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State of the BAROMETER in inches and decimals, and of Farenheit's There

MOMETER in the open air, taken in the morning before sun-rise, and at noon; and the quantity of rain-water fallen, in inches and decimals, from the 30th June 1790, to the 30th of July, near the foot of Arthur's

Seat.

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0.05

Clear. Ditto. Rain, hail, & thus. Ditto. Showers. Clear. Ditto, Ditto. Kain. Clear. Showers. Ditto. Rain. Showers. Rain. Showers. Clear. Rain. Ditto. Ditto.

29.5 29.475 29.257 0.31 29.4 29.325 0.02 29.6 29.9 29.9125 29.575

0.38 29.45 29.425 29.425 0.05 29.4125 0.18 29.2

0.04 29.2

0.13 29.5125

0.03 29.775 29.7262 0.04 29.4725

0.03

0.05 28.825 0.08 29.525 29.875 29.7 0.32 29.75 29.825 29.675 | 0.04 29.85 29.6

29.35 | 0.07 il 55 | 62 | 29.3

Quantity of Rain, 1.86

0.04

29.355

Ditto.

Clear. Ditto. Rain. Clear. Ditto. Showers. Clear. Ditto. Rain. Clear.

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the private life of the Regent (the Duke of Orleans). By the Duc de Richelieu t.

T HE first impression which the ral and favourable opinion entertain

i new appointment of the Duke ed of the Duke of Orieans, detested of Orleans to the Regency made up- him, and secretly fomented cabais 2on the minds of the people was fa- gainst him. They composed a fable vourable to the Duke. The whole which was attribuied to Madame his talk was about his affability, his huma. muther, because she herse't repeat:d it, nity, his decisive, butgracious deporte “ There was once, said the fable, a ment, and especially his openness and great Qucer, who, upon bcing delihis loyalty. His campaigns in Italy vered of a beautiful prince, invited, and in Spain were recolle&cd, the according to custom, wil the fa ries of barcles he had gained, and the places the empyreum, one only excipied, he had taken were fpoken of, with whom fi forgot. The fealt was ce. that satisfaction so natural to French- lebrated with magnificence, and the men, who are always exceedingly at. fairies, crowding round the charınıg tached to their princes, especially to little infani, each of thein give him a those who are brave. It was said gift, as is the practice in luch cases. that he was well istorined, and even One gave him courage, another geitlelearned. Artists and men of letiers, nets, a third wit, a fourth judgment, Fontenelle especially, who was then the fifth beauty, the fixth strength; the fashionable autisor, and gave the others bestowed on him kearning, a ton in company, praised him up to love of the fine arts and generosiy. the skies; the parliament, charmed At this moment approachind the nee with being called to the adminiftra- glected fairy, who, full of rage and tion of affairs, and of being able to secret retentment, resolved to give offer remonftrances to kings, attached him a gift favourable in appearance, themselves to him; but the severe, but which, being carried to excess, the bigotted, or the hypocrirical of should become faral to hini. This the old Court, the party of Madame was pliancy of temper, without deterMaintenon, though not numerous, yet mining how far it was to be carried; powerful, the Jesuits, the Pope's and accordingly she meant that it Nuncio, the Molinifts, and the Priests fhoold render useleis to him all his o. of Sc Sulpice, offended at the gene- ther good qualities."

Easiness

A

2

+ Memoires du Marechal Due de Richelieu. The subject of these Memoirs is a grand nephew of the famous Cardinal de Richelieu. They are curious; and, though written in the first person, are the work of another pen. They were composed, under the Duke's own eye, from materials in his poflefon. “The pariib regiilers at Versailles, says he, do not record the day of my birth, nor could I ever discover it, (sometime in 1699): neither will it be calily believed, that my mother brought me into the world afier on y five months pregnancy, especially by those who are acquainted with my great age, and the life I have lid. It is le nature alone tha' i owe thë ftrength, and at the same time the delicacy of a constitution which has refined the attacks of time, and of the passions. At the hour of my birth I stiiiggie i with death, and was kept in a box filed with cotton. New-born chiiren that are weak and delicate need only a genial warmth, and my father would not funer any physician to meddle with a frame fo weakly as mine, but ordered me to be left toch operation of nature. It is, therefore, to nature alone that I owe my existence; the repassed the imprudences of my another, which had hastened my birth, and the has given me that folid constitution which has preferved me to extreme old age, notwithstanding the injuries suflaincd from excefits which dcitroy the Itrongeft."

Easiness of temper was indeed the they were men of spirit, of vivacity, principal defect in the character of and wit. He himself had beltowed this prince, the source of all the ero on these favourites the name of roués, rors of his regency, and of his con- an equivocal epithet, which they ex. nection with dangerous or contempti- plained, by saying, that they were ble perfons : and if this facility was ready to be broke on the wheel for him ; of advantage to him in the study of but which he explained by adding, the profound sciences and arts, it was that they were worthy of being broken also the cause of his allo:ving himself on the wheel, not like ordinary maleto be governed by Law and Dubois, factors, but as courtiers, who were people unworthy of his confidence. ready to applaud every action of their

The great fault of the regent, and prince, however voluptuous. which he had imbibed from the Ab- It was the custom of the regent to bé Dubois, the person who had the dedicate a part of the day to buúnels; care of his education, was the want but towards evening he retired with of all principle either of religion his mistresses and his roues to sup, to or morality. The system of mo. play, to drink, &c. and to reason the dern philosophers was then un repast with the most diverting news known; but Dubois had studied the of the town ; all of them about nine principles of that sect of Pagan philo- o'clock repaired to the Palais Royal fophers who taught that all actions with Madame de Mouchi, Madame are in themselves indifferent, and were de Sabran, the Dutchess of Gefvres, rendered bad only by law or custom; and often Madanie de Berry, the re; he had instilled these principles into gent's own daughter, who, though

the mind of his pupil, and had taught young, was initiated in all the noc: him that laws are not made for prin- turnal mysteries.

ces, but are made by them at their To this strange society was somepleasure. Thus sensual pleasures be times joined a detachment of opera coming his ruling paflion, he confi- girls for the entertainment of the dered the laws as trifles, not to be company : there were also comedians segarded, and the restraints of strict and other persons, whose only recomorality as the work of popular opi- mendation was the being poífeffed of nion, which he only sometimes re- a certain degree of wit, whose talents fpected on account of the prejudices lay in repartee, or 'who were knowa of the people. He boasted of his to be habituated to debauchery, parties of pleasure, of the nocturnal There virtue, and even justice were exceffes he committed with his friends, criticised; they ridiculed all the maxof the favours he had received from ims of the old court, which they the fair ; fo that one person drew his termed the antiquaille; all servants portrait in two words before the late an: Jacqueys were excluded; every king who approved of it; he called one served himself; and when the acbir a Bracgart of vice. Business cost customed hour arrived, the doors him liale trouble, on account of bis were Mut, and had all Paris been in quickness of apprehension ; but he flames, the regent was uiterly inachad naturally an averfion to labour. cellible. In that company there were

Dubois had inspired him with such neither princes, nor conicdians, nor a bad opinion of mankind in general, mistresses, nor refpect, nor ceremony; that he confounded the honeft man all ranks were confounded, ali disa with the knave, saying that all werë tinctions levelled; he who said the alike, and even adding, that those he best things was the most honoured ; had honoured with his friendship sometimes, even, (ihall I venture to rere no better than the rest, but that tell it?) the candles were extinguish

ed,

ed, and the Duke of Orleans, who ness; and had he not spent the night was naturally of a prying and curious in that way, he would have employed disposition, and fond of scandalous a- it in wandering about with his comnecdotes, sometimes had a closer dextc. panions. His inclination to ramble roully filled with torches, the door of to a distance with a few friends, even which he suddenly opened, and dif- on foot, often alarmed his family; he covered the secrets of his company. would sometimes enter like a com

In thele orgies the regent learned mon person into companies known for all the news of the day; there, he the freedom of their principles, or for said, he formed his judgment of the the diffoluteness of their manners ; merit of perfons of distinction, and as and all companies were agreeable to people were allowed and encouraged him if wit, and libertinism, or literaio speak without reserve, he there ture and the fine arts, were to be ftudied the public opinion ; but be found there. Such was his private kept his own secret, and never gave life, and no body can speak of it with his company to understand what use more cercainty than I, for I was of. he made of the liberties they took; ten an ocular witness of the scenes I he often rallied even himself and his describe. I was likewise often a parmistreiles, who were generally all taker of the misfortunes he experi. present, the moft favoured never being enced, and I strictly recommended to able to exclude her rivals. This the historian of my time, not to pass scene laited till morning, when many over in silence the pi&ture of these of them went home to sleep off their scenes which faithfully repre!ent the fatigues, and acquire strength for sup- manners of that period. I gave him porting the same riot the next day. the materials, and he promised to

