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your ancient states: but you chose to ors; that you were resolved to reat as if you had never been moulded sume your ancient privileges, whilft into civil society, and had every thing you preserved the spirit of your anto begin anew. You' began ill, be- cient and your recent loyalty and hocause you began by despising every nour; or, if diffident of yourselves, thing that belonged to you. You set and not clearly discerning the almost up your trade without a capital. If obliterated constitution of your anthe last generations of your country cestors, you had looked to your neighappeared without much lustre in your bours in this land, who had kept alive eyes, you might have passed them by, the ancient principles and models of and derived your claims from a more the old common law of Europe me. early race of ancestors. Under a liorated and adapted to its present pious predilection to those ancestors, state-by following wife examples your imaginations would have realized you would have given new examples in them a standard of virtue and wil- of wisdom to the world. You would dom, beyond the vulgar practice of have rendered the cause of liberty ve. the hour: and you would have risen nerable in the eyes of every worthy with the example to whose imitation mind in every nation. You would you aspired. Refpecting your forefa- have shamed despotism from the earth, thers, you would have been taught to by shewing that freedom was not only respect yourselves. You would not reconcileable, but, as when well disciplihave chosen to consider the French ned it is, auxiliary to law. You would as a people of yesterday, as a nation have had an unoppressive but a proof low-born fervile wretches, until the ductive revenue. You would have emancipacing year of 1789. In order had a flourishing commerce to feed it. to furnish, at the expence of your ho- you would have had a free constitunour, an excuse to your apologists tion; a potent monarchy ; a discihere for several enormities of your's, plined army; a reformed and veneyou would not have been content to rated clergy; a mitigated but spirired be represented as a gang of Maroon nobility, to lead your virtue, not to flaves, suddenly broke loose from the overlay it ; you would have had a lihouse of bondage, and therefore to be beral order of commons, to emulate pardoned for your abuse of the liberty and recruit that nobility ; you would to which you were not accustomed and have had a proiected, satisfied, laboill fitted. Would it not, my worthy rious, and obedient people, taught to friend, have been wiser to have you feek and to recognise the happiness thought, what I, for one, always that is to be found by virtue in all thought you, a generous and gallant conditions; in which cong ts the true nation, long misled to your diladvan- moral equality of mankind, and not cage by your high and romantic senti. in that monstrous fiction, which, by ments of fideliiy, honour, and loyal - inspiring fali: ideas and vain expectaty; that events had been unfavourable tions in.o men derived to travel in to you, but that you were not cold the obfcure walk of laborious life, ved through any illiberal or fervile serves only to aggravate and imbitter disposition; that in your most devo- that real inequali:y, which it never fed fubmiffion, you were actuated by can remove; and which the order of a principle of public spirit, and that it civil life establishes, as much for the was your country you worshipped, in benefit of those whom it must leave țbe person of your king? Had you in an bumble tate, as those whom it made it to be understood, that in the is able to exalt 10 a condition more delufion of this amiable error you had splendi., but not more happy. You gone further than your wise anceft had a smooth and easy career of feli
city city and glory laid open to you, be- who advise them to place an unlimited yond any thing recorded in the hifto confidence in their poople, as subvertry of the world; but you have thewn ers of their thrones ; as traitors who that difficulty is good for man. aim at their destruction, by leading they afterwards did could appear afto- nent property, of education, and of nishing. Among them, indeed, I saw such habits as enlarge and liberalize some of known rank; some of thining the understanding. talents; but of any practical experi- , In the calling of the states-general ence in the state, not one man was to of France, the first thing which struck be found. The best were only men me, was a great departure from the of theory. But whatever the diftin. ancient course. I found the repreguished few may have been, it is the sentation for the Third Estate comsubstance and mass of the body which posed of fix hundred persons. They conftitutes its character, and muft fic were equal in number to the repre. pally determine its direction. In all fentatives of both the other orders. If bodies, those who will lead, muft al- the orders were to act separately, the fo, in a considerable degree, follow. number would not, beyond the confi. They must conform their propofitions deration of the expence, be of much to the tafte, talent, and dispolition of moment. But when it became appathose whom they wish to conduct: rent that the three orders were to be therefore, if an Affembly is viciously melted down into one, the policy and or feebly composed in a very great Decessary effect of this numerous repart of it, nothing but such a supreme presentation became obvious. A very degree of virtue as very rarely appears small desertion from either of the other in the world, and for that reason can- two orders must throw the power of pot enter into calculation, will pre. both into the hands of the third. In vept the men of talents disseminated fact, the whole power of the state was through it from becoming only the foon resolved into that body. Its due expert inftruments of absurd projects! composition became therefore of infiIf, what is the more likely event, in: nitely the greater importance. dead of that yousual degree of virtue, " Judge, Sir, of my surprise, when they should be actuated by Goifter I found that a very great proportion ambition and a luft of meretricious of the Assembly (a majority, I believe, glory, then the feeble part of the As. of the members who attended) was sembly, to whom at first they con- composed of practitioners in the law: forn, tecomes in its turn the duce It was composed not of diftinguished and instrument of their designs. lo magistrates, who had given pledges to this political traffic the leaders will their country of their science, prube obliged ro bow to the ignorance of dence, and integrity; not of leading their followers, and the followers to be- advocates, the glory of the bar ; not come subservient to the worst deligns of renowned professors in universities; of their leaders.
" Compute your gains : see what their easy good nature, under fpecious is got by those extravagant and pre- pretences, to admit combinationsof bold sumptuous fpeculations which have and faithless men into a participation taught your leaders to despise all their of their power. This alone (if there predecessors, and all their contempo- were nothing else) is an irreparable raries, and even to defpile themselves, calamity to you and to mankind. Re until the moment in which they be- member that your parliament of Paris came truly despicable. By following told your King, that is calling the those false lights, France has bought states together, he had nothing to undisguised calamities at a higher fear but the prodigat excess of their price than any nation has purchased jeal in providing for the fupport of the moft unequivocal bleslings ! France the throne. It is right that thefe has bought poverty by crime! France men Aould hide their heads. It is has not sacrificed her virtue to her right that they fhould bear their part intereft; but she has abandoned her in the ruin which their counsel has interest, that she might prostitute her brought on their fovereign and their virtue. All other nations have be- country. Such sanguine declarations gun the fabric of a new governmeni, tend to full authority alleep; to enor the reformation of an old, by esta- courage it rafhly to engage in perilous blishing originally, or by enforcing adventures of ontried policy: to newith greater exactness, fome rites or glect these provifions, preparations, other of religion. All other people and precautions, which diftinguish behave laid the foundations of civil free- nevolence from imbecility; and withdom in severer manners, and a fyftem out which no man can answer for the of a more austere and masculine mo- Salutary eífeet of any abstract plan of Tality. France, when she let loose the government or of freedom. For want reins of regal authority, doubled the of thefe, they have seen the medicine licence, of a ferocious diffolateness in of the ftare corrupted into its poison. manners, and of an insolent irreligion They have feen the French rebe in opinions and practices, and las against a mild and lawful monarch, extended through all ranks of life, as with more fury, outrage, and insuk, if she were communicatiog fome pri than ever any people has been known vilege, or laying open fome fecluded to rise against the most illegal uforper benefit, all the unhappy corruptions or the most fanguinary tyrant. Their that usually were the disease of waith reállance was made to conceffion; and power. This is one of the new their revolt was frons protection; their principles of equality in France. blow was aimed at an band holding
"? France, by the perfidy of her out graces, favours, and immunities. leaders, has utterly disgraced the ione “ This was unnatural. The reft is of lenient council in the cabinets of in order. They have found their puprinces, and disarmed it of its most nilhment in their success. Laus over: poient topics. She has fanétified the tuined; tribunals fubverted; industry dark suspicious maxims of tyran nous wiibout vigour; commerce expiring ; distrust; and taught kings to tremble the revenue unpaid, yet the people at (ihat will hereafter be called, The impuverished; a church pillaged, and delulive plausibilities of moral jiti. a Aate not relieved ; civil and military pians. Sovereigos will coafidur those anarchy made the constirution of the
kingdom ; every thing human and di- king, murdering their fellow citizens, vine sacrificed to the idol of public and bathing in tears, and plunging in credit, and national bankruptcy the poverty and distress, thousands of wor, consequence; and to crown all, the thy men and worthy families. Their paper securities of new, precarious, cruelty has not even been the base result Lottering power, the discredited paper of fear. It has been the effect of their securities of impoverished fraud, and sense of perfe& fafety, in authorising beggared rapine, held out as a cur- treasons, robberies, rapes, asfalinations, rency for the support of an empire, laughters, and burnings throughout in lieu of the two great recognized their harassed land. But the cause of fpecies that reprefent the lafting con., all was plain from the beginning. ventional credit of mankind, which « This unforced choice, this fond disappeared and hid themtelves in the election of evil, would appear perearth from whence they came, when fectly unaccountable, if we did not the principle of property, whose crea- consider the composition of the Natures and representatives they are, was tional Assembly; I do not mean its systematically subverted. . formal constitution, which, as it now,
« Were all these dreadful things stands, is exceptionable enough, but necessary? were they the inevitable the materials of which in a great mearesults of the desperate struggle of de- sure it is composed, which is of ten termined patriots, compelled to wade thousand times greater consequence through blood and tumult, to the than all the formalities in the world. quiet shore of a tranquil and prospe. If we were to know nothing of this Afrous liberty? No! nothing like it, sembly but by its title and fun&ion, The fresh ruins of France, which no colours could paint to the imagiihock our feelings wherever we can nation any thing more venerable. In turn our eyes, are not the devasta. that light the mind of an enquirer. tion of civil war ; they are the sad subdued by such an awful image as but instructive monuments of rash and that of the virtue and wisdom of a ignorant council in time of profound whole people collected into a focus, peace. They are the display of in- would pause and hesitate in condemconsiderate and presumptuous, because ning things even of the very worst unrefifted and irresistible authority, aspect. Instead of blameable, they The persons who have thus squander- would appear only myfterious. But ed away the precious treasure of their no name, no power, no function, no crimes, the persons who have made artificial institution whatsoever, can ihis prodigal and wild waste of public make the men of whom any system of evils (the last stake reserved for the authority is composed, any other than ultimate ransom of the state) bave God, and nature, and education, and met in their progress with lit:le or their habits of life have made them, rather with no oppolition at all. Their Capacities beyond these the people whole march was more like a trium- have not to give, Virtue and wisdom phal procession than the progress of a may be the objects of their choice ; war. Their pioneers have gone be- but their choice confers neither tha fore them, and demolished aod laid one nor the other, on those upon whom every thing level at their feet. Not they lay their ordaiving hands. They one drop of their blood have they have not the engagement of pature, Med in the cause of the country they they have not the promise of revelahave ruined. They have made no lation for any such pozers. facrifices to their projects of greater “ After I had rza oror the list of consequence than their th' e-buckles, the persons and descriptions elected whilst they were imprisoning their into the Tieri Litat, nothing which
but for the far greater part, as it “ To secure any degree of sobriety must in such a nun.ber, of the infein the propofitions made by the lead- rior, unlearned, mechanical, merely ers in any public assembly, they ought inftrumental members of the profefto respect, in some degree perhaps to fion. There were distinguished exfear, those whom they conduct. "To ceprions ; but the general composition be ied any otherwise than blindly, the was of obscure provincial advocates, followers mo'l be qualified, if riot for of stewards of petty local jurisdictions, actors, at least for judges; they must country attoroies, notaries, and the also be judges of natural weight and whole train of the ministers of muni: authoriy. Nothing can fecore a cipal litigation, the fomenters and Itcady and moderate conduct in such conductors of the petty war of vijlage assemblies, but that the body of them vexation. From the moment I read the fhould be respectably composed, in liftl saw distinctly, and very nearly as it point of condition in life, of reima- has happened, all that was to follow.
On the Theology of the Sixth Book of Virgil's Eneid. By Dr Beattie *.
[Concluded from p. 261.] . T HE two travellers having pas- ver of tempestuous flame. Sleepless,
fed through the melancholy before the gate, day and night, and plains, were now come to a place, full in Eneas's view, sat the fury where one road went off to the left, Tisiphone in bloody attire. From and another to the right; the former within issued such an uproar of terrileading to Tartarus, the latter to E. fying noises, that the hero, though lysium, They were going to Elyfium at a distance, heard it with horror; on a visit to Anchises; but be- the cries of the tormented, the found fore they struck off to the right, the of the scourge, the crash of iron-en. prieste's took this opportunity to def- gines, and the clanking of chairs diag. cribe Tartarus, the gates of which ged along. Tell me, said he О virgin, were in view, but which Eneas could what clamours, what punishments not enter, as they were never open- are shore, and for what crimes they ed but for the reception of those wick- are inflicted. This gives the priest is cd souls, whom the judge Rhadaman. occasion to describe what was passing thus, after making thein confess the in the regions of torment; with which criinės they had committed in the Hecate had made her acquainted, upper world, thought proper to con- when she gave her the superintendenin to eternal punishment. When dence of the groves of Avernus. The this dreadful fontence was passed, persons there punished had all perpe. they were seized on by Tisiphone and traced enormous crimes; among which the other furies, the adamantine gates are reckoned, acts of impiety, want opened with a tremendous sound, and of natural affection, cruel treatment the criminals were thrown into an of parents, the defrauding of clients immense dungeon, stretching down- or dependents, and the hoarding up wards twice as far as from hell to of wealth to the injury of friends heaven:
and relations. Here too adultery is The description of Tartarus is punithed, even though the criminal wrought up in a style of terrible sub- should have already suffered death for Jimity, such as never was equalled by it in the upper world. Other crimes any other poét, except by Milton, in here punished are, rebellion, incest, the first and fecond books of Paradise the various forts of injustice and Loft. In the intrinsic grandeur of treachery, the venality of lawgivers, his images, the English poet may be subversion of the liberties of our thought to have excelled the Roman ; country; facrificing the public good but in one respect the Roman bas the to private interest, and many other advantage. By means of a more mu- forms of wickedness, whereof the Syfical language, he has been enabled bil declares it was impossible for her to embellish his narration with a so- to give a particular enumeration. norous magnificence of harmony, The punishments are various. · Of whereof the English tongue, even one enormous offender, the intrails when modulated by Milton, is not are continually devoured by a vulture, susceptible.
and continually growing to be again The mouth of the Tartarean gulf devoured ; an apt emblem to express was encircled with three walls so the pangs of a guilty conscience, and strong, as to be proof against every which puts one in urind of the never affault of men or gods; and these walls dying worm mentioned in Scripture. were surrounded by Phlegethon, a rin Some are in the eternal apprehenfion "Рp Vol. XII. No. 71.
. From tbc Sccond Vol of the Edinburgh Pbil. Trans: