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[ 290 ] State of the BAROMETER in inches and decimals, and of Farenheit's THER
MOMETER in the open air, taken in the morning before sur-rise, and at noon; and the quantity of rain-water fallen, in inches and decimals, from the O&tober 31st, to the 29th of November 1790, near the foot of Ar. thur's Seat.
0.06 0.17 0.03 0.04
M. X. oa. 31 ! 40
46 46 46
Extracts from Mr Burke's Letter on the Roulution in France.
HÉ Author begins this celebra- ture, which is wisdom without reflec
ted performance with some ani- tion, and above it. A spirit of indomadversions on the Constitutional and varion is generally the result of a felRevolution Societies of London, and fish temper and confined views. Peocautions the French Gentleman, tople will not look forward to pofterity, whom the letter is addressed, from fup- who never look backward to their anposing that their Resolutions contain cestors. Besides, the people of Engthe sentiments of the people of England well know, that the idea of inheland. He then proceeds to examine ritance furnishes a sure principle of with extreme severity, the famous “Dif. confervation, and a fure principle of course on the love of our country's transmission; without at all excluding preached by Dr Price, at the dissen- a principle of improvement. It leaves ting meeting house of the Old Jewry, acquisition free ; but it secures what it on the Anniversary of the Revolution acquires. Whatever advantages are latt year. He dwells particularly on obtained by a state proceeding on these three positions maintained in that dif- maxims, are locked falt as in a fort course, namely, that by the Revolu- of family settlement ; grasped as in a. tion we have acquired a right, 1. To kind of mortmain for ever. By a con choose our own governors ; 2. To ca. ftitutional policy, working after the pas shier them for misconduct ; and, 3. tern of nature, we receive, we hold, To frame a government for ourselves. we transmit our government and our These doctrines he controverts with privileges, in the faide manner in which great earneftness; and having, from a we enjoy and transmit our property and retrofpective view of the history of our our lives. The institutions of policy, Constitution, endeavoured to prove the goods of fortune, the gifts of Prothat it was amended and confirmed, vidence, are hapded down, to us and not altered, at the Revolution, he thus from us, in the same course and orproceeds:
der. Our political fyftem is placed in “ You will obferve, that from Mag- a juft correspondence and fymmetry na Charta to the Declaration of Right, with the order of the world, and with it has been the uniform policy of our the mode of existence decreed to a conftitution to claim and affert our permanent body composed of transitory liberties, as an entailed inheritance parts ; wherein, by the dispolision, of derived to us from our forefathers, a tupendous wisdom, moulding togeand to be transmitted to our pofterity; ther the great mysterious incorporation as an estate specially belonging to the of the human race, the whole, at one people of this kingdom without any re- time, is never old, or middle aged, or ference whatever to any other more ge- young, but in a condition of unchangeDeral or prior right. By this means, able constancy, moves on through the our constitution preserves an unity in varied tenour of perpetual decay, fall, so great a diversity of its parts. We renovation, and progrellion. Thus, by have an inheritable crown; an inheri- preserving the method of nature in the table peerage ; and an house of com- conduct of the Itate, in what we immons and a people inheriting privi- prove we are never wholly new; in what leges, franchises, and liberties, from a we rátain we are never wholly obsolete. long lioe of ancestors.
By adhering in this manner and on those “ This policy appears to me to be principles to our furefathers, we are the result of profound relectio; or guida, not by .he fuperitition of antirather the happy effect of following na- quarians, but by the spirit of philoso
Extrals from Mr Burke's Letter. phic analogy: in this choice of inheri- “ You might, if you pleased, have tance we have given to our frame of profited of our example, and have gi. poli'y the image of a relation in blood; ven to your recovered freedom a cor. binding up the constitution of our coun- respondent dignity. Your privileges try with our dearest domestic ties; though discontinued, were not lost to adopting our funda vental laws into memory. Your constitution, it is true, the bofom of our family affections; whill you were out of poffeffon, fufkeeping infepa abie, and cherishing fered waste and dilapidation ; but you with the warmth of all their combined poffeffed in some parts the walls, and and mutually reflected charities, our in all the foundations of a noble and ftate, our hearths, our sepulchres, and venerable castle. You might have re. our altars.
paired those walls ; you might have Through the same plan of confor- built on those old foundations. Your mity to nature in our artificial institu- constitution was suspended before it tions, and by calling in the aid of her was perfected ; but you had the eleunerring and powerful instincts, to for. medis of a conftitution very nearly as tify the fallible and feeble contrivances good as could be wiihed." In your of our reason, we bave derived several old flates you poffeffed that variety of other, and those no small benefits, parts corresponding with the various from considering our liberties in the descriptions of which your community light of an inheritance. Always act- was happily composed; you had all ing as if in the presence of canonized that combination, and all that opposifore-fathers, the spirit of freedom, lead, tion of interests, you had an action ing in itself to misrule and excess, is and counteraction which in the natu, tempered with an awful gavity. This ral and in the political world, from idea of a liberal descent inspires us the reciprocal ftruggle of discordant with a sense of habitual native dignity, powers, " draws out the harmony of which prevenis that upstart insolence the universe. These opposed and conalmost inevitably adhering to and dif- flicting interests, which you consider gracing those who are the first acquire as so great a blemish in your old and ers of any distinction. By this means, in our present constitution, interpofc our liberty becomes a noble freedom. a salutary check to all precipitace resoIt has a pedigree and illustrating an- lutions : They render deliberation a cestors. It has its bearings and its en- matter not of choice, but of neceffy ; bigos armorial. It has its gallery of they make all change a fubje&t of comportraits ; its monumental inscriptions; promise, which paturally begets moits records, evidences, and titles. We deration ; they produce temperaments, procure reverence to our civil inftitu- preventing the fore evil of harh, crude, tions on the principle upon which na. unqualified reformations; aed rendering ture teaches us id revere individual all the headlong exertions of arbitrary men; on account of their age ; and power, in the few or in the many, for on account of those from whom they ever impracticable. Through that diare descended. “All your sophifters versity of members and interests, gecannot produce any thing better adap- Deral liberty had as many securities as ted to preserve a rational and manly there were separate views in the fevefreedom than the course that we haveral orders; whilft by presling dowo pursued, who bave chosen our nature, the whole by the weight of a real morather than our speculations, our breasts narchy, the separate parts would have rather than our intentions, fot the great been prevented fi om warping and starconservatories and magazines of our ting from their allotted places. rights and privileges.
"You had all these advantages in
your ancient states : but you chose to ors; that you were resolved to reáll as if you had never been moulded sume your ancient privileges, whilst into civil society, and had every thing you preserved the fpirit of your anto begin anew. You' began ill, be cient and your recent loyalty and hocause you began by despising every nour; or, if diffident of yourselves, thing that belonged to you. You set and not clearly difcerning the almost up your trade without a capital. If obliterated constitution of your anthe last generations of your country cestors, you had looked to your neighappeared without much lustre in your bours in this land, who had kept alive eyes, you might have passed them by, the ancient principles and models of and derived your claims from a more the old common law of Europe meearly race of ancestors. Under a liorated and adapted to its present pious predilection to those ancestors, state-by following wife examples your imaginations would have realized you would have given new examples in them a standard of virtue and wil- of wisdom to the world. You would dom, beyond the vulgar practice of have rendered the cause of liberty ve. the hour: and you would have risen nerable in the eyes of every worthy with the example to whose imitation mind in every nation. You would you aspired. Respecting your forefa- have shamed despotism from the earth, thers, you would have been taught to by shewing that freedom was not only respect yourselves. You would not reconcileable, but, as when well disciplihave chosen to consider the French ned it is, auxiliary to law. You would as a people of yesterday, as a nation have had an unopprelive but a proof low-born fervile wretches, until the ductive revenue. You would have emancipating year of 1789. In order had a flourishing commerce to feed it. to fúrnish, at the expence of your ho- you would have had a free constitunour, an excuse to your apologists tion; a potent monarchy; a discihere for several enormities of your's, plined army; a reformed and vene. you would not have been content to rated clergy; a mitigated but spirired be represented as a gang of Maroon nobility, to lead your virtue, not to laves, suddenly broke loose from the overlay it; you would have had a li. house of bondage, and therefore to be beral order of commons, to emulate pardoned for your abuse of the liberty and recruit that nobility; you would to which you were not accustomed and have had a proiected, satisfied, laboill-fitted.' Would it not, my worthy rious, and obedient people, taught to friend, have been wiser to have you seek and to recognise the happiness thought, what I, for one, always that is to be found by virtue in all thought you, a generous and gallant conditions ; in which conGfts the truc nation, long misled to your disadvan- moral equalty of mankind, and not tage by your high and romantic fenti- in that monstrous fiction, which, by ments of fidelity, honour, and loyal. inspiring false ideas and vain expectaty; that events had been unfavourable tions in.o men deslived to travel in to you, but that you were not colla- the obscure walk of laborious life, ved through any illiberal or fervile serves only to aggravate and imbitter disposition; that in your most devo- that real inequality, which it never red submission, you were actuated by can remove ; and which the order of a principle of public spirit, and that it civil life establishes, as much for the was your country you worshipped, in benefit of those whon it must icave she person if your king? Had you in an bumble state, as those whom it made it to be understood, that in the is able to exalt 10 - condition more delufion of this amiable error you had fplendi.', but not more happy. You gone further than your wise ancest. had a smooth and easy career of feli
Extracts from Mr Burke's Letter city and glory laid open to you, be- who advise them to place an unlimited yond any thing recorded in the hifto confidence in their poople, as subvertry of the world; but you have thewn ers of their thrones ; as traitors who that difficulty is good for man. aim at their destruction, by leading
“ Compute your gains : see what their easy good nature, under fpecious is got by those extravagant and pre- pretences, to admit combinationsof bold sumptuous fpeculations which have and faithless men into a participation taught your leaders to despise all their of their power. This alone (if there predecessors, and all their contempo- were nothing else) is an irreparable raries, and even to despise themselves, calamity to you and to mankind. Reantil the moment in which they be. member that your parliament of Paris came truly despicable. By following told your King, that is calling the those false lights, France has bought states together, he had nothing to undisguised calamities at a higher fear but ihre prodigat excess of their price than any nation has purchafed zeal in providing for the fupport of the moft unequivocal bleslings! France the throne. It is right that these has bought poverty by crime! France men hould hide their heads. It is has not sacrificed her virtue to her right that they should bear their part intereft; but she has abandoned her in the ruin which their counsel has intereft, that she might prostitute her brought on their fovereign and their virtue. All other nations have be- country. Such sanguine declarations gun the fabric of a new government, tend to full authority asleep; to enor the reformation of an old, by esta- courage it rafhly to engage in perilous blishing originally, or by enforcing adventures of intried pulicy: to ne with greater exactness, fome rites or glect these provisions, preparations, other of religion. All other people and precautions, which diftinguish behave laid the foundations of civil free bevolence from imbecility; and withdom in feverer manners, and a system out which no man can answer for the of a more austere and masculine mo- salutary effcet of any abstract plan of Tality. France, when she let loose the government or of freedom. For want reins of regal authority, doubled the of thefe, they have seen the medicine licence, of a ferocious diffolateness in of the ftare corrupted into ies poison. manners, and of an insolent irreligion They have seen the Freoch rebel in opinions and practices; and bas against a wild and lawful monarch, extended through all ranks of life, as with more fury, outrage, and infult
, if she were communicatiog fome pric than ever any people has been known vilege, or laying open fome fecluded to rise againit ihe most illegal uforper benefit, all the unhappy corruptions or the most fanguinary tyrant. Their that usually were the disease of wealth rehistance was made to conceffion;
This is one of the new their revolt was from protection; their principles of equality in France. blow was aimed at an band holding
"? France, by the perfidy of her out graces, favours, and immunities. leaders, has utterly disgraced the tone “ This was unnatural. The reft is of lenient council in the cabiners of in order. They have found their purprinces, and disarmed it of its most nilhment in their success. Laus over: poient topics. She has fanétified the turned ; tribunals fubverted; industry dark suspicious maxims of tyrannous wiihout vigour ; commerce expiring ; distruít; and taught kings to tremble the revenue unpaid, yet the people at (ihat will hereafter be called, The impuverished: a church pillaged, and delulive plaufibilities of moral pa jiti- a fate pot relieved ; civil and military cians. Sovereigas will coafidur those anarchy made the constitution of the