the narrative of my journey from could never have been intended by Masuah, that, a small distance from God as obligatory upon mankind in Axum, I overtook on the way three general. At any rate, it is certainly travellers, who seemed to be soldiers, not clearly known, whether the eat. driving a cow before them. They ing raw Besh was not an earlier and halted at a brook, threw down the more general practice than by prepabeast, and one of 'them cut a pretty ring it with fire ; I think it was. large collop of flesh from its buttocks, . Many wise and learned men have after which they drove the cow gent- doubted whether it was at fast perTy on as before. A violent outcry mitted to man to eat animal food at was raised in England at hearing this all. I do not pretend to give any 0. circumstance, which they did not he pinion upon the subject, but many to. litate to pronounce impossible, when the pics have been maintained successfulmanners and customs of Aby linia ly upon much more Blender grounds. were io ihem utterly unknown The God, the author of life, and the best Jesuits, established in Abyfinia for a judge of what was proper to mainbove a hundred years, had told them taio it, gaye this regimen to our first

parents • From the fane,

- Behold, I have given you every whole law; which not only thews “ herb bearing feed, which is upun that this abule was common, but that " the face of all the earth, and eve. it was deeply rooted in, and inter wo

ry tree, in the which is the inuit of ven with, the manners of the Heba as a tree yielding leed : to you it shall rews. He positively prohibits it four u be for meat:" And though, im- times in one chapter in Deuteronomediately after, he mentions both my, and thrice in one of the chapters beaits and fowls, and every thing that of L-viticus--" Thou shalt not eat creeperh upon the earth, he does not “ the blood, for the blood is the life; fay that he has designed any of thefe " thou shalt pour it upon the earth as meat for man. On the contrary, « like water." he seems to have intended the vege- Although the many instances of table creation as food for both man Gd's tenderness to the brute cread and beast And to every best of tion, that constantly occur in the Mo" the earth and to every fowl of the faical precepts, and are a very beauti. “ air, and to every thing that creep- ful pait of them, and though the bars “eth upon the earth, wherein there barity of the custom itsel: might reai " is life, I have given every green fonably lead us to think that 'huma. “ herb for meat ; and it was so." Af. nity alone was a sufficient motive for ter the iod, when mankind began the prohibition of eating aniinals a.. to repoffels the earth, God gave N ah live, yet nothing can be more certain a much more extensive permillion than that greater confequences were “ Every moving thing that livech annexed to the indu ging in this crinie " shall be meat for you ; even as the than what was apprehended from a " green herb have I given you al mere depravity of manners. One of " things."

the molt learned and lensible men that As the criterion of judging of their ever wrote upon the sacred Scriprures aptitude for food was declared to be observes, that God, in forbidding this their moving and having lif, a dana practice, uses more severe ceruncager appeared of misinterpretation, and tion, and more threate ning lan, vage, that these creatures thruld be used than against any other fin, excepting living; a thing which God by no idolatry, with which it is constantly means intended, and therefore, im- joined. God declares, • I will fet mediately after, it is said, " But flesh “ my face against him that eatech zi with the life thereof, which is the blood, in the same manner as I will « blood thereof, shall you not eat;" against him that facrificeth his son or, as it is rendered by the best inter " to Moloch; I will set my face an preters, " Flesh, or members, torn * gainst him that 'eateth flesh wh from living animals having the blood « blood, till I cut him off from the in them, thou shalt not eat.' We see people." then, by this prohibition, that this a- . We have an intance in the life of buse of eating living meat, or part of Saul that fews the propensity of the animals while yet alive, was known Ifraelites to this crime. Saul's army, in the days of Noah, and forbidden after a battle, Alew, that is, fell vora. after being so known, and it is pre- ciously upon the catile they had tai cisely what is practised in Abyssinia ken, and threw them upon the gt und to this day. This law, then, was prie to cut off their Aeth, and eat there or to that of Moles, but it came from raw, so that the army was defiled by the same legislator. It was given to eating blood, or living anim li. To Noah, and consequently obligatory prevent this, Saul cauted roll to him upon the whole world. Moses, how- a great stone, and ordered those that ever, infilts upon it throughout his killed their oxen to cut their throats Vol. XII, No. 67.

хроя

upon that ftone. This was the only though with a truly depraved heart, lawful way of killing animals for food; you twine a number of serpents as the tying of the ox and throwing it round you, and, pretending to be ofupon the ground was not permitted feffed with some god, or spirit, you as equivalent. The Ifraelites did tear to pieces with bioody mouths the probably in that case as do the Abys- bowels of living goats, which cry all linians at this day; they cut a part of the time from the torture they suffer." its throat, so that blood may be feen From all this it appears, that the pracupon the ground, but nothing mortal tice of the Abyffinians eating live ao to the animal followed from that nimals at this day, was very far from wound. But, after laying his head being new, or, what was nonsensical. ppon a large stone, and cutting his by said, impossible. And I shall only throat, the blood fell from on high, or further observe, that those of my was poured on the ground like water, readers that wish to indulge a fpirit and sufficient evidence appeared the of criticism upon the great variety crearure was dead before it was at. of customs, men, and manners, relatempted to eat it. We have seen that ted in this history, or have those cria the Abyslinians came from Palestine ticisms attended to, should furnish a very few years after this; and we themselves with a more decent stock are not to doubt that they then car- of reading than, in this instance, they ried with them this, with many other seem to have poflefled; or, when a Jewish customs, which they have con- nother example occurs of that kind, tinued to this day.

which they call impossible, that they The author I last quoted says, that would take the truth of it upon my it is plain, from all the books of the word, and believe what they are not eaftern nations, that their motive for sufficiently qualified to inveltigate. . eating flesh with the life, or limbs of Confiftent with the plan of this living animals cut off with the blood, work, which is to describe the manwas from motives of religion, and for ners of the several nations through the purposes of idolatry, and so it pro- which I passed, good and bad, as I bably had been among the Jews; for observed them, I cannot avoid giving one of the reasons given in Leviticus sone account of this Polyphemus for the prohibition of eating blood, banquet, as far as decency will peror living flesh, is, that the people may mit me ; it is part of the history of a no longer offer sacrifices to devils, af. barbarous people; whatever I migh, ter whom they have gone a.whoring. wish, I cannot decline it. If the reader chooses to be further In the capital, where one is safe informed how very common this from surprise at all times, or in the practice was, he need only read the country or villages, when the rains Halacoth Gedalorh, orits translation, have become so constant that the val. 'Where the whole chapter is taken up leys will not bear a horse to pass with instances of this kind.

them, or that men cannot venture far That this practice likewise pre. from home through fear of being survailed in Europe, as well as in Alia rounded and swept away by tempoand Africa, may be collected from rary torredis, occasioned by suddeer various authors. The Greeks had showers on the mountains ; in a word, their bloody feasts and sacrifices where when a man can fay he is safe at they are living filesh ; these were called home, and the spear and shield is Omophagia. Arnobius says, “ Let hung up in the hall, a number of peous pass over the horrid scenes pre- ple of the best fashion in the villages. sented at the Bacchanalian feaft, of both sexes, courtiers in the palace, wherein, with a counterfeited fury, or citizens in the town, meci toçe.

Thes

ther to dine between twelve and one ed bread of a sourish taste, far from clock.

being disagreeable, and very easily di. A long table is set in the middle gested, made of a grain called teff. It of a large room, and benches beside is of different colours, from black to it for a number of guests who are in the colour of the whitest wheat-bread, vited. Tables and benches the Por- Three or four of these cakes are getugueze introduced amongst them; nerally put uppermost, for the food of but bull hides, spread upon the ground, the person oppofite to whose feat they ferved them before, as they do in the are placed. Beneath these are four camp and country now. A cow or or five of ordinary bread, and of a ball, one or more, as the company is blackish kind. These serve the malnumerous, is brought close to the ter to wipe his fingers upon; and afa door, and his feet strongly tied. The terwards the seryant, for bread to his kin that hangs down under his chin dinner, and throat, which I think we call the Two or three servants then come, dew-lap in England, is cut only so each with a square piece of beef in deep as to arrive at the fat, of which their bare hands, laying it upon the it totally confifts, and, by the separa. cakes of reff, placed like dishes down tion of a few small blood-vefsels, fix the table, without cloth or anything or seven drops of blood only fall up- else beneath them. By this time all on the ground. They have no ftone, the guests have knives in their hands, bench, nor altar upon which these and their men bave large crooked cruel affaffins lay the animal's head in ones, which they put to all sorts of this operation.; I should beg his par. uses during the time of the war. The don indeed for calling him an affallin, women have small ciasped knives, as he is not so merciful as to aim at such as the worst of the kind made the life, but, on the contrary, to keep at Birmingham, fold for a penny the beast alive till he be totally eat each. up. Having satisfied the Molaical The company are fo ranged that law, according to his conception, by one man fits between two women; pouriog these fix or seven drops upon the man with his long knife cuts a the ground, two or more of them fall thin piece, which would be thought to work; on the back of the beast, a good beef stake in England, while and on each side of the spine they cut you see the motion of the fibres yet kin-deep; then putting their fingers perfectly distinct, and alive in the flesh, between the Aeth and the skin, they No man in Abylinia, of any falhion begio to strip the hide of the animal whatever, feeds himself, or touches half way down his ribs, and so on to his own meat. The women take the buttock, cutting the skin where the stake and cut it length-ways like ver it hinders them commodiously to strings, about the thickness of your ftrip the poor animal bare. All the little finger, then crossways into felh on the buttocks is cut off then, square pieces, something smaller than and in solid, square pieces, without dice. This they lay upon a piece of bones, or much effusion of blood; the teff bread, strongly powdered with and the prodigious noise the animal black pepper, or Cayenne pepper, and makes is a ligoal for the company to fossil-salt, they them wrap it up in br down to table.

the teff bread like a cartridge. There are then laid before every In the mean time, the man having geit, instead of places, round cakes, put up his knife, with each hand If I may so call them, about twice as refting upon his neighbour's knee, big as a pan-cake, and something his body stooping, his head low and Vicker and sougher. It is uoleaven- forward, and mouth opca very like

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an idiot, turns to the one whore car- bones with their teeth like dogs.. tridge is first ready, who stuffs the. In the mean time, those within whole of it into his mout', which is are very much elevated ;. love lights so full that he is in constant danger all its fires, and every thing is perof being choked. This is a mark of mitted with abfolure freedom. There grandeur. Thegreater the man would is no coyner , no d lays, no need of seem to be, the larger piece he takes appointments or retirement to gratify in bis mout; and the more nuise he their wishes ; there are no roonis but makes in chewing it, the more polite one, in which they facrifice hoih to he is thought to be. Th y, hare in- Bacchus and to Venus. The two deed, a proverb that says, Beg. men nearest the vacuum a pair have % gars and thieves only eat small made on the bench by leaving their

pieces, or without making a noile."! seats, hold up their upper garment Having dispatched this morsel, which like a skreen before the two that he does very exp dit:oully, his next have let the bench; and, if we may femalo neighbour holds forth ano judge by found, they seem to think ther cartridge, which goes the same it as great a sham: to make love in way, and so on till he is satisfied. filence as to eat. Replaced in their He never drinks till he has finished feats again, the company drink the eating; and, before he b gins, in baphy couple's health ; and their exgratitude to the fair ones that fed ample is followed at different ends! him, he makes up two small rolls of of the table, as each couple is difpof. the same kind and form; each of h's ed. All ih's pafies without renark neighbours Onen iheir mouths at or scandal, not a licentious word is the time time, while with cach hand uttered, no ihe most diftant joke uphe pits their portion into their on the transacion. mouihs. He then fails to drinking These lad es are, for the most part, out of a large handsome horn; the women of family and character, and la '95 eat till they are lat sfied, and they and the r gallants are recipro. tren al drink together, '“ Vive la cally d tinguilled by the name l'ordJoye et la Jeunesie!” A great deal age, which answers to whut in Italy 0 cirth and joke goes round, very thay call Cic:lbey; and, iod.cd, I feldom with any niixture of acriniony bi.ve that the vare itself, as well or ill humour.'.

as the practice, is Hebrew; schus All this time, the unfortunate vic- chás barim, si: nifiis aitenda..ts va come tim at the door is bleedig indeed, pavions of the bride, or bride's man, bu bleeding little. "As long as they as we call it in England. The only can cut off the Besh from his bonis, difference is, that in Europe ihe intithey do not meddie with the thighs, macy and attendance continues during or the parts where the great arteries the marriage, while, among the Ji ws; are. At lift they fall' upon tie it was permited only the few days thighs likewile ; and soon after the of the marriage ce emony. The a. animal, bleeding to dah, becomes version to Judaism, in the ladies of so tough that the canibal, who have Europe, has probably led them to the the rest of it to -t, finci very hard prolongation of the term. york to separate the flesh from the

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