No one was more agreeable in supprefs only such relations as were there nocturnal societies than the re- unworthy of history." gent himself: be had a great deal of The Court of the late king had sweetness, politeness, and affability ; been so severe during the last years he never offended any one, at least, of that monarch, and Madame.de to his face'; but always behaved with Maintenon had introduced so much the greatest gentlenels and urbanity. ceremony and reserve into its pleaIn conversation he was often displea. sures, that France now felt itself reliesed when his friends were attacked; ved from a yoke, except the devobut he always contented himself with tees, and excused the regent for all saying, that he would be happy if the his excelles. Ar the death of the subject was changed. This he always King, the Regent was the idol of all said to his favourites, when they were the youth, and had no enemies but aspeaking ill of Law or any other per- mong the remains of the old court, fons that were unworthy of his fa- and among the old people who were vours. Though in love with every no longer ambitious, or who did not pretty woman he saw, he was jealous wish to conform their rigid morals to of none, being more attached to the the transient circuinitances of the iadulgences, than to the delicacies of time; he was, belides, much beloved the salon. He was free in his dif- by the oficers who had seen hin in course, but he knew how to dissemble; I'aly and in Spain, where he had comand though he perfectly well under- manded with fo much fplendor and stood human nature, he behaved as fuccefs; the military youth loudly apif he did not.

plauded his pleasures and his nocturHe had so much accustomed hin- nal parties, eagerly dearing to be adself to these nocturnal affemblies, that mitted to them, and for thai purpole vey became oecessary to lis happi- endeavouring to qualify themselves,

. by

by acquiring that never failing title, manners, a disgust at etiquette, and celebrity in libertinism.

such a love for liberty, that she gave Such was the character of the re- way to every emotion of her temper, gent, and of the lords of his secret and to every impulse of sense. Becourt. The princesles who had pre. fides the amours which she was reserved the ton of the old court, ported to have had with her fm , she lived with much reserve and de- bad always several other lovers, whom decorum ; and the Dutchess of Or- fhe often changed, and often took Jeans, who was the daughter of Lou- back. . is XIV. by Madame de Montespan, Notwithstanding this temper of fanever quitted that air of referve in cility and libertinism, Madame de her manners and discourse which sne Berry was often distracted with reinherited from her father; she was morfe. Having been partly educated only a legitimated princess of France. in th• principles of the old Court, and

She was, however, so proud of be- partly in those of the new, me was ing a daughter of Louis XIV. that by turns tormented with the reproaches The always gave her husband and o. of religious libertines, and of libertines thers to understand, that she had done without religion. When she was unhonour to the Duke of Orleans by đer the horrors of repentance, she used her marriage with him. To fuch a to quit the world and endeavour to length did she carry her conceit, that reconcile herself to the God of the the faction, adverse to the legitimated penitent: She then buried herself in princes, gave her the name of Man ihe innermost recesses of a convent of dame Lucifer; an expression which the Carmelites, with whom he fafted and regent himself sometimes made use prayed, rising in the middle of the of, even in public; hence arose that night to the Itated devotions, groan. coldness which she testified all her ing over the errors of her pat life, Jife for her husband, and the haughty and undergoing the discipline of pedeportment which the always affected nance; then, whenever the defire of towards him, shewing neither affection pleasure began to torment her anew, to him when he behaved to her as a The would throw away her rosaries husband, nor jealousy when he aban- and her confeffors, appear again as if doned hier.

from the other world, return to her The Dutchefs of Berry, daughter favourite Riom, or some other lover, of the regent, wis endowed with and hold her court as usual ; thus much wit, and a lively imagination; pailing the period of her fhort life in but fo foolish witiral as, like her fa- alternate paroxyfins of dillipation and ther, to look upon thofe enterprises repentance; and, as Louis XIV. and as the moft laudable, that were the the great Dauphin had made it famost spirited and bold.

fhionable to marry their mistresses, Her figure was graceful and com. Madame de Berry conceived the demanding, her conversation delightful; sign of marrying her lover. Maurepas but a disposition, eagerly turned to says in his memoirs, that she married pleasure, spoiled all that was beautiful, Riom in her own chapel, and that and grand, and natural in this prin- the Curé of St. Sulpice performed cess, and made her relish the princi- the ceremony. Riom, with whom I ples of her father, who even introdu- was very intimate, never would conced her into thofe nocturnal asiem- fess his marriage to me ; but he never blies which he frequented with wo- denied it. He had, however, nothing men of libertine or suspicious charac- in him that could charm wat pria. iers, and with the companions of his cefs. He was ill made, and had the excefles. The Dutchess of Berry look of a Chinese, but he had made quired in that focicty a frecdom of Madame de Berry believe, that the

